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Full text of "Pacific rural Press (Jan.-June 1880)"

Extract from the Political Code. 
Suction 22'Jt'i. Books may he taken from the Library 

by thfl MF.MRF.RS OF THE LkOTSLATIRK, DURING TIIK SESSIONS 

tukrkof, and by other State officers at any time. 

Skc. 2298. The Controller, if notified by the Librarian 
that any officer has failed to return books taken by him 
within the time prescribed by the Rules, and after demand 
made, must not draw his warrant for the salary of such 
officer until the return is made, or three times the value of 
the books, or of any injuries thereto, has been paid to the 
Librarian. 

Ski . 22US1. Every person who injures or fails to return 
any hook taken is liable to the Librarian in three times 
the value thereof. 

Xo person shall take or detain from the General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
perioil than two weeks. Books of hkfkrknck sh ma. not n 
takf.s from thk Library at any timk. — [Extract from the 



ttu ttie foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced."^* 



Holes. 



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DST. 1898. 




Volume XIX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 3, 1880. 



Number r. 



Meeting of the State Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

The regular monthly meeting of this society 
was held in Y. M. C. A. hall in this city, Friday 
afternoon, December 26th. Owing to the allure- 
ments of the holidays, many members were de- 
tained at their homes and the attendance was 
rather small. After due deliberation the con- 
stitution and by-laws which have been under 
consideration for three months, were finally 
adopted and will be printed in pamphlet form 
for the edification of members. 

As there was no set subject for discussion, 
Pres. Hilgard was invited to address the meet- 
ing upon the subject of alkali soils and the use 
of alkali waters for irrigation, concerning which 
he is continually making valuable discoveries in 
his laboratory. As introductory to the subject, 
Prof. Hilgard reviewed briefly the occurrence of 
alkali land in this State, thus referring briefly 
to facts which have already been described in 
detail in his official reports and in his articles 



usually called for in grinding the harder rock. 

Prof. Hilgard also introduced a very import- 
ant matter which had just been disclosed by his 
examination of water from Tulare lake furnished 
by a resident on the east side of the lake, who 
had thought of pumping up the lake water to 
wash the alkali out of his land. The samples 
of the water furnished by analysis by this party 
were found to contain so much alkali that they 
would not do for the purpose required, unless 
the alkali in the water was neutralized with 
gypsum before application to the land. This it 
was thought might be done by letting the water 
run through sluice boxes partly filled with gyp- 
sum. The operations would be expensive, but 
the land is shown by analysis to be very fertile 
if the alkali could be destroyed. It is probable 
that some experiments will be made this season 
to test the effects of this proposition. 

The determination of alkali in Tulare lake 
water is one of general moment in connection 
with the proposed enterprises to irrigate the 
west side with this water. It is true that the 
lake is now very low, and in all probability the 
alkali is somewhat concentrated. When the 
rivers leading into Tulare lake are well filled 
their water could probably be taken at once to 



pouring on copious floodings without making 
provision for carrying off the surplus. 

After the address of Prof. Hilgard, the elec- 
tion of new members was taken up, and the 
following ten persons were unanimously elected 
in the order in which their names were proposed 
at the last meeting : A. F. Hatch, Cordelia, 
Solano county; Harrison Barto, San Francisco; 
Mrs. Volney Cushing, East Oakland; A. T. 
Dewey, Oakland; R. B. Blowers, Woodland, 
Cal. ; M. Cooke, Sacramento, Cal. ; Dr. W. B. 
Gibbon, Alameda; L. F. Moulton, Colusa; J. 
B. Saul, Davisville; W. B. Ewer, San Francisco. 
Four names were proposed for membership, 
upon which action will be taken at the next 
meeting. 

The subject adopted for discussion at the next 
meeting, which will occur January 30th prox. , 
was " Transplanting and Pruning." Mr. C. H. 
Shinn was appointed to prepare a paper intro- 
ducing the general discussion, and Messrs. 
Blowers, of Woodland, Strentzel, of Martinez, 
and West, of Stockton, were named to present 
such different branches of the subject as they 
might choose. The experience of all members, 
and all attending the meeting, will be heard 
with interest. It is to be hoped that the 



members present. The Secretary exhibited a 
"Mikado" Japanese persimmon grown by 
Joseph Sexton, of Santa Barbara. It was lOi 
inches in circumference and was voted the larg- 
est specimen thus far exhibited in this city. 
The small seedless persimmon grown by John 
Lawshe of Colton, Cal., was also shown. It 
had ripened and lost its astringency entirely. 
Rev. Henry Loomis showed large Japanese per- 
simmons preserved in alcohol, and a ripe speci- 
men which was generally tasted and found 
sweet. Mr. Loomis also had the wax from the 
Japanese wax tree and native candles made 
therefrom, and a fine slab of wood from the 
Raki tree. 



Ostrich Ranching in Algiers. 

Agreeable to a promise made some weeks ago, 
we give on this page a nearer view of the cor- 
rals and other appurtenances of the ostrich 
ranch of Madame Carriere, near Kouba, in Al- 
giers, to which allusion was made in our issue of 
November 22d. This will give any reader who 
may be interested in this peculiar style of 




SHEDS AND CORRALS ON THE OSTRICH RANCH NEAR KOUBA, IN ALGIERS. 



for the Press. He then passed to newer con- 
siderations disclosed by recent investigations. 
One of these was the presence of soluble phos- 
phates in alkali soils, a fact which was not fore- 
seen. These are of course exceedingly valuable, 
and would go far to make the soil unusually 
fertile if the objectionable caustic alkali is neu- 
tralized, so that plant growth may not be inter- 
fered with. He" had found that these soluble 
phosphates in some samples of alkali soil, would 
supply the phosphoric acid required by 40 aver- 
age grain crops; thus the soil is found to be well 
fortified in this desirable quality. As these 
phosphates are soluble in water, they would be 
removed from the soil if it were attempted to 
wash out the alkali; but by the application of 
gypsum the alkali is rendered inert and, the 
phosphates are retained. The importance of 
«sing gypsum to neutralize the alkali in lands 
where the alkali present is carboaate of soda, 
has already been shown by experience in differ, 
ent parts of the State. It is valuable to know 
that the rock gypsum occurs in nearly all parts 
of the State and comparatively near to the lands 
needing its application. Now the ground gypsum 
manufactured in San Francisco is from rock 
brought from Lower California, but there is 
abundance near at home, which can be utilized 
as soon as there is a disposition to apply it. 
More than this, natural gypsum has been found 
in such condition that it can be crushed easily 
at home, instead of employing the machinery 



| the irrigating ditches without danger of drawing 
out the alkaline water of the lake, but if the 
lake is to be relied upon as a reservoir to furnish 
a supply when the rivers are low, then the alka- 
line element should certainly be looked after. 

The danger is in this wise: If alkaline water 
should be used for irrigation without making 
provision for drainage, the alkali would of 
oourse remain in the soil as the water evaporated. 
If ten inches of alkaline water should be evapo- 
rated in the soil each year for several years, 
there would probably be a deposition of alkali 
which would interfere with the fertility of the 
lauds. This is a point which should be care- 
fully looked after by the Survey which has in 
charge the problem of San Joaquin valley irriga- 
tion. 

Mr. Blowers, of Woodland, asked if Tulare 
lake should be drawn off and filled with fresh 
water from the rivers, whether the water would 
not show less chance of evil results. Prof. Hil- 
gard replied in the affirmative, but remarked 
that the drainage into Tulare lake from the 
surrounding plains, parts of which are said to 
be white with alkali, would restore the alkali 
to the water in the lake. This should be in- 
vestigated. It might be possible to shut off 
this supply of alkaline drainage water and thus 
preserve the fre^h water which the great rivers 
should bring to the lake. In most schemes for 
irrigation proper drainage must be looked after, 
for there are many evils likely to arise from 



society, having arranged its formalities and out- 
lived the holidays, will prepare for a winter of 
earnest work in the line of horticultural studies. 

The almonds and scions thereof presented for 
identification by Leonard Coates, of Yountville, 
were referred to a committee, consisting of J. 
Lewelling, St. Helena, A. T. Hatch, Cordelia, 
and G. P. Rixford, San Francisco, to report at 
the next meeting. 

The display of fruit, etc., at the meeting was 
quite interesting. Mr. Blowers, of Woodland, 
showed a fine cluster of Emperor grapes plucked 
Oct. 20th, and laid away on a shelf without ef- 
fort at preservation. After 66 days of this 
treatment they were still fresh with smooth 
J skin and natural flavor. The Emperor is cer- 
tainly a most durable grape. Mr. Blowers also 
showed excellent samples of his Muscatel and 
Sutlana raisins, dried both by sun and artificial 
heat. A. T. Hatch, of Cordelia, Solano county, 
showed samples of five seedling almonds grown 
by him from bitter almond seed. They were 
all sweet and showed great difference in shell, 
from a near approach to the paper shell to a 
shell smooth as a hardshell almond, and yet 
easily mashed with the fingers. Some of the 
varieties produced were handsome and worthy 
of propagation. Mr. Rixford, of San Francisco, 
brought some Japanese chestnuts just imported. 
They were massive, some being fully two and 
one-half inches in diameter and of sweet flavor. 
They were the_largest chestnuts ever seen by|the 



I poultry breeding an idea of how the birds are 
kept when a large range is not possible. The 
location is evidently by the side of the sound- 
ing sea, and thus removed from the interior 
deserts where the birds find their natural 
abode. 

We have heard nothing more of the shipment 
of ostriches reported as coming to this State 
and designed for the San Joaquin valley. Who 
will receive them ! 



Solano County Cotton. — Dr. H. Kimball 
brought to our office on Monday a sample of 
cotton, grown on his Twin Sister vineyard ranch 
in Solano county. His location is about 2,000 
feet above the sea and about midway between 
Suisun on the east and Napa on the west. The 
seed was planted rather late last spring but the 
cotton fully matured and the sample brought us 
was a fine one. We shall send the specimen to 
Professor Hilgard for a place in his collection of 
California cottons. 



In the Harness. — We learn by exchanges 
that our esteemed contributor, J. B. Armstrong, 
of Santa Rosa, has assumed the full ownership 
and editorship of the Santa Rosa Times. We 
regret the fact from a selfish standing point, be- 
cause such a position usually monopolizes a 
man, but we congratulate the Sonoma people 
nevertheless, for what we lose they will gain. 



2 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 3, 1880. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents — Eds. 



Something About Jute. 

Editors Press: — I am frequently asked for 
information on the culture of the jute plant and 
the preparation of the liber; where seed is to be 
had, etc. With your permission I will take 
this method of giving what information I have 
on the subject through medium of the Press. 
I have never seen jute in cultivation; all that I 
know about it has been gained by correspond- 
ence and the reports of the Agricultural De- 
partment at Washiugton, from which I infer 
that the plaut can be grown in California to as 
great perfection as it ever grew in India. 

In the year 1S70 the Agricultural Depart- 
ment at Washington, distributed jute seed in 
small quantities through the Southern States. 
The next year the Department was furnished 
with favorable accounts of the growth of the 
plant, but the planters were still at a loss as to 
the b.st mode of planting the seed, harvesting 
the crop, separating the tiber from the stem, 
etc. Hon. E. EL Derbey of Boston, addressed 
a letter to Mr. B. McAlister, then residing in 
Calcutta, and received the following: 

The sesd is sown in the month of March and 
April, brubdeast on prepared ground, prefer- 
ence being given to moist, high ground situated 
if convenient on the bank of a river and some- 
what sandy. It is not necessary to irrigate the 
ground, as no more water is required than is 
sullicient to keep the roots moist. It is allowed 
to grow three to four months and is cut in the 
mouths of June and July and August, when it 
has attained the hight of eight to twelve feet; 
the size depending on the soil and season. The 
time for cutting is just after the flowers have 
turned to seed and before the seed begins to 
ripen. When cut, the stalks are tied in small 
bundles and thrown into tanks of dirty water 
and allowed to remain there five to eight days 
to rot, at the expiration of which time they are 
taken out and the tiber falls from the stalk. It 
is then hung up to dry, and when dry it is sort- 
ed, packed iu round bundles called drums, and 
sent to market. If all the plants were allowed 
to ripen the yield of seed would be about 120 
lbs. per acre. The quantity of seed required to 
be planted is from 80 to 40 lbs. per acre. 

I am not prepared to give information where 
jute seed can be had at this time, but would 
suggest that Mr. Sussman, the Secretary of the 
Pacific Jute Company, San Francisco, would be 
likely to know and assist in procuring seed. 

From other reports I learn that the yield of 
fiber is from 2,000 to 3,000 pounds per acre, 
and that the labor and cost is one-fourth that 
of cotton. 

There are several other methods of separat- 
ing the tiber from the stalk, than the one given 
by Mr. McAlister, but as yet there is no ma- 
chine invented to separate the tiber from the 
stem, for the reason that there has not been 
any demand for it yet. Jute must be raised in 
some considerable quantities, and the necessity 
for a machine be apparent before the attention 
of inventors and machinists will be generally 
attracted to it. 

The planters have been very cautious about 
venturing into the cultivation of jute on account 
of having to compete with the cheap labor of 
India; but if we are not misinformed it can be 
made profitable in California where there is a 
local demand for 20,000 tons per annum, with a 
fair prospect that within a few years the de- 
mand will reach 50,000 or 60,000 tons. Ad- 
mitting that we use the primitive method of the 
natives of India, and obtain the fibers by hand 
labor, we save the freight from India, and duty, 
commission, insurance, etc. The same people 
picked the seed from cotton for hundreds of 
years by hand until American ingenuity made 
the cotton-gin. It is just as reasonable to sup- 
pose that we will invent a machine that will 
more than compete with the cheap labor of Iu- 
dia just so soon as there is a demand for it. 

For further information as to the probable 
profits of jute culture, I refer those who enter- 
tain the idea of growing jute to the reports of 
the Commissioner of Agriculture from 1871 to 
1S78; there is much information in all thereports. 

Prof. Waterhouse of the Washington Univer- 
sity, St. Louis, has written a very interesting 
article on the importance of the culture of jute. 
After visiting the jute-growing country in In- 
dia he is well prepared to give information. 
He says the trials that have .been made 
strengthen hope into an assurance that jute can 
be successfully cultivated in the Gulf States and 
in southern California. Again he says, what 
has been so successfully accomplished in bun- 
dec can be done with a still greater success in 
the United States. We cannot only spin and 
weave the fiber, but we can also raise it; we not 
only can derive the profits of making the fab- 
rics, but we can also enrich ourselves by the 
twofold economies of the growth and manufac- 
ture of the staple. Again he says: During the 
last live years about 170,000,000 pounds of jute 
were made into paper in the United States. 
The newspapers of the United States ought ac- 
tively to promote an undertaking the success of 
which would so greatly rebound to their own 
advantage. 

In conclusion I would recommend to those 
having suitable land and a disposition to try it. 
that they get seed in quantity enough to make 
it an object, go at it with the intention of mak- 
ing money and doing a good thing for the State. 



There is good land to grow jute in Fresno and 
Kern counties, as well as many thousands of 
acres elsewhere in the State that will produce 
it profitably. Wm. H. Rector. 

Valley of the Camel River. 

Editors Press : — West of the Salinas river, 
coming down from the southeast and nearly 
parallel with it, is the Carmel, smaller yet far 
surpassing that in the beauty of its adjoining 
regions. Ranges of mountains rise abruptly on 
each side varied in every feature of the admir 
able, with their irregular summits often hidden 
in overhanging clouds. The upper portions of 
the western range are generally covered with 
forests of evergreen trees, with larger or 
smaller openings of beautiful grassy land, while 
the steep sides of the immense gorges arc often 
too precipitous for trees or seemingly even 
grass, but are clothed with dense underbrush, 
the small roots of which enter deep into the 
seams of the rocks, holding all in their place 
in spite of rain and wind. The lower foothills 
are the finest of pastures for thousands of 
sleek-looking cattle feeding peacefully upon 
the green herbage, or reposing quietly under 
scattering trees of oak, laurel or inadrona, 
which enhance the scene of beauty by their 
wide branching forms. 

But on the east, the whole side of the range 
to the summit, though wonderfully gorged 
through vast periods of time in the past, yet 
exhibits a surface smooth as a pasture, with 
thin stunted grass, and streaked by many out- 
cropping parallel edges of strata of old sedi- 
mentary rocks. Small strips of timber seem 
creeping up the deeper canyons, while occa- 
sional dwarf pines appear, braving the diffi- 
culties of the situation. 

The intervening moderate valley of the Car- 
mel is a region either of fine large oak openings, 
splendid parks of beauty, or of lovely small 
prairie scenes green with rich native grasses, or 
of more beautiful views of fields of grain, or 
meadows, or pasturage, or orchards, with orna 
mental yards and gardens around pleasant 
dwellings — everything tending to make homes 
lovely. A gentleman from England remarked 
to us that he had seen nothing else in 
America which so reminded him of the beauti- 
ful parks of the old country. We could readily 
believe such the truth as we galloped on among 
the splendid trees or by the rich cultivated fields. 

The ranches up this pleasant valley are not 
so large as in some other parts of the State, 
though one of Mr. Sargent's is many miles 
square in extent, and that of the Laurellis is 
some thousands of acres in size. This last, 
under the vigorous management of Mr. K linker- 
berg, is assuming all the beauty of a large, regu- 
lar farm. Extensive alfalfa fields are seen, the 
richestwe have met with in the central portion of 
the State, while large fields of grain appear as 
well cultivated as we have anywhere found. 
His dairy, of over 200 cows, is as neat and ad- 
mirably arranged as anv we have ever visited. 
He has a variety of hogs called the Duroc, 
which we particularly admired for their large 
size, good proportions, peaceable nature and 
uniform color, a slightly brownish red. They 
were imported directly from New York. They 
are healthy, easily kept, averaging 450 pounds 
when ordinarily fatted, while some easily go up 
to over 700 in weight. They may be a variety 
of the Berkshire, but finer ones we have never 
seen. 

Below this ranch are the smaller, but no less 
beautiful ones, of Snively Bros., Berwick, Hut- 
ton, and others to the mouth of the river as it 
enters the old ocean's waters. Immense quanti- 
ties of squashes and beets are raised here for 
feed for cows and hogs. Of the beets, we were 
told over 100 tons to the acre were realized. 
We rather doubted the fact, and went in the 
field with the proprietor, where, by counting 
distances, and trying the weight of an average 
one, we accepted the assertion of 100 tons to 
the acre as true. Two acres of such beets and 
four acres of good, irrigated alfalfa would be 
enough for a dairy of over 20 good cows, be- 
sides calves, hogs and chickens. 

Along down the coast some 15 miles to the 
south, farm land is crowded to a narrow strip 
nowhere over a quarter of a mile wide between 
the ocean and the steep grass-covered mountains. 
Here are a few scattered farmers, far apart, 
mostly Portuguese or other foreigners, getting a 
comfortable living, but on a rugged coast, where 
the raging of old ocean's great heavy breakers 
among hosts of jutting rocks and against the 
steep solid bank, ever wakes the grandest music 
of the deep. Here the people are away from 
the curse of old Mexican grants, and rejoice in 
the ownership of what they produce. 

We turned up a wild romantic gorge two 
miles, along a little stream murmuring adown 
its way between willow-lined banks, bending 
often from side to side of its little valley no- 
where over ten rods wide, often but two, while 
the steep mountains rose immediately from its 
edge. Yet along this little valley, almost gorge, 
the hand of civilized man had been busy in 
clearing away, in favorable spots, the rugged 
impediments, and securing good land for pota- 
toes, alfalfa, and corn. Here a home for an in- 
telligent worthy family was being sought, out 
of the way of great overshadowing land claims, 
with rents just as large as could be made, and 
laboring men get a possible living. 

Reti'rninp, we visited the old early capital of 
the coast, the city of 

Monterey, 

Forming acquaintance with its people and re- 
caUing to mind the scene of '49. It had much 



now of that which we then saw, but much in 
addition also to that, in its extended limits and 
more modern buildings. Still with all its 
enlarged numbers and improvements, the place 
does not enjoy the privilege of one single Pro- 
testant church, or have any regular Protestant 
worship, nor should one think from appearances 
that it cared much about its Roman worship. 

But now a branch of the S. P. R. R. is 
almost completed into tho place from the 
Salinas valley at Castroville, and it is believed 
this will tend to stimulate business and im- 
provements very mateiially. Certainly the 
harbor of Monterey is a commodious one, very 
safe from all ordinary winds, and, except two, 
is the best on the coast. It is possible that 
Monterey may yet become a shipping port of 
great prominence and a city of size and influ- 
ence. They havo a fair lodge of the A. O. U. 
W. , a good school and the oldest public library 
west of the Rocky mountains. This ought to 
be the pride of the city and fostered with care 
to become permanent, and' one of the first in 
the value and number of its books on the coast. 

S. V. B. 



Tl{E Vineyard. 



Discouragements of the Grape Interest. 

Editors Press : — I thank you for the flatter- 
ing manner in which you request my communi- 
cations on the subject of American vines, with 
reference to phylloxera, a subject which has un- 
fortunately become of great moment to Califor- 
nia. I am preparing for your journal a synopsis 
of the interesting proceedings of the vinicul- 
tural conventions lately held at Nimes and at 
Yillafranehe, in France; but what will it avail 
to learn from those intelligent and zealous 
grape-growers in France when we consider the 
difference in the encouragement they receive 
there, both from their government and the 
great railroad corporations, and the discourage- 
ments and impediments imposed on the wine- 
producers here ? 

In France, where brandies pay a higher tax 
even than here, the national government ex- 
empts the grape-grower from all tax on distilla- 
tion of wine spirits from the marc, the lees aud 
pomace or pressings of his grapes, which he 
may make and use either for home consumption 
or for the fortification (viuage) of his wines, or 
in producing what they call cooked wines, such 
as ports, sherries, etc. Here an honest grape- 
grower cannot utilize at all his marc or the resi- 
due of his pressings by distillation. He is not 
only not exempt from tax or any part thereof 
but would have to pay the tax for about two 
gallons on each gallon which he distills. 

In France the government subsidizes the es- 
tablishment of experimental vineyards and 
nurseries, and honors the wine-producer and 
dealer no less than the banker or men of other 
honorable industries. Dukes and senators 
deem the title of " Proprietaire," which means 
the owner of vineyard and wine-cellars, an 
honor. Here the national government treats 
every wine-merchant as a fellow who mu*t be 
suspected of law-breaking, and the various 
State governments impose upon him excessive 
licenses and oppressive laws. 

In France the railroad corporations, aware of 
the importance of grape culture as a promoter 
of wealth and happiness, as a factor of civiliza- 
tion, carry wines at the lowest rates of freight; 
here most railroads classify then, even in casks 
and barrels as first-class freight, /. e., they 
charge for them the highest rates. It is true 
that the rates for wines from San Francisco to 
the great markets are exceptionally low; but it 
is also true that when these very wines are to 
be transported from those great interior mark- 
ets to other places, then foreign wines shipped 
from New York are largely in the advantage; 
these are transported as fourth-class goods, 
while your California wines when shipped from 
Chicago to St. Louis are charged tirst-class 
rates. French port is shipped from New York 
to St. Louis for about 50 cents per 100 pounds. 
California port from St. Louis to Colorado, a 
less distance, would have to pay over six times 
that rate. 

While the French railroad companies have 
furnished the sulpho-carbonates, which were sup- 
posed a remedy against phylloxera, free to any 
station desired by the grape grower, although 
its transportation is extra hazardous — your rail- 
roads charge the highest (first-class) tariff rates 
for grape cuttings which will now be needed for 
the salvation of your grape culture from phyllox- 
era. It is a fact that we send them from St. 
Louis to New York, thence by steamer to 
Harve in Europe, thence to Bordeaux, for less 
than half the freight that the great Pacific rail- 
road charges for them from St. Louis to San 
Francisco — £5 per 100 pounds ! and grape cut- 
tings are free from dangers or risks, are packed 
in boxes, heavy in proportion to bulk, and there 
is no reason why they should be classified at a 
higher rate than manufactured tobacco or fertil- 
izers, or even cabbage. 

To this last serious evil, which must discour- 
age the introduction of the best remedy against 
phylloxera, the Press should draw immediate 
attention of the managers of your railroad, and 
as sensible business men they may probably re- 
move at least this one, and it will do no harm 
to bring to the attention of the people and their 
representatives also the others. They are evils 
under which grape growers suffer, and among 
them your correspondent. Isidor Busii. 
St. Louis, Mo. 



Nursing and Feeding Young Poultry. 

Editors Press :— The question "How do 
you feed and nurse young chicks and turkeys to 
have them thrive so well?" is frequently asked 
to me; so will give those ways of procedure 
which have proved to be successful in my ex- 
perience. 

We should, first, guard against that injurious 
insect — the louse — which has been the downfall 
of many a brood. Through experience, I find 
it not well to remove young chicks or turkeys 
from the nest until after twenty-four or thirty- 
six hours old. At which time anoint their 
heads, upper parts of neck, and on top of the 
wings, with a mixture of a teaspoonful of oil 
of sassafras to four ounces of sweet oil. Best, 
placing a small quantity of the ointment in a 
sauce plate, to apply with a small camel-hair 
brush as you turn the feathers up. Care should 
be taken not to use too much. The hen should 
also be slightly anointed all over, using instead 
of a brush the tips of your four fingers. 

Early hatched chicks should be kept in a dry, 
warm coop or room, and it is very important to 
properly feed them. The first week take stale 
bread (not moldy) and soak it in sweet milk 
moderately warmed, with the Imperial Egg 
Food. Also give the warm milk in place of 
water for drink. Along with this give cracked 
corn, wheat, and a preparation of coarse corn 
meal. In preparing the meal, take what will 
feed for twenty-four hours, and pouring in boil- 
ing water, stir well to separate the meal ; scald 
it until sufficiently dry to crumble nicely, then 
season with the egg food. In this way your 
chicks will not waste the feed. 

You should feed young chicks at least five 
times daily, and have them go to roost with 
their craws full of dry graiu. 

Little turkeys should have the same food as 
chickens, together with brown bread made of 
middlings, as you would sour biscuits, but 
cooked thoroughly in loaves : soak this bread in 
water, aud, wringing dryly, season with egg 
food. Turkeys should be turned out after the 
first week or ten days and fed twice daily. 

The first of last January I took out eighty- 
six chicksof the cross between Plymouth Rocks 
and Black Spanish. The first of April the pul- 
lets began to lay, aud some of them are still 
laying. The roosters of that hatch brought 
me, in San Francisco, last March, $7.50 a 
dozen. 

So the truth of the well-known proverb, 
the " early bird catches the worm," so the first 
pullet lays the eggs. L. E. McMahon. 

Dixon, Solano Co. 



Pisciculture. 



Four Years' Experience With Carp. 

Editors Press:— I now propose to give your 
readers my experience in carp culture. On Jan- 
uary the 21st, 1876, I bought six carp of Mr. 
Poppe, for which I paid him $30. One died 
shortly after I got them, leaving five to start 
with. The first year I raised 2,044, and in 1877 
I raised 2,672, from the same five fish. In the 
spring of 1878 I let Mr. Oliver, my friend aud 
neighbor, have two of my old Ssh, so I had 
only three left, and I raised that year about 
4,000, aud this year (1870) I do not know how 
many I will have, as I have not drawn the 
water off yet. 1 drew the water off one pond 
to get some fish to ship, the result of which I 
gave you iu my last letter. 

Now for the result. I have four small ponds, 
the cost of which was about §50 each, making 
in all $200 for ponds and $30 for fish. The 
feed has cost say $10 a year, making $40; total 
$270. I have sold $415 worth of fish, which 
leaves me §145 surplus cash, together with four 
small ponds and 6,000 or 8,000 carp. In addi- 
tion to this my family has been eating carp for 
the last IS months. 

The question should arise in the mind of every 
man who has any situation tit for carp, to what 
can I apply it to better advantage than to 
carp culture? Look at it carefully. The first 
year I had them in one pond, which only con- 
tained eight square rods, or two rods wide and 
four long. This has been my hatching pond all 
the time. My next pond had six square rods in 
it, the third has about 15 square rods in it, and 
the fourth has some 30 or 40 rods in it, making 
in all about one-half acre of land, which gives 
me over $60 per acre rent and a big harvest into 
the bargain. It is better than compound interest 
on the same amount of money. 

I have given facts and figures that all 
may see tho profit from a little waste 
water and swamp land that many pass by 
unheeded, and which might be turned to our 
advantage in purse as well as in diet. It is now 
demonstrated beyond a donbt that the carp 
does splendidly in our waters, and will thrive 
in waters where other liah cannot exist. For 
instance, the temperature of my pond rose to 
88°, and if I remember rightly, Seth tireen, the 
great trout man, gave accounts that in his expe- 
rience the death of certain species of trvut 
occurred at 72', 74° and 76°. I might give 
many advantages in favor of the carp over the 
common fish, but this must suffice for the present, 
may give you the experience of others at 
■another time. Levi Davis. 

Forestville, Sonoma Co., Cai 



January 3 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



Beginnings in Beekeeping.— No. 3. 

Editors Press: — Please let me correct an 
error in the last article: "20 sheets for $2 
should read 13 sheets for $2." 

Now for our experience with queensl As no 
swarms came out, I transferred one swarm into 
two of the simplicity hives described in No. 2; 
gave the queen to one part and left the other to 
raise a queen, but as soon as all the queen cells 
were capped over, being to save them all, I 
took them out of the hive and tried to hatch 
them in a queen nursery — that is, suspended in 
a double boiler, the water in the lower division 
of which was kept warm by a coal-oil lamp; 
but having no thermometer, failed to keep them 
at the right temperature, so they all died, and 
I had to put another comb of unsealed brood 
into the queenless hive for them to start more 
queen cells. 

Whenever a swarm has no queen, if you will 
take a frame that contains eggs or unsealed 
brood from another hive and give them, they 
will immediately select several of the cells in 
which there are eggs or larva, and after enlarg- 
ing them to two or three times the usual size, 
put in a good supply of royal jelly, which has 
the peculiar virtue of changing what would 
otherwise be only a small worker incapable of 
producing offspring into a queen of double the 
size, capable of laying thousands of eggs or sup- 
plying all the young bees born in the hive dur- 
ing three years or more. 

What a wonderful illustration of the influence 
of diet, and if as important changes could be 
produced in an infant of the human race by at- 
tention to diet, we might soon decide there was 
a royal road to knowledge or a hope for salva- 
tion to the race through that way. Study up, ye 
scientist! 

But that swarm failed to get a queen out 
of the next batch of eggs, or she was lost 
going out to meet the drones, so had to give 
them more; also a frame of sealed brood occa- 
sionally, that the young bees might hatch out and 
keep up the strength of the colony, as the old 
workers die off fast during summer time. In 
the meantime, I transferred the other purchased 
swarm to a simplicity hive, and in doing so, 
must have killed the queen — not an unlikely 
thing to do in transferring from an old Harbison 
hive — with the comb all so jammed together that 
you could not get out a frame wilhout mashing 
much of it, so, thus, we had two hives without 
queens, and only one with a queen to supply 
them all; and as all the drones had been killed 
off, the prospect was that if the two swarms 
should hatch out their queens all right, they 
would be worthless for want of drones — for, 
though a queen will lay without meeting the 
drones, her eggs will only produce drones t'> eat 
honey instead of workers to gather it. There- 
fore, as the only way to make a sure thing of 
my two swarms, I concluded to import a ''dol- 
lar Italian queen" for each of them, and sent an 
order to Mr. Root, receiving in twenty-eight 
days two little section boxes, each containing a 
queen and a few workers. Now came an ex- 
citing time for a beginner, for with old experi- 
enced beekeepers it is never a sure thing that 
they will get the queen safely introduced. 
Sometimes the bees will insist upon killing her 
by making themselves into a close ball about 
her in spite of all the many plaus and queen- 
introducing cages used for the purpose. Well, 
starting in to try one, I followed instructions by 
placing the cage which contained her on the top 
of the frames for a day to let the bees get ac- 
quainted with her without being able to kill 
her, and toward evening, as they all seemed 
good-natured, opened the cage and let her out 
among them. They gave her a good reception, 
and all seemed working well, when, thinkiug to 
save the banded workers that came with her, I 
turned them in also, but that aroused the ire of 
the swarm, so they began killing the intruders, 
and only a few minutes after my little boy, who 
sat in front of the hive, saw the queen come out 
and fly away. That was the last we saw of her. 

The other queen was dead in her cage with 
most of the bees the next morning. So here we 
were as bad off as ever, and there seemed no 
way but to send for.two more queens. They 
came to hand in twenty-six days, put up in 
so much better shape, and in so much more 
vigorous condition, as to show the shipper had 
been learnirig better how to put them up to go 
long distances. Now this time we must make 
a sure thing of it, for we could not afford to 
send for any more, especially as the Express 
Company had raised their charges from 75 cents 
to $1.30. I made a wire cage of two brood 
frames by covering the outside of each with 
wire-cloth, and hinging them together at the 
bottom with cloth, just so as to allow another 
frame to be inclosed between them when they 
were closed in this cage, put a frame full of 
bees from the hive and introduced the queen to 
them. They began to "ball" her, but having 
the smoker ready, a good supply of smoke every 
time would make them let her go, but it was 
not until after watching and smoking them for 
about five hours I thought to use tobacco, after 
which they let her alone. The cage was then 
hung in the hive for two days, then opened a 



little so they could all mix together, since 
which time she has so well performed her part, 
that nearly all the workers in that hive 
are Italians, thus proving the statement that 
whilst queens live three or four years, the 
workers in summer only live a few weeks. 

The other queen I tried to introduce on the 
same plan, but they would not have her in the 
hive, for the very good reason, as I afterward 
found, because they had a good new black 
queen of their own raising, and had had two, 
living peaceably together, for I had killed one 
on purpose to make room for the Italian; and 
that little black queen which they stood by so 
well has proved to be the best in the apiary, 
though I have failed to see her after looking 
many times, still the eggs she lays are proof 
enough that she is there. 

About that time we found a bee tree in the 
timber near by, and on outting it down brought 
home what bees we could collect and gave them 
the Italian queen, but they afterward killed her 
and began cells to make a new one. Finding 
that bee-gum solved the mystery how one 
of the swarms had secured a properly impreg- 
nated queen after I supposed the drones were 
all dead, for it had a large supply of drones, 
and they were near enough for all practical pur- 
poses, that also teaches us how little certainty 
there will be in getting pure Italian queens 
properly mated where there is any timber near 
to harbor wild swarms. But I am no stickler 
after pure Italians; give me a queen from the 
stock that produces the most bees and honey. 
Care in breeding from the best honey gatherers 
will no doubt improve any stock, and in time 
produce a valuable strain. I can see quite a 
difference in the working disposition of the 
swarms. Even this time of the year some are 
doing nothing, whilst others, especially that lit- 
tle black swarm which would not have an 
Italian queen, are busy all day coming in with 
heavy loads of pollen for feeding the young 
bees. Isaac B. Rcmford. 

Bakersfield, Cal, 



The Chinese Water Nut. 

They have growing in the grounds of the 
Queensland Acclimatization Society a peculiar 
fruit which they obtained from Canton, in 
China. At the last meeting of the society, as 
reported in one of our Australian exchanges, 
there were letters read concerning the new 
growth, as follows: 

The Trapa bicornis (Ling Kok of the Can- 
tonese) grows in clear still water of a depth of 
one foot or two feet, with a soft muddy bottom. 
The best situations are such as are subject to a 
gentle overflow of river water at high tides, but 
it grows well in ponds beyond the reach of the 
tides, and then the water is prevented from 
becoming stagnant by the copious rains of sum- 
mer, and by the active vegetable growth of the 
plants themselves. In a country like China, 
where labor is cheap and abundant, and where 
every available spot of land, whether dry or 
submersed, is utilized, the plant has no chance of 
becoming a pest. As to whether it would do so 
under circumstances more favorable to its strug- 
gle for existence, experience affords no clue. If 
left to itself it dies down on the approach of 
winter; but the custom is to collect, dry and 
store in the autumn as many plants as may be 
needed for the following year, and throw them 
on the surface of the water in the spring. 

In Canton the fruits are in perfection in May 
and June, but they continue in the market till 
August, when, however, they are drier and 
harder, and not so palatable. They are eaten by 
all classes of Chinese, and are also relished by 
Europeaus. They are sometimes eaten raw, 
but generally in a cooked state. They are sim- 
ply boiled, and the black skin is taken off either 
before or after boiling, like potatoes. On Eu- 
ropean tables they are usually served up with 
sauce. 

Extract from letter from Mr. Ford, director 
of the Botanic Gardens, Hongkong: In refer- 
ence to Trapa bicornis cultivation there is none 
in Hongkong, and what I have to say is second- 
hand, received from Chinese. They are great 
liars, but I believe that the following informa- 
tion is reliable: The fruit ripens in August, 
and is collected by men going out in the water 
and plucking the fruit from the plants when it 
is ready for consumption. The plant can be 
grown in water from one foot to ten feet deep; it 
needs the soil at the bottom of the ponds ma- 
nuring a few inches deep. The fruit, when ripe 
in August, is sown, and remains dormant at the 
bottom of the water until about March, when it 
begins to grow, and continues to grow through 
the summer. 



To Protect Iron from Rust. — Iron can be 
protected from rust and made very pleasing in 
color by a method invented by Mr. Dode. He 
coats the surface with a thin film of borate of 
lead, in which some oxide of copper has been 
dissolved, and some scales of platinum held in 
suspension, by means of a brush or bath. He 
then heats the composition until it is diffused. 
The result is a thin, glassy coating, which will 
withstand the action of sewer gases, dilute acids 
or alkalies, and the heat of kitchen fire. If all 
be true that is said of this "platinized iron," as 
it is called, it will find numerous applications. 
— Rev. of i'ci. and Ind. 



E plELD. 



The Sugar Question in the United States. 

Editors Press: — Whatever the difficulties 
have been against which the beet-sugar indus- 
try in the United States had to struggle, it can 
not be denied that some progress has been made 
lately. This is specially the case in California, 
where during the year 1880, four beet-sugar fac- 
tories will be in working operation. Two of 
these sugar works had a prosperous season dur- 
ing the past year, and will have the same next, 
no doubt. Isleton, which stood idle during the 
past year, will no doubt work the next, and 
Warrenton, which will be erected in Los Ange- 
les county, is expected to begin sugar-making 
by the 1st of July. 

Besides these beet-sugar works, some cane 
sugar plantations are contemplated in the San 
Joaquin valley, and although no sugar from 
there can be expected during the first year, 
once started they will be an important item 
in supplying sugar and preventing money being 
shipped to foreign countries; and calling to mind 
the fact that the annual sugar consumption on 
the Pacific slope amounts to about ten million 
dollars, it certainly has to be admitted that 
there is place for all. 

Sugar cane grown by Chinamen is for sale in 
many grocery stores all through the State, it 
therefore can not be questioned that sugar cane 
does grow in this State. It would be interest- 
ing to have a fair trial made also with sorghum 
and cornstalks in this State, and have the re- 
sult, whatever that may turn out to be, laid be- 
fore our farmers. It was expected that the 
planting of sugar beets would begin in Los An- 
geles county before Christmas, but the late rain 
will delay planting till New Year. 

The first instalment of the seed has already ar- 
rived, 60 centals, and a second arrival will soon 
follow. All this seed is from the well-known 
seed grower and sugar manufacturer, Ferd 
Knauer in Groebers, in Germany. To ascertain 
the best localities for the production of the su- 
gar beet, as also how much alkali the soil may 
contain without reducing the quality of them, 
is a matter of experiment and trial. The farmer 
wants to know how many tons of sugar beets 
he can produce per acre, and the manufactur< r 
must know the quality of these beets before he 
can state toe value of the same and the price he 
can pay. 

One locality may be good for sugar beets, an- 
other may be still better, a fair and complete 
trial only can prove this. In order to have a 
fair and complete trial of the different localities, 
the best of sugar-beet seed should be employed 
and this should be all of the same species, as there 
is a great difference in the quality of the seed. 
The two main points to be aimed at and if pos- 
sible to be combined is a beet rich in sugar, as 
free as possible of foreign matter in the juice 
and to be a good size, because it is not only im- 
portant that the manufacturer should have a 
rich beet, but it is also of great importance for 
the farmer to obtain a large crop. 

The following table of an experiment made 
during last summer, will illustrate how great a 
difference there may be in a crop of real good 
rich sugar beets, where different species of seed 
are employed. It may be well here to state 
that the beets were all grown in the same field 
and had the same care and attention. In as- 
serting the value of these beets in figures the 
average sugar beet in quality and quantity of 
yield was placed at 1,000. 



2 lP.QP.oS' - 

3 W ■ 2. _ 2. s „ :£ * 

■ I? 2 



, ^ S -5 o 4 a a 

' ■ VOX 

t "■'3 



9 V p\ 



a : 3 



ass? 5* 
o o o 
< < < 



o o 
< f 

o o 



CO -J 

mow 



■> oc 



o oa w m 
00 cs to o 
o CO CO 



fil 



BQ GO 



SO J» 



Q 3 



v-3 a 

tr s 

B> 2. 



2. w 



p o 

C- B 

S 3 

_ o 

a - 



The correctness of the quantity is guaranteed 
by Paetz, farm manager and the chemical anal- 
ysis by Fr. Wendenburg, chemist of the sugar 
works. The conclusions to be deducted from 
this trial are : 

1. The real value of a sugar-beet species is 



obtained by multiplication of quantity ana 
quality. 

2. All the seven species of beets were rich in 
sugar and high in co-efficient of purity. 

3. First cost of beet seed has no relation to 
its practical value, because Wanzleber cost 90 
marks, improved Imperial 50 marks, and all the 
rest 36 marks. 

4. The three species of Ferd Knauer were in 
cjuantity and quality the best, and have highest 
bgures. 

5. The Vilmorin beets said to be grown after 
the original seed (second growth) have high co- 
efficient of purity, but the poorest yield in quan- 
tity and in shape of roots, therefore show the 
lowest figures of value. 

6. The KI. Wanzleber beet is always consid- 
ered of high quality, yet comes only fourth in 
this experiment. 

This experiment will prove conclusively the 
great importance of making the trial in south- 
ern California as to its adaptability of growing 
sugar beets profitably for both farmers and sugar 
manufacturers, with the best seed and to have 
this seed alike in all experiments by farmers. 

I have procured sufficient seed for the supply 
of my own beets and also to supply every farmer 
who may wish to make a trial on a small scale. 
I will be prepared to analyze the beets sent to 
me when ripe, grown from this seed free of 
charge, and will give in due time when com- 
pleted the result to the farmers through the 
columns of the Rural Press. This will prob- 
ably settle the question as to the quality of 
beets for manufacture of sugar which have been 
grown on strong alkali land. 

Ernest Th. Gennert. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Our Beet-Sugar Factories. 

Editors Press: — In the State of California 
we have had over eight years' experience with 
beet-sugar making. We have three beet-sugar 
factories — one at Isleton, Sacramento county, 
for some time past idle, one at Alvarado, and 
the other at Soquel. In last week's Rural. 
Press we read the following statement: 

"In Soquel, Cal., the oldest beet-sugar factory 
in the United States (?), from 45 to 55 barrels of 
white granulated sugar are turned out daily 
with as much regularity as a baker turns out 
his rolls. In Alvarado, Cal., from 30 to 35 bar- 
rels of white sugar are made daily, and beet- 
sugar prices are regularly quoted in the San 
Francisco market." 

This, upon the face of it, is a very flattering 
statement, but when we come to examine th e 
real bottom facts in the case, an entirely differ- 
ent view is presented. The Soquel factory may 
be the oldest beet-sugar factory now in use in 
the United States, but it is not the oldest that 
has been built by a good many. It has made a 
short run of only two months this season, and 
is now cleaning up and preparing to close. It 
will therefore remain idle five-sixths of the 
year. The factory cost about $200,000, so 
stated by one of the owners. It is considered 
dead property, and the owners would be glad to 
sell it very cheap; no doubt one-quarter its cost 
would buy it, and very likely one-tenth. 

The condition of the Alvarado factory is prob. 
ably really not much better, but I have not 
equally reliable information upon which to make 
a statement. 

The statement has been publicly made that 
nearly half a million dollars has been squan- 
dered, or at least lost in the beet-sugar experi- 
ments in Sacramento county alone. Probably 
the total expenditure in the State upon beet- 
sugar factories will reach a million dollars, with 
results either disastrous or wholly unsatisfac- 
tory. Capital has been seduced into these ad- 
ventures by plausible representations and mag- 
nificent figures, similar to those above quoted. 
Every good citizen who has a regard for the 
permanent prosperity of the State, whether en- 
gaged in sugar-making or not, must regret so 
large an expenditure of money fruitlessly. It 
has a dampening effect upon investment in 
other manufacturing enterprises of more meri- 
torious character. 

Of course, any individual has a perfect right 
to use his own money in making further experi- 
ments in beet-sugar manufacture, and no one 
should find fault with him; but if he makes 
representations calculated to mislead others or 
the public, it becomes a matter for legitimate 
public criticism. L. D. Morse. 

San Mateo, Dec. 22d. 

The Strength of Wheels. — "I wonder," 
said a veteran wheelwright, the other day, 
"how many who see slender wheels flying over 
the road stones, or a massive wheel slowly draw- 
ing a mass of iron or stone along the cobble 
stones, ever pause to think what a perfect pieoa 
of mechanism a wheel must be to stand such 
continuous wear and tear. Every spoke must 
have a perfect bearing, both at the hub and on 
the felloe, lie exactly on the same plane as the 
others, and be of equally well-seasoned timber. 
The felloes must be an equally good fit at the 
joints and upon the spokes. They must form 
at the circumference a perfect circle, and be 
strong enough for their duty without being too 
heavy. I tell you that a ton weight continually 
thumping at a wheel will soon flatten out the 
weak spots, and bad- fitting and insufficiently- 
seasoned timber will soon give a loose tire, 
boys." 



4 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 3, 1880. 




Corre&pondtinM cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



The National Grange. 

Second Day. 

After the reading of the ollieers' reports, 
which were outlined in our last issue, the 
( Grange proceeded to routine business. The 
sketch which we shall give is condensed from 
the report in the Qrawje Bulletin: 

Under the call of roll of States for the intro- 
duction of new business, a number of papers of 
various kinds were presented and referred to 
the appropriate committees, among which were 
the following: 

Bro. Ware, of Massachusetts— Unequal taxa- 
tion, and burdens imposed upon farmers 
thereby. 

Bro. Wayne,, of New York — Asking for cere- 
monial for plautiug "Memorial Trees." 

Bro. Lipscomb, of South Carolina — To pro- 
vide for charitable and relief funds; also that 
all officers in any natioual, State or county 
Grange shall be required to be members in good 
standing in some subordinate Grange. 

Various proposed amendments to constitution 
and by-laws were presented from several States 
and referred to the committees. 

Bro. Chase, of New Hampshire, announced 
that a delegate, accompanied by other visitors, 
were present from the Dominion Grange of 
Canada, and moved that a committee of three 
be appointed to introduce them. Carried; and 
Bros. Chase, Lang and Wayne appointed as said 
committee. The delegates were duly received 
and welcomed. 

The regular order was then taken up, Bro. 
Woodman in the chair, and among the resolu- 
tions offered and referred were the following: 

Bro. Wayne, of N. Y. — Allowing the sixth 
degree to be conferred in State Granges. 

By Bro. Lipscomb, of S. C. — That steps be 
taken to have the laws of the United States sim- 
plified and made less expensive in their admin- 
istration. 

The balance of the day was occupied in the 
rendering of informal reports of Grange work 
in the different States. The reports were of va- 
rious degrees of success but all exhibited good 
heart for the future. 

Third|Day. 

The third day's proceedings were opened with 
Bro. Woodman in the chair. A committee was 
appointed to receive the applications of those 
who desired to take the 5th and Gth degrees, 
and reported a large number of visiting Patrons 
from New York and other States who were ac- 
cepted and duly invested with the degrees. 

Under the call of roll of States, more new 
business was introduced and referred without 
debate to the proper committees. 

The Finance Committee reported upon the 
salaries of officers for the ensuing year, which 
after discussion and amendment was adopted as 
follows: Master, !?500, and expenses when on- 
gaged in Grange work; Secretary, SGOO and ex- 
penses of attendance at session of National 
tirange; Treasurer, S300 and expeuses as above; 
Lecturer, §4.00 per dcim when actually em- 
ployed under the direction of the National 
Grange or the Executive Committee; Executive 
Committee, £3.00 per deim and actual traveling 
expenses. 

Fourth Day. • 
Bro. Woodman in the chair. After reading 
and adopting the minutes and receiving one 6r 
two reports from committees, resulting in dis- 
cussion but no final action, the special order 
fixed for 10 o'clock A. m. was taken up, 
the election of officers, and consumed the 
entire day, resulting .13 follows: Master — J. J. 
Woodman, of Michigan; Overeeer — PutDardcn, 
of Mississippi; Lecturer — Henry Eshbaugh, of 
Missouri; Steward— A. J. Vaughn, of Mississ- 
ippi; Assistant Steward — Wm. Sims, Kansas; 
Chaplain— S. H. Ellis, Ohio; Treasurer— F. M. 
McDowell, New York; Secretary — Wm. M. 
Ireland, Washington, D. C. ; Gate-keeper- -O. 
Dinwiddie, Indiana; Members of Executive 
Committee — D. Wyatt Aiken, South Carolina, 
and W. O. Wayne, New York. 

Fifth Day. 

The Orange assembled at 9:30 a. ML, Bro. 
Woodman in the chair. Under "call of States," 
quite an amount of new business introduced 
and referred. 

The Committee on Constitution and By-Laws 
reported an amendment to the constitution, 
providing for biennial instead of annual sessions 
of the National Grange, which elicited an ani- 
mated and extended discussion, participated in 
by Bros. Wilson, of Florida; James, of Indiana; 
Forsythe, of Illiuois; Lipscomb, of South Caro- 
lina; Ware, of Massachusetts; Whitehead, of 
New jersey ; Sims, of Kansas; Brigham, of Ohio; 
Stone, of Kentucky; Chaso, of New Hampshire; 
Cheek, of North Carolina; Thing, of Maine; 
and Lang, of Texas. Pending discussion, the 
report was temporarily laid upon the table. 

Among the reports and resolutions adopted 
were the following: itequiring that all officers 
of the Order, especially of the Natioual and 
State Oranges, shall be members in full stand- 
ing in some subordinate Orange and clear on its 
books, the regulation to take effect three 
months from the date of its passage. 

A report from the Committee on Co-operation 



endorsing the proposed World's fair at New 
York in 1883, and recommending all State and 
subordinate Oranges to co operate iu making a 
display worthy of the Order and of the agricul- 
tural interests of the country. 

From the same committee a report endorsing 
the proposed organization of a National Agri- 
cultural Society, and recommending the appoint- 
ment of three delegates to attend the conven- 
tion to be held for that purpose in New York 
city Dec. 9th prox. 

The committee appointed were Bros. D. 
Wyatt Aiken, S. O; V. E. Piolett, Pa.: and A. 
E\ Forsythe, I1L 

A New Declaration of Beliefs. 

The following paper was introduced by Bro. 
D. H. Thing, of Maine, seconded by Bro. Put 
Darden, of Mississippi, and adopted by a uuani- 
mous rising vote: 

Whkkeas, Our true interests as a nation, our 
real and permanent prosperity and happiness as 
a people, imperatively demand that we should 
"dwell together in unity;" that while jealously 
guarding our own rights, we should be careful 
to accord to others the privileges which belong 
to every loyal citizen, thus practically illustrat- 
ing that charity which is the great distinguishing 
characteristic of our fraternity; and, 

Whereas, Our future advancement will de- 
pend largely upon the full and practical recog- 
nition of the fact that the several States of this 
Uttt in, in their social, industrial and political 
interests are mutually dependent upou each 
other, that when harm comes to one all must 
suffer, and that what is for the real good of one 
must result in general good to all; and, 

Whereas, The iulluence of political parties 
as at present constituted, and as their interests 
are administered, and also of party papers and 
party speakers tends to a very great degree to 
incite rather than allay sectional feelings and 
local jealousies, to provoke enmity between 
those whose political interests and social rela- 
tions demand that they should cultivate and 
maintain the most friendly relations, to engen- 
der a bitterness of party strife aud au unhealthy 
rivalry among those who are really members of 
the same great family: aud, 

Whereas, Agriculture is at the foundation 
of all real prosperity aud material development, 
and as we believe this development can only be 
realized through the intelligent, cordial, un- 
selfish organization and co-operation of agricul- 
turists, and, 

Whereas, Until the advent of this Order, 
no organization composed wholly of that class 
and administered in its especial interests has 
existed, through and by which farmers could so 
concentrate their efforts and unite their forces 
as to make their strength and importance ap- 
parent, and their influence felt and appreciated; 
therefore, 

Resolved, By the National tirange of the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry of the United States, con- 
vened in annual session at the city of Canandui- 
gua, State of New York, on the 19th day of No- 
vember, 1879, that the Order of Patrons of 
Husbandry in the United States in a national 
organization, that we recognize the rights, civil, 
political and industrial, of each citizen of this 
Union; that we have nosympathy with sectional 
feelings and jealousies, with party animosities, 
with the revival of past issues for party or per- 
sonal aggrandizement, with that narrow, selfish, 
unstatesmanlike statesmanship which will re- 
sult in creating a solid North and a solid South; 
with bribery, corruption, intimidation, ballot- 
box stuffing or bulldozing, either North or South: 
that while we utterly disclaim all intention or 
desire to make ourselves a political organization 
in any offensive or party sense, yet we believe 
iu and earnestly recommend the full and free 
exercise of the elective franchise, wholly unin- 
fluenced, save by that intelligence which is, and 
in the very nature of things must be, the hope 
and strength of republican institutions, and 
which is so essential to national progress aud 
the development of a higher civilization: that 
we recognize the fact that the issues of the late 
civil war M ere settled by the war, and are issues 
of the past, while we as a nation and a people 
have to do with the living issues of the present, 
and that the revival of those issues North or 
South, no matter by whom or by what party, 
while it serves to keep alive aud intensify sec- 
tional feelings and bitterness, can result in no 
possible good and should be discountenanced 
aid frowned upou by good citizens everywhere. 

Resolved, That we extend to all members of 
our Order, no matter where their dwelling 
place, or however humble their circumstances, 
our cordial aud fraternal greeting, and assure 
them of our continued interest in their welfare 
and our desire for their social ami educational 
advancement, and material prosperity; and we 
hereby pledge ourselves anew, to labor to the 
extent of our ability for the realization of our 
wishes. 

Resolved, That we cordially invite all farm- 
ers, farmers' wives and farmers' sons and 
daughters throughout this broad land, to join 
our ranks aud unite with us iu one grand effort 
to give to the agriculturists of America the in- 
tellectual and social standing which they have 
so richly earned, and to the agricultural the 
political recognition and pecuniary results that 
its importance demands, and we promise to 
labor faithfully with them to accomplish these 
results. 

Important resolutions were introduced by 
Bro. Woodman and referred to committee, re- 
lating to national legislation to protect the 
people from the encroachments of railroad cor- 
porations, aud to protect the innocent purchasers 
of patented articles from the payment of roy- 



alty upon such articles, the manufacturer and 
vender to be alone responsible. 

We shall take up farther points in the pro- 
ceedings next week. 



Co operative Labor. 

i 

George Jacob Holyoake, the apostle of co- 
operative enterprises among the laboring classes 
in England, lias just been visiting the Atlantic 
States for recreation (the first ever taken in his 
life, he says), after forty years incessant labor. 
A complimentary breakfast was given him at 
the St. James hotel, New York city, as he was 
about to take ship for return to England, pre- 
sided over by Dr. H. W. Be lows, and address- 
ed by Parke Godwin, Whitelaw Reid, Prof. 
Fe'ix Adlcr, Fre i. LawO'mstead, Peter Cooper, 
and others, a id honored with a letter from 
T resident Hayes, expressing his sympathy and 
excusing his absence. Mr. Holyoake, in the 
course of his remarks, called 00 operation "the 
art of self-help by association." He repudiated 
the charge of communistic designs or spirit 
against it in the following language: "I remem- 
ber when 1 was a young man, Daniel O'Connell 
made a speech to us in the West of London, in 
which he recounted how that in Dublin there 
were within six years twenty thousand less 
births than formerly. Then lie exclaimed, 'I 
charge the British govern nent with the murder 
of those twenty thousand infants who never 
were born. ' [ I.aughter ] I mention this in order 
to point out to you that we have never charged 
any government with anything except that they 
would graciously leave labor alone, and not 
only not hamper it with restrictions, but make 
it their duty to discover whether it has equal 
protection with capital, and equal opportunities 
for earning money. These arc all the conces- 
sions we ever asked from any government: for 
the rest, we trust to ourselves. A very differ- 
ent thing from what men suppose communism 
to be. My early friend, Ebcnezer E liott, the 
famous anti-corn-law rhymer, used to recite to 
me his amusing definition of communism, sim- 
p'y, I suspect, for my own mortification. It 
was as follows: 

What is a communist ? On* w'u ) hath yearnings 
For equal division of unequal earnings. 
Idler, or bungler, or both, he is willing 
To f jrk out his penny, aud take up your shilling. 

[Loo liter.] Now that was 'the conception 
which prevailed among newspapers and eminent 
statesmen; but co-operators arc neither 'idlers 
nor bunglers,' nor do they want any man's shil- 
ling. They have discovered how to earn shil- 
lings for themselves.'' 

Who can say but some wise plan of co-opera- 
tion will not go far to solve the most perilous 
of all problems to our civilization — the relation 
of capital to labor '! Mr. Holyo ike says that in 
the late cotton famine in Manchester and other 
manufacturing cities of England the co-opera- 
tive store of Rochdale was able to subscribe 
two hundred and fifty dollars a week for the 
suffering. The massed savings and earnings of 
laborers could do this. Mr. Holyoake closed 
what he had to say on his specialty with the 
following words: "Now if co-operation is to 
exist here, you must not begin at the top but at 
the bottom; and for this you need two things — 
a new congress law, for with your present one, 
co-operation, as it exists in England, is not pos- 
sible; and you need a society which guarantee's 
the fidelity of servants, which I do not hear of 
anywhere in America." — Work - and Play. 



Election of Officers.* 

Healdshuri; Granise, No. 18. — Election, 
Dec. 13th: A. B. Nalley, M. ; W. T. Allen, O. ; 
0. Alexander, L ; J. McClish, S.; A. L. War- 
ner, C. ; A. Bouton, A. S. ; L. Alexander, T. ; 
J. M. Alexander, Sec'y; Ceo. Jacobs, (i. K. ; 
Mrs. A. L. Warner, Ceres; Mrs. W. T. Allen, 
Pomona; Mrs. J. McClish, Flora; Mrs. C. Alex- 
ander, L. A. S. Installation, first regular 
meeting in January. 

Temescal Granub, Oakland. — Dec. 27th : 
John S. Collins, M. ; C. Bagge, O.; Mrs. J. V. 
Webster, L. ; A. T. Dewey, S. ; J. V. Webster, 
A.'S. ; Mrs. Caroline King, II; Mrs. M. E. 
Crouch, Sec'y.; L. Frink, T. ; P. H. McOrew, 
G. K. ; Mrs. Emily Bagge, C. ; Mrs. Sarah H. 
Dewey, P.; Miss Elnora Bagge. F. ; Mrs. Nellie 
O. Babcock, L. A. S. ; Sister Brook3 and P. H. 
McGrew, Trustees. Next meeting second 
Saturday eve in January. Installation aud 
harvest feast fifth Saturday iu January, at 11 
A. M. Eden Grange, of Hayward, aud Patrons 
generally are cordially invited. 

•Secretaries of Subordinate Granges are invited to send, 
for publication, lists of officers as soon aa they are 
elected ; also dates of installation. 



The Same 0u> Egyptian. — We are some- 
what surprised that some of our interior ex- 
changes arc busy printing accounts from East- 
ern papers of " a sort of a rice or corn, native 
to Africa, and is found to grow to perfection on 
the arid plains of this continent." The detailed 
description they give of this "new" grain 
shows that it is simply dhoura, or Egyptian 
corn, which is now being grown in nearly all 
parts of this State, and which our interior ex- 
changes have had dozens of items about during 
the year. It is a good thing to look out for new 
grams, but one should be careful not to get ex- 
cited about an old thing under a new name, and 
thus lead people to expensive efforts to secure 
seed of something which they may find in their 
own neighborhood. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

The Beet Sugar Factory.— Oakland Times: 
For the last month a Beet Sugar factory has 
been in operation most successfully near Ala- 
meda. Some eight years since some gentlemen 
attempted the manufacture of sugar in this 
same locality, but were lured by other indace- 
mcnts to go to Santa Cruz, and the enterprise 
languished. This year a company waa formed 
with a capital stock of $100,000 and the follow- 
ing named gentlemen composed the company: 
E. H. Dyer, A. E. Davis, H. M. Ames, Sr., 
W. F. Griffin and Robert Graves. The factory 
has been running out 1,000 pounds of granu- 
lated sugar per day for one month, and in all 
1G0 car-loads of sugar have been shipped to San 
Francisco, where it readily finds sale, being 
equal in every respect to sugar made from cane. 
It is made from the little white Silesian beets, 
the seeds of which come from Germany, and 
are grown in great quantities all over this 
State. Oue hundred and sixty pounds of beets 
make four pounds of sugar, and as the product 
is from fifteen to twenty tons to the acre, at $4 
per ton, the price paid, it will be seen that it is 
a promising industry. The low lands about 
Alvarado and Alameda are peculiarly adapted 
to raising the sugar beet. 

Frost Effects. — Editors Press : If of any 
interest 1 offer a few remarks on the weather at 
this place and its effects on the popular exotic 
trees. The thermometer, at daybreak of the 
23d inst., marked, on Fahr. thermometer, 21°; 
Dec 24th, 28= (high wind), and Dec 25th, 20°— 
12° below the freezing point. Young orange 
and lemon trees were much injured. Guavaa 
are unharmed, and are covered with fine ripo 
fruit. Blue gum trees, in nursery, uninjured. 
E. roslratas had extreme tops nipped; rose 
barks, eame, but they have received no perma- 
nent damage. On the night of Dec. 24th inst., 
although the frost was less severe, the heavy 
frosty wind affected the orange and lemon trees 
more than when the frost was more intense. 
From observations here, young eacalyptns trees 
endure more intensity of frost without injury 
than the citrus family of trees, and establishes 
the fact that, at least in the bay counties of 
California, even in a young state, they can 
stand the ordeal of our coldest weather un- 
scathed.— Isaac Collins, Castro Valley, near 
Hayward. 

COLUSA. 

Anti-Coyote Club. — R. G. Burrows, in Sun: 
On the 13th of this month the people of this 
vicinity met at Newville and organized a club 
for the destruction of coyotes. They formed a 
district commencing where Grindstone creek 
leaves the mountains; thence running east with 
said creek to Stony creek; thence with said 
cr^ek to the Stony Creek buttes; thence north 
to Thomes creek; thence up said creek to the 
mountain; thence along said mountain south to 
the place of commencement. All those present 
agreed to an assessment of 50 cents per 100 
head for sheep, and five cents per head for hogs. 
There was about ?100 paid in. Sullivan Osborn 
was appointed Treasurer and also Assessor, to 
assess those in the district who were not present 
at the meeting. We think we will have $300 
to commence with. The bounty was put at $5 
par scalp. 

Hints for Practice. — Cor. Colusa San, Dec. 
27: To put and keep summer-fallow in good 
condition, and kill out oats and other foul stuff: 
Plow shallow after vegetation is all up, and 
while there is plenty of moisture; harrow im- 
mediately, or before the ground dries. After 
the vegetation thus plowed under is thoroughly 
dead, replow; this time deep. Harrow after 
every rain. To increase the chances for a good 
winter sown crop: Plow shallow, and as early 
as possible after the ground is in order; sow im- 
mediately, and harrow thoroughly. To lessen 
chances of blowiflg out: Commence cutting 
while the grain is yet soft; start, if possible, 
several small stacks, put a light barrel in cen- 
ter of each stack. Put a few loads on each 
stack alternately, pull barrel up as stack is 
raised. 

How to Use Straw. — "Strawburner" holds 
out the idea that straw is almost worthless for 
feed, which is about true of most that is put up. 
Farmers generally wait until about the time the 
rains commence, and until the stock have eaten 
out, run over and injured the best, and then 
put up the most inferior article. I have seen 
them, even when there was plenty of short 
sweet straw in the field, put up that which was 
long, coarse and hard, because it happened to be 
put up faster. Generally the best is that which 
is short and soft, and cut before becoming very 
ripe, the chaff is better still ; stock that are fat 
in the fall will keep in good flesh all winter on 
good straw and chaff, and their hair will not be 
turned the wrong way in the spring, either. 
Good straw is better feed than poor hay, yet 
some farmers will burn it up or let it rot in the 
field, and when plow time comes, stop their 
team and run over the country to buy hay, 
which is often inferior to the straw they burned 
in the fall. The way to utilize straw as a fer- 
tilizer is to stack or pile it in a yard for the pur- 
pose, where stock can run to it. In a year or 
two there will be immense piles of half rotten 
straw and manure that makes an excellent top- 
dressing the first year, and the second year it 
may be plowed under with great advantage to 
almost any kind of crop. Soil treated in this 



Jartuary 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC ftOHAL FfcESS. 



way will become lighter and less liable to bake, 
and hold moisture longer. When there is a 
heavy coat of stubble, farmers would reap an ad- 
vantage by mowing, say within five or six inches 
of the ground, raking and burning or hauling off 
for future use; what is left may be plowed under 
without injury to immediate crops, and with 
benefit to future ones. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Experience with Coddling Moth.— Gazette, 
Dec 27: A correspondent and subscriber in the 
eastern section of the county says: "A year 
ago last summer our pears were plentiful and 
beautiful to look upon, but it was impossible to 
find one that was not 'worm eaten' as we call 
it, and so rendered unfit to eat without great 
caution. Of our apples, only one here and there 
was affected. Along in last January I read 
something in the Rural Press about the cod- 
dling moth, and forthwith started on an inspec- 
tion of the pear trees. I began explorations 
with my jack-knife, and was soon rewarded by 
finding numbers of the moth worm in the 
chrysalis state. I went over the pear trees thor- 
oughly with my knife several times, but paid 
little attention to the apple tree portion of the 
orchard, as the apples had been so little injured 
by the worm. As a result, our pears last season 
were free and fine, and it was difficult to find 
one that was worm eaten, while the apples were 
badly used up. If I had cleaned the trees of 
the larvce, as I did the pears, I believe they 
would have been as unmarked by the worms." 

Hop Kiln Raisins. — Mr. Frederick Langen- 
kamp has left at our office a box of splendid 
raisins of the Muscat Alexandria grape, as we 
presume. The raisins are a sample of the curing 
process to which Mr. Langenkamp has applied 
the facilities of his hop kiln, and, so far as we 
can judge by the flavor, condition and appear- 
ance of the product, it will compare favorably 
with the best Malaga raisins. 

LOS ANGELES. 

The Season. — Herald, Dec. 27: Rarely in 
the history of Los Angeles county has a season 
promised to be more auspicious than the present. 
The rains have in every instance come just in 
the nick of time. Judging by a standard which 
holds good nine times out of ten, we are justi- 
fied in looking for a very wet season, as the vol- 
ume of rain which falls after New Year's is from 
two to threefold greater than that which falls 
before. Thus far we have had about five inches, 
and they have fallen precisely as our farmers 
would have desired. A good season now is of 
unusual significance for the reasons that the 
area of our vineyards is being greatly extended 
by new plantations and the amount of wheat 
sown is simply without precedent. We learn 
that Don Mateo Keller is about to set out 450,- 
000 vines on the Verdugo ranch. Other large 
property owners are imitating his example. All 
the probabilities indicate that we are entering 
upon a golden year for Los Angeles, to the gla- 
mour of which colossal plans of railway exten- 
sion will greatly contribute. 

San Fernando. — Never in the history of our 
valley has such activity been manifested in car- 
rying forward farming operations. More teams 
and plows and more people anxious to raise 
wheat are to-day here than ever before. Every 
foot of land that has ever been stirred by a plow 
will be seeded prior to January 1st, 1880, and 
after that period the large force of teams will 
begin on virgin soil. It is entirely too early 
for an estimate of acreage, but fully one-third 
more than ever before in the history of our val- 
ley will be seeded. So far the signs are very 
propitious, and even the chronic croakers pre- 
dict a fruitful year. 

Cayenne. — Santa Ana Herald, Dec. 27: Mr. 
R. Kendall, a horticulturist living about two 
miles northeast of town, has shown us some fine 
samples of cayenne pepper raised on his place. He 
brought the seed from the tropic country. He 
thinks that many places in the southern counties 
are suitable for its culture, where no frosts or 
strong winds would strike it. It is a beautiful 
evergreen tree, or shrub, and is a perpetual 
bearer — having blossoms and ripening berries at 
the same time. Dr. M. S. Jones, residing on 
corner of First and Bush streets, has a fine spec- 
imen of the cayenne growing in his garden. 
Mr. Kendall will furnish applicants seed free of 
charge. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Riverside Fruit Vigilance Committee. 
Press, Dec. 27th: At the last meeting of the 
Fruit Growers' Association the following reso- 
lution was adopted: "Resolved, That the 
stockholders of the Fruit Growers' Association 
constitute themselves a vigilance committee for 
the general protection of all fruit in the orch- 
ard. Any stockholder having satisfactory evi- 
dence of any depredations, and entering a com- 
plaint with the Trustees, the offender shall be 
prosecuted by, and at the expense of, the Asso- 
ciation. " 

SAN DIEGO. 

The Storm. — Union, Dec. 25: It poured 
down'unremittingly all the afternoon and even- 
ing until after 8 o'clock, the streets being fairly 
flooded for a few hours. Some idea of the 
character of this rain may be had from the 
weather report furnished by the Signal office, 
showing a total of 1.79 inches between noon 
and 8 o clock. It was, we believe, the heaviest 
rainfall, for the period of time embraced, that 
has been experienced here in the last five years. 
It has been a splendid rain throughout the 
county, thoroughly soaking the ground, and 
making the farmers glad everywhere. 

Raisins. — The first person who cured raisins 
here was Mr. W. C. Kimball of the National 



Ranch. The first to cure them in any large 
quantity for the market, was Mr. R. G. Clark, 
of El Cajon. Mr. Swan, of Paradise Valley, 
and some others, have experimented in drying 
raisins to a greater or less extent. Among 
those deserving particular notice for efforts in 
this direction, is Mr. J. C. Frisbie, of the Sweet- 
water. Mr. Frisbie has put up, during the past 
season, raisins that cannot be excelled by the 
choicest imported brands. 
SANTA BARBARA 

Persimmons.— Press: Mr. Joe Sexton, of the 
Goleta, has a two-year-old tree which bore this 
season several fine persimmons, one of which 
showed a belt measurement of 10J inches. 

Boneless Hams. — Mr. L. G. Oliver, living on 
the mesa, is putting up hams, bacon and lard 
which will compare favorably with any of those 
Eastern products so much in demand here. A 
specimen of the lard received at the office of 
the Press is fully equal to the Fairbanks lard, 
which sells here for 20 cents a pound. It is 
clean, pure and hard, is neatly packed in tin 
pails, and can be sold in the package at 10 
cents per pound, or just one-half the price paid 
for Eastern lard not one whit better. The ba- 
con is as good as that from the East, while the 
hams are better, inasmuch as the bone is re- 
moved, saving to the consumer 1\ pounds of 
waste material in a 20-pound ham. These 
boneless California hams are in great demand 
in the East, commanding a higher price there 
than the Dupee, Whittaker or any of the fa- 
vorite brands of Eastern hams, and it seems 
absurd that our people should pay a premium 
to outside parties for an inferior article instead 
of patronizing a home industry, when they can 
save money and keep it at home by so doing. 
The great trouble in curing hams in California 
has been that the mildness of the climate made 
it impossible to drive the animal heat from the 
bone before the meat began to spoil, and until 
the heat had entirely disappeared the pickle 
would not permeate the meat. The removal of 
the bone obviates this difficulty, and hams 
cured in this way will keep as well as those 
cured in colder climates. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Fine Beef. — Editors Press: Mr. R. B. 
Donovan, of the Pioneer market of Santa Clara, 
has on exhibition at his salesroom, one-half of 
one of the finest beeves I have ever seen. It 
would certainly attract attention in any market 
in the world, not only on account of its enor- 
mous size, but also on account of its fine condi- 
tion and the skill and taste displayed in its 
dressing and decoration. It is the carcass of a 
7-year old roan Durham from Mr. Donovan's 
own herd. Its gross weight was 2,800 pounds ; 
its dressed weight, 2,060 pounds. Who can 
beat that?— G. W. M. 
SONOMA. 

Doos and Sheep. — Bennet Valley Cor. Santa 
Rosa Democrat: The principal topic in the val- 
ley at present is sheep- killing dogs. The dogs 
have been killing and worry i ng sheep more or less 
all summer until, I suppose, forbearance ceased 
to be a virtue amongst sheep owners, and rumor 
says some 16 dogs have swung at the end of 
ropes, or passed in the way of bullets or shot. 
The majority of all the trouble from dogs is 
brought about by hunters strolling over the 
country with dogs. By this means dogs find 
dead sheep, perhaps a dropped lamb, and that 
leads them to go back at nights and destroy the 
living. What is here to hunt, or what right 
has any one to hunt and roam over the country 
with their guns and dogs ? The worst feature 
about these hunters is, they are mostly boys or 
young men that ought to be at school or some 
useful occupation at home on the farm. This 
right was probably acquired in the early his- 
tory of the country when game was plenty and 
domestic animals scarce, but this state of things 
has passed away, and whether law or morals 
will sustain the custom in the present state of 
society is a question that invites consideration. 
It is supposed that law protects all men in the 
right of property. The question then is, what 
is property? We make a single illustration: 
An individual comes to California in 1850, per- 
haps yet in his teens, with no capital but strong 
arms and a willing heart; by hard labor and 
honest toil, sustained by economy, he gathers 
capital enough to purchase land and commence 
on his own account. The deed that gives him 
his title gives him the land and all its invested 
rights to hold and to produce it matters not 
what, so long as he does not encroach on the 
rights of others. Where, then, is the right of law- 
less hunters and idlers to roam over his premises 
with their guns and dogs ? There is a remedy, 
easily adopted, by which hunters and owners of 
sheep can be relieved of all the trouble. That 
is for hunters to hunt on their own land and 
owners of sheep to shoot down every dog that is 
caught on his premises without inquiring who 
he belongs to or why he is there. 

SUTTER. 

Levee Meeting. — Banner, Dec. 26: A very 
important meeting of the citizens of Sutter 
county, interested in leveeing and drainage, was 
held in the Supervisors room at the Court- 
house, on Monday afternoon last. The meet- 
ing was called more especially for the purpose 
of an interchange of views upon the present sit- 
uation, and to compare notes upon the advisa- 
bility of the preparation of a bill for passage at 
this session of the Legislature, which will be 
general in its application and suitable to all 
parties. This was the request of Hon. A. L. 
Chandler, our representative, who desired the 
people here to decide upon just the kind of act, 
if any, they wanted passed, and forward it to 
him after it had received the approval of the 



people of the district. The meeting was largely 
attended, and was organized by calling B. F. 
Walton to the chair, and electing S. R. Chand- 
ler, Secretary. Remarks were made by Messrs. 
Brophy, Davis, Chandler, Wilbur, Ohleyer, 
Thomas and others. A resolution was offered 
by Dr. Chandler that a committee of rive be 
appointed by the chair, whose duty it shall be 
to thoroughly consider the whole matter of 
levees, and prepare a bill to be presented to an 
adjourned meeting of citizens, two weeks from 
to-day. The resolution was seconded, and 
after some discussion upon the time allowed 
the committee in which to report, was adopted. 
The chairman appointed on the committee 
Messrs. S. R. Chandler, A. H. Wilbur, T. B. 
Hull, Thos. Brophy and P. E. Dresscher. On 
motion, Messrs. J. N. Decker and Eli Davis 
were added to the committee. The meeting 
then adjourned to meet Monday, January 5th. 



Decision on Riparian Rights. 

The Call gives an outline of a decision which 
may be of local importance to all parts of the 
State. It seems that suit was commenced a 
long time ago by Leland Stanford, in the Nine- 
teenth District Court, to enjoin J. J. Felt and 
William Stanton from diverting the waters of 
Franco's creek, San Mateo county, aud for 
$4,000 damages. Subsequently the action was 
transferred to the Twelfth District Court, and 
tried. All of the parties in the suit own land 
on the bank of the stream. The defendants are 
higher up the stream than Stanford, and it was 
shown by the testimony that they had con- 
structed a dam and conducted the water about 
three-quarters of a mile into a ten-acre reser- 
voir. In this reservoir are natural springs, and 
it is also supplied from the hills. At no time is 
the stream very deep, and in summer there is 
scarcely enough water for domestic use and the 
support of animal life. Stanford keeps a num- 
ber of horses on his farm, and he complained 
that the diverting of the waters of the stream 
robbed his stock. The defendant said that he 
turned the waters from the creek to purify his 
reservoir by running a stream through it, but 
the evidence in the case proved that there was 
no outlet for it. 

In passing upon the case, Judge Daingerfield 
said: The stream is too small to furnish water 
for irrigation, except for a small patch or gar- 
den spot, and without securing the same in 
small reservoirs, would not be sufficient for any 
such use. The general rule for such cases is, 
that the upper proprietor of land has the right 
to its use, and to divert it from the bed of the 
stream, if he return it without ?na/p)-<7/7diminu- 
tion; but this right of diversion would not ap- 
ply in the case of a small stream that would be 
absolutely absorbed by the diversion, or even 
greatly diminished. If the stream could be di- 
verted and by means of pipes or ditches con- 
veyed to a reservoir, and from the reservoir 
again conducted to the stream, without further 
diminution than would be caused by domestic 
use, I doubt not that a riparian owner could 
thus use it as against an owner lower down the 
stream, but he could not use it for any but do- 
mestic purposes, such as the support of animal 
life in its fullest vigor. He could not use it in 
any way so as to deprive his neighbor of water 
for the support and comfort of animal life. 

Public policy dictates that an element so 
necessary and useful as water should be fully 
utilized, but it must always be used with regard 
first to the support of animal life and domestic 
purposes, and the surplus alone can be diverted 
to any other use. From the views above ex- 
pressed, and the finding of facts filed herein, it 
follows that the defendants must be enjoined 
from ' diverting, in any way, the waters of 
Franco's creek from the bed of the stream. 



Olives by the Athenian Method.— A dis- 
tinguished reader of the Press, Agapius Hon- 
charenko, brought us recently a few olives 
grown on his ranch "Ukraina," in Eden town- 
ship, Alameda county, and preserved by him 
according to the method employed in Athens, 
where he once resided. These olives are done 
by what might be called a dry pickle. When 
the fruit is quite ripe it is gathered and put to 
soak in a strong brine, remaining therein about 
a month. It is then lifted from the brine and 
put in a gunny sack and the liquor is allowed to 
drain off completely. This process of soaking 
and draining is trusted to remove the bitter- 
ness and no alkali is used in the process. When 
the olives are thus freed from the liquor they 
are sprinkled with fine, dry salt and kept in a 
dry place. In appearance they somewhat re- 
semble prunes. To prepare them for eating 
they are soaked for a couple of hours in fresh 
water. Olives pickled in this way are said to 
be in high esteem among some of the foreign 
elements in our population, although we must 
acknowledge that the taste was a little too acrid 
to suit our uneducated palate. 

California Citron. — We learn from the 
Anaheim Gazette that Mr. F. P. Hinde is mak- 
ing due progress in the production of the citron 
of commerce. The last made approached much 
nearer the color and appearance of the imported 
article than the first lot made by Mr. Hinde, 
and when age has hardened it somewhat, the 
Gazette thinks it will probably be equal to that 
usually kept in the stores. Mr. Hinde has also 
preserved the rind of the common China lemon, 
which is used in the same way, and is equally 
as valuable as the citron rind, 



News in Brief. 

Indignation fneetings continue to be held in 
Maine. 

Salaries of lower grade teachers in Stockton 
have been reduced 10%. 

A movement is on foot in New York to sup- 
press female pedestrianism. 

The emigration fever has broken out again 
among the Southern negroes. 

The reported success of the electric light has 
caused another tumble in gas stocks. 

Wm. McKee, Sr., proprietor of the Globe- 
Democrat, died at St Louis recently. 

Neill, the Illinois cattle king, whose liabili- 
ties aggregate $400,000, is still missing. 

The office of the Walla Walla (W. T. ) States- 
man was partially destroyed by fire recently. 

The Grangers' Bank of California has reduced 
its capital stock from $2,500,000 to $1,000,000. 

Mrs. Cynthia Hodgdon, for malpractice, 
has been sentenced to] State prison for ten years. 

Spencer, the missing Chicago Savings Bank 
President, is at present at Wurtemberg, Ger- 
many. 

Upper Pacific ports have been blockaded by 
ice during the cold snap, and steamers were 
frozen in. 

Dan Rice, the circus clown, has become con- 
verted, and will at once enter the field as an 
evangelist. 

Oregon is moving in the matter of inducing 
colored people to imigrate from the South to 
that State. 

James H. Turner, editor of the East Oregon- 
tan, stabbed and killed a man at Pendleton, Or. , 
on the 22d ult. 

A six days' pedestrian match is in progress 
at the Mechanics' pavilion in this city. There 
are 24 contestants. 

The export of cotton at New Orleans Satur- 
day aggregated 46,300 bales — the largest on 
record in one day. 

Sam Woodward and Seminole Joe, two mur- 
derers, were lynched, Sunday, at Golden, Col- 
orado, by vigilants. 

Mayor Kalloch, of San Francisco, has ve- 
toed the ordinance granting a franchise to the 
Presidio Railroad Co. 

Correspondence has been discovered prov- 
ing an alliance between the German Socialists 
and Russian Nihilists. 

The British troops in Afghanistan have re- 
cently experienced a change of fortune, and are 
victorious over the Afghans. 

Hon. R. E. Little, a prominent Kentucky 
politician, was shot and killed at Louisville re- 
cently by his brother-in-law. 

The third annual session of the State Teachers' 
Association, convened in this city on the 29th 
ult., and continued three days. 

Hart, the colored man, was the winner in 
the late six days' pedestrian contest in New 
York, having made 540 miles. 

It is said that on the 1st of January J. C. 
Flood contemplates retiring from all active 
operations in the stock market. 

The severest weather reported for years has 
prevailed in Minnesota, the thermometer, 
Christmas, marking 40° below zero. 

It is rumored that Grant will succeed Scott 
as President of the Pennsylvania railroad, the 
latter's physical condition being hopeless. 

Lawrence L. Homer, the discoverer of the 
Homer Mining district, near Bodie, Mono 
county, recently suicided in San Francisco. 

At Oxford, Cumberland county, Nova Scotia, 
at daylight Sunday, the mercury fell to 35° below 
zero, lower than ever known before in that re- 
gion. 

Much anxiety is manifested among the Mor- 
mons over the rumor that Congress is about to 
take immediate steps toward the extinction of 
polygamy. 

The schooner Mary D. Pomcroy, from Cres- 
cent City for San Francisco, capsized off Point 
Reyes, and all on board, including 12 passengers, 
were probably lost. 

Boston had a million-dollar fire Sunday night. 
The well-known publishing house of Houghton 
& Osgood are among the heaviest losers, their 
loss being about $150,000. 

The Supreme Court has decided that indict- 
ments found by the last Grand Jury against 
Charles De Young and others are valid, and 
the indicted parties must stand trial. 

The weather is milder in England and on the 
continent. At Paris it is thawing, after 30 days 
of frost, during which the thermometer touched 
8° below zero. It was the coldest weather on 
record there. 

An appalling railway disaster occurred last 
Sunday in Scotland. The bridge over the Frith 
of Tay was wrecked by a gale while a passenger 
train was crossing, plunging the cars into the 
sea, and drowning over 90 persons. 

An organization has been formed by the 
victims of Duncan (the ex-banker,) to prose- 
cute him, and if possible, prevent him escaping 
State prison. Chief Justice Wallace has re- 
fused to reduce his bail below $113,000. 

A Berlin correspondent of the Morning Post 
says he is authorized to contradict the rumors 
that a revival of an alliance between the three 
Emperors is contemplated. The correspondent 
also denies that any alterations are at present 
intended in protective tariff. 



A Grateful Zephyr. — Just as we are pre- 
paring for the press, we receive from the author, 
W. C. Bartlett, a handsome volume entitled "A 
Breeze from the Woods." Our readers will 
catch its fragrance hereafter. 



6 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 3, 1880. 




Silver Hour. 

[Written for Rural Prrss by Horn Hatwood.J 

Alone, and far from home, I muse 

At nightfall's silver hour, 
A • ' ill its soothing haze L lose 

The weary clouds that lower. 

The white ray lamp is burning bright, 

fn Heaven's solemn dome, 
And wreathes the earth in tempered light 

From God's great radiant throne. 

The twilight gleaming gems embossed 

On smooth ethereal blue, 
Display their pointed rays re-crossed, | 

And glory flames anew. 

The wedding hour of day and night 

Is past — and diamond stare 
Have sung the holy marriage rite, 

In thought's still music bars. 

The glorious lamp — the white-browed queen — 

Rides up the zenith's arch; 
An angel trims the sparkling sheen, 

And guides the sapphire march. 

The rose has lost Aurora's blush, 

And speaks a sweeter thought — 
In night's still, starry, sacred husli] 

Her heart with tears is fraught. 

The airy, aspen shadows lay 

Mosa : c floors of light; 
Or chase with gentle glancing play 

The zephyr's luring flight. 

Broad shining bands of twinkling rays 
Steal through the branches here; 

The quivering lines like magic blaze- 
Afar they dance— then near. 

Soft streaming pencils paint the bowers; 

The sun's carnelian dyes 
Have faded from the weeping flowers, 

Since day has shut her eyes. 

The whip-o-will resume their chant. 

And wake the dreaming night — 
Sweet melancholy sounds that haunt 

The woods with sad delight. 

Oh, glorious queen, thy holy reign 

Can calm ihe troubled heart, 
When hope's sweet m *m is on the wane, 

This hour bids doubt depart. 

A peaceful trust buoys up my soul— 

My Father is in Heaven; 
He waiches while time's cycles roll — 

The darkening veil is riven. 



Two Kinds of Self-Sacrifice- 

"What ! supper not ready yet I" said Mr. 
Smith, as he eutered the dining-room about half 
an hour earlier than usual. 

Such a remark as that Mrs. Smith did not 
notice, because she would not; but by the ex- 
pression that passed over her face we saw that 
it hurt. But womanlike, no other sign of pain 
was shown. She awoke that morning with a 
headache, and, to use her own expression, had 
felt so miserable all the day that she could 
hardly drag oue foot after the other, but had 
done her usual week's washing, and the usual 
Monday's picking up of papers and books that 
were scattered all over the house the day be- 
fore. 

"Seems to me I never find njy meals ready," 
said the man, not noticing the tired look on the 
face of his wife. "All you have to do is just to 
Bee to things here in the house, while I have 
been tramping all over town in this hot sun. 
It seems as though I should starve to death; I 
wish you would hurry up supper. Everything 
has gone wrong to-day. Newton has gone back 
on his word, and I warrant I shall lose §1,000 
by him." 

After a short pause he continued: "Newt,on 
will not sell that land by the home farm, and I 
shall have to sell some of the cows." 

For about a quarter of an hour Mr. Smith 
poured this kind of "wine and oil" on the weary 
heart of his wife, until his burden was some- 
what removeil After a few minutes' silence, 
he said, in a quick, harsh tone: "Do take that 
baby, he is enough to kill a nation with that 
everlasting cry; 1 should think he'd get sick of 
it." 6 

"His teeth trouble him. Can't you take him 
a few minutes?" And with a sigh the mother 
placed the youngest of seven children in her 
husband's arms, who took the baby in a far dif- 
ferent manner from what he did the first, or 
second, of their children. 

"Come, now, hush your crying," said the 
thoughtless father. "What is the use of whin- 
ing! It does no earthly good." The one-year- 
old little man ceased his pitiful crying, and the 
one forty years old commenced his cheerful 
strain. 

'That stock I bought at Vernon I have been 
disappointed in, and shall lose on it. Never 
should have bought it if yon had not persuaded 
me to do it. That is all a man ever makes by 
listening to a woman." 

He was silent a minute, and his boy, about 
16, raised his head and gave his father anything 
but a look of reverence, pushed his book back 
from him, and stepped toward his mother, tak- 
ing a pitcher from her hand, saying, "I can go 
down after the cream, mother." 

We blessed the boy for those gentle words, al- 
though we saw the mother wipe a tear from her 



eyes with the corner of her apron. 

Mr. Smith was only acting perfectly natural 
he did not notice the "school-marm, (she was 
one of the family), but the "school-marm" no 
ticed him, and never will forget the feeling of 
contempt she had for the selfish creature. She 
distinctly remembers the first time she ever 
heard a man blame a woman. Men in ber eyes 
were then gods; but, as on that occasion, they 
have fallen, one by one, from their high place in 
her estimation, until now she has only one or 
two enthroned. The others are mortals, and 
quite faulty ones, when hungry or tired, and 
she often wishes to recommend to tbem the same 
remedy for crossness which they apply to their 
hungry children; but her amiability always pre 
vents her from speaking her thoughts. 

When quite young she visited with her pa 
rents an intimate friend of the family, who had 
met with a great loss of property. The gentle 
man after giving an account of the transaction 
said: "if it had not been for my wife I shouh 
not have met with the loss: she urged me to 
invest my money there." 

"Why, Edward, I thought you talked about 
it before you were married," said her father 

"Well, so I did; but I did not put my money 
into the concern until the next year; my wife 
thought it would be just the right thing. ' 

"I used to think that everything which you 
wished to do must be just the right thing," said 
his wife, sharply. 

When we were going home father said to 
mother: "(iod pity the wife of a man who lays 
the blame on her shoulders instead of shielding 
her; it is so contemptible for the strong to 
oppress the weak. 

We sometimes wonder if we have been un 
fortunate in our acquaintances; but it really 
seems to us that the spirit of self-sacrifice is 
oftenest shown by the "weaker vessel," as S», 
Paul has been pleased to style us. The men 
who take more than half the burdens of life 
upon them, we find, like angels' visits, "few and 
far between." 

Women, in their happy days, are ready to 
carry all the load; but sometimes the blue days 
come, when every grain of trouble will grow 
quickly to a tree large enough for the fowls of 
the air to build their nests in its branches — when 
a harsh look, even, makes them feel as though 
no one in all the world cared for them, and they 
sigh for what might have been so different — 
when even God's face seems hidden from them 
and the journey of life is a toilsome way, tan- 
gled, rough, and through a wilderness; the cry 
of the baby jars every nerve of the body; a dis 
obedient act from a child makes the mother feel 
totally unqualified to govern her family of rest- 
less feet; the breaking of oue dish by a servant 
causes a dread of the poor-house; in fact, she is 
so morbidly sensitive that without one addi- 
tional trouble, life has a very gloomy look; and 
if, on such a day, one extra burden is placed on 
her shoulders she feels as if the only thing she 
could do was to lie down and die. 

But to die is not always convenient, and the 
wife takes up her burden of life again, with the 
thought, "If my husband only knew what a 
sword-thrust an unkind word gives a woman, 
he never again would speak harshly to me; if he 
only knew how warm it makes my heart, how 
trifling the cares of life seem when by word or 
look he says that I am doing the best I can — 
that I am not the cause of all the misfortunes 
that come — that he loves and trusts me con- 
stantly — the kind words and the acts of self- 
sacrifice would come exceedingly often from 
him, ami our home would be a 'heaven and a para- 
dise below.' " 

We sometimes wonder if the women are occa- 
sionally to blame for the lack of sacrifice mani- 
fested by their husbands. In our happiness to 
leny self for those we love, we commence our 
narried life by laying self on the altar of our 
love. 

We run for the slippers, the glass of water, 
the book or paper; we offer the best chair, the 
easiest place by the fire; we adjust the lamp- 
shade for his eyes; we deny ourselves the pleas- 
ure of cutting the leaves of the last magazines 
because he likes the first reading of them; we 
roast because he likes warm rooms in the winter, 
and we freeze because he wants the windows 
open the remainder of the year; he likes a fast 
horse, and we silently cling to the carriage, hold 
our breath, expect to have our brains dashed 
out, and smile as he asks, "Isn't this jolly?" 

After a few years he forgets to thank us, and 
the time comes with most men when they take 
these things as their right. If we ask for horses 
that we can enjoy riding after, he opens his 
eyes and informs us that he "hates a slow 
coach." If the wind gives us the neuralgia, 
and we ask to have the window closed, he is 
surprised that we can't endure a breath of 
air." If we dare to sit in the most comfortable 
chair when he is in the room we cannot enjoy it 
because it is his chair, 

Even though we like to sacrifice our own 
wishes for the comfort of those we love, when 
we realize what it will help them to become, it 
is our duty to sometimes deny our "likes," 
that our husbands may have the opportunity of 
knowing by experience this more blessed way 
of self-sacrifice. If we've found that self- 
lenial is the greatest of all virtues it is our 
duty to give our husbands a chance to practice 
this saintly trait once in a great while. If it 
is more blessed to give a pleasure than to re- 
ceive one, would it not be for the highest good 
of the husband if once in a year or two we 
should take the lesser blessing? 

Isn't it, we ask with fear and trembling, our 
duty to teach our husbands the art of self-sac- 
rifice l—Mrs. C. F. Wildtr. 



Something About Stairs. 

As pins have saved a great many people's 
lives by not swallowing tbem, so stairs have 
saved a great many women's tempers and health 
by not having them to climb. Three days in a 
week at least the mother of a family who does 
her own work must be on her feet from morn- 
ing till night — washing day, ironing day, bak- 
ing day — and in this count, sweeping day and 
the day for general housework are not enume- 
rated. If her working rooms are all on one 
floor, her tasks are hard enough, but suppose 
her kitchen is in a basement, and her dining- 
room and sitting-room on the second floor, and 
wood-house a step or two down, and her water 
likewise, the addition to the labor required is 
simply enormous. A house might as well be 
built on a steep side-hill, so far as doing the 
work is concerned, as to be built with steps 
from one room to the other. The woman who 
does her own work ought to have, on abso- 
lutely one level, the kitchen, the pantry, the 
dining-room, the nursery, and be able to get 
wood and water without taking one step up or 
down. 

Some years ago we took a journey, and dur- 
ing our absence we secured a woman with three 
or four children to occupy our house and take 
care of it, and the children we left behind. She 
was a woman who never opened her mouth but 
to complain of something or other, and on our 
return we began to dread meeting her and 
listening to her various fault-findings with what 
she had to put up with while we were away. 
Our honse was situated on the top of a hill, so 
that there was no trouble about drainage, and 
all the rooms were on one floor and so little 
raised above the ground that the baby could 
roll from'any one of its floor doors without hurt- 
ing it, and creep from the grass to the carpet 
and the carpet to the grass without assistance. 
It was easy to see at the first salutation when 
we entered the house that everything had gone 
smoothly, and we might have staid away a month 
longer just as well as not, so far as the family 
left behind was concerned. "This is such an 
easy house to work in," said the woman. "I 
can go around all day, every day of the week, 
and not begin to feel so tired as I do after one 
day of work in the house I'm going back to." 
And ever afterward when any allusion was 
made to the time she spent in the house, it was 
always met with her exclamation, "That is 
such an easy house to work in." 

Perhaps if that woman, who, by the way, 
was of heavy weight, had had an " easy house 
to do work in," she might have been all the 
time sweet-tempered and contented with life 
and its conditions. On the long march soldiers 
throw away one thing and then another that at 
the outset they considered necessaries, and at 
the end of the march are encumbered with ab- 
solutely nothing that can be dispensed with. In 
like manner women find at the end of the long 
march, beginning often with marriage and run- 
ning on through the years, that one step up or 
down becomes a burden almost intolerable.— The 
Housekeeper. 



A Book of Vkrses. — Mrs. L. F. Baldy has 
laid upon our table "The California Pioneer and 
other Poems," of her own composing. This neat 
little volume does credit to the printer, besides 
evincing a good deal of tender sentiment and 
laborious effort on the part of the author. 
Among the 50 odd pieces, we have found noth- 
ing that pleases us l>etter than 

Mamma's Kiss. 

O'er the study flour patter little feet. 
Through the open door come the voices sweet: 
"Mamma! where is mamma?" little Lucy cries; 
Mamma answers: "Here, love!" hither Lucy flies. 

Sister's hurt the hand Lucy brings to me — 
"Kiss it, mamma dear; umke it well," says she. 
Mamma's kiss upon it. Lucy's hand it well; 
What magic's in the kiss, love a.one can tell. 

Woman's Infi .UENCE. — In the North Anter- 
ican Review for January, Francis Parkman re- 
views the arguments adduced in favor of woman 
suffrage by five advocates of that measure in 
the November number of the Review. When 
the great mass of womankind demand the right 
of suffrage, it will accorded, says Mr. Park- 
man; but with all the agitation of this question 
during several decades, the female sex is still 
content to be represented in political affairs by 
their male relatives. Nevertheless, women may 
exert a very great power in the commonwealth. 
If they are sound in body and mind, impart this 
soundness to a numerous offspring and rear 
them to a sense of responsibility and duty, there 
are no national evils that we cannot overcome. 



The Practical Use of Science. 

The adulteration of various articles of food 
have of late become so alarming, and the va- 
rious processes are so skillfully conducted that 
the aid of science is being called in to assist in 
the detection of such practices, in order that the 
offenders may be more readily brought to 
justice. The French authorities are just now 
wrestliug vigorously with those engaged in 
palming off upon the public a spurious article of 
olive oil, the adulterations of which have be- 
come so universal that it is difficult to get a 
pure article anywhere in the European market. 
According to the Correspondence Scientifique, the 
government recently referred the matter to a 
special committee of the Academy of Sciences, 
which has recommended the use of a new in- 
strument which is called the diagometer. This 
instrument, which has been devised by Prof. 
I.uigi Palmieri, has its action based on the 
differences in the electric conductivity of oils. 
Pure olive oil has very feeble conductive prop- 
erties, which (as is also the case with other 
oils) increase with the amount of impnrities 
added. The only oils that are known to com- 
pare to olive oil in respect to their low conduc- 
tivity are the oils of pine-seed and hazel nuts; 
and these, fortunately, are toa expensive to bo 
used in the adulteration of the former. The 
conclusions of the committee on the practical 
value of the diagometer have not yet been an- 
nounced; it is noted, however, that its use de- 
mands considerable manipulative skill. For the 
correctness of this abstract we refer to the Lon- 
don Chemical News. 

Butter is another article to preserve the purity 
of which the aid of the scientist has been in- 
voked. In reply to such a demand Herr Fisher 
asserts that the examination of butter by polar- 
ized light with a magnifying power of about 
'200 to 300 diameters, affords a much more cer- 
tain criterion of its purity U lan a specificgravity 
test. Examined in this way, fictitious butter 
shows not only the globular drops and salt 
crystals characteristic of genuine butter, but 
likewise other more or less developed crystals. 
The author also finds this method may be ap- 
plied to the determination of different kinds of 
fats, inasmuch as each of these shows character- 
istic colors in polarized light. Mutton tallow, 
for instance, always gives a blue tone; cocoa 
butter gives colors passing from the brightest 
green to the deepest red; the fat of oxen gives 
green and white luminous effects; while small 
bright green semi-lunar and vermicular bodies 
appear iu common light. Hog's lard shows 
many colors, especially red and bine — yellow, 
which is characteristic of cocoa butter, being 
absent. 



Avoid the City. — Hon. Erastus Brooks, in 
an address before the dairy fair in New York 
city, last month, said : " Attractive as this 
great city is, mighty in its men and capital, its 
industry, thrift and power, I can only regret 
that it is a city where there is always danger of 
moral decay. To the young men of this gener- 
ation let me say that you make a sad mistake 
for your country, if not for yourselves, when 
you leave the green fields for the dirty and 
crowded streets of the city. " 



How a Boy Became Interested in Farming. 
I would like to tell how I became interested in 
farming. We always have had plenty of agri- 
cultural papers lying about, and as I read them 
I became interested in p. ml try. When 1 was 
eight years old I bought the fowls of my father, 
and then I kept a strict account of the receipts 
and expenses. The first year I think 1 made 
about $'M) profit; since then 1 have always had 
the care of them and find them profitable. I 
would like to tell another thing that used to in- 
terest me. Father would give my brother and 
myself each a piece of ground, one or two rods 
square, and give us what we could raise on it 
to buy bonks and papers with. We would try 
and see which could raise the largest crop, and 
so we became interested in gardening. The 
first year I raised onions, and had nearly or 
quite $7 worth on one rod square. My onions 
yielded much better where they were sown very 
thick and thinned to about four inches apart. 
We not only became interested in our work, 
but we earned enough to buy all our papers, 
and felt better satisfied with them because we 
had earned them ourselves. 



An Interrupted Serenade. — Algernon, 
under her window in the cold, white moonlight, 
with a tender expression, sang: 

" "Hs the la-hast rose of summer, 
Le-heft bloo-hooiniug alo-hone ; 
All it* lo-huv lee cnipaoiima. 
All ha la-dch-hed and go-home — " 

Voice of pa from next window, strained and 
cracked like, as though the old gentleman 
didn't have time to look for his store teeth: 
"All right, young man. all right; just pin a 
newspaper over it to save it from the frost, and 
we'll take it in with the rest of the plants in 
the morning." 



Moral Ballast. — Trials are moral ballast that 
often prevents our capsizing. When we have 
much to carry, Heaven rarely fails to fit the 
back to the burden; where we have nothing to 
bear we can seldom bear ourselves. The bur- 
dened vessel may be slow in reaching the des- 
tined port, but the vessel without ballast is in 
imminent danger of not reaching it at all. 



The Antiquity of Forks. — The proverb that 
fingers were made before forks used to be some- 
times quoted in connection with the alleged 
very modern origin of that useful implement. 
But forks, if not so old as fingers, are now as- 
certained to date a long way back — as far as the 
prehistoric era of our race. They have lately 
been found, formed of bone, and evidently for ta- 
ble use, in the debris from ancient lake dwell- 
ings, while spoons, which for many purposes 
forks have superseded, are of still greater an- 
tiquity. 

Thackeray did not read the works of female 
novelists, because they "were not strong beer 
enough. Besides," he said. "I read very few 
novels; I am a pastry cook. 1 bake tarts and 
sell thein. I don't eat them myself. I eat 
bread and butter. 



Jaftuary 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC Mill PRESS. 



Church Singing. 

Correct intonation, pure and fine tone, and 
articulation both of words and notes, says the 
American Art Journal, ought to be among the 
first and last objects of a church singer. With 
respect to the first, intonation, the usual ac 
companyiug instrument, the organ, instantly 
betrays by the beating of the pipes, the slight- 
est deviation from tune. There is no friendly 
band to support the singer or cover his defects. 
With regard to the second, because his sole de- 
pendence is on himself, his performance is 
assisted by none of the accessories which min- 
ister to the theater or to the orchestra, and 
moreover, because he is cut off from the exer- 
cise of all those blandishments which serve to 
catch the attention of the hearer in those situ 
ations of more various attraction, his practice of 
sustaining, increasing and diminishing his tone, 
should be more seduously matured and kept up. 
He should study and fix the purest and the 
finest tones that his voice is, or may be made 
capable of producing, in conjunction with the 
several powers of elocutory expression. Those 
varieties which bestow their peculiar character- 
istics on the passions, he should have at his 
absolute command. 

It is not by degrees of loudness and softness 
only, but also by the quality or kind of tone 
that certain passages are well and distinctly 
marked. This idea has been carried so far by 
some, that they suppose the voice in singing to 
imitate the tone of passion in speech, and there 
is undoubtedly* some analogy. But not to dis 
cuss the precise degree of resemblance, every 
observer knows that the tones of certain voices 
are more expressive of certain passions than 
others; and the faculty of appropriating these 
tones should be sharpened and cultivated by 
minute observation and practice, since in the 
church this faculty of voicing bestows more un 
disputed empire over the heart than any other 
acquirement. 

The attainment we speak of is not, however, 
to be understood as direct imitation of mimicry, 
which is of all others the most distinctive mark 
of the want of original commanding capacity. 
Every student sets out upon his researches with 
a given quantity of natural aptitude. His first 
acquisitions will necessarily be the fruits of imi- 
tation. But in proportion as he gathers strength, 
he will begin to rely upon himself, and to dis- 
card, even without perceiving it, the assistance 
he draws from others. As his knowledge of his 
own powers and his perceptions of the powers 
of the art are enlarged, he will grow bolder in 
varying the application of that knowledge and 
those perceptions, till at length (if he be gifted 
with any fertility and vigor more than belongs 
to mere mediocrity) he will impart to whatever 
he does, that modification of intensity and en- 
ergy which constitutes what we are accustomed 
to call originality. 



Chaff. 

Lady: "Why did you leave your last place?" 
Servant: "Well, yer see, mum, I had to pay 
for all my breakages, and as they come to more 
than my wages, yer see, mum, it was a kind of 
impogission that I couldn't stand." 

"May I have your ear for a moment?'' said an 
anxious candidate to a rural delegate. "Which 
ear?" jocosely responded the man from the 
country. "Your election-eer of course," re- 
sponded the candidate, and then they — 
smiled. 

A Frenchman, living in Louisiana, whose 
wife deserted him, amused his neighbors by 
telling how he got her back without trouble. 
"Did I run after her and ask her to come back?" 
he dramatically asked. "No, I did not run 
after her. I zhust publish in the papaire zat I 
have drawn fifty thousand dollaire in ze lottery, 
and she was back much quicker zan in no 
time." 

As some lady visitors were going through a 
penitentiary under the escort of a superintend- 
ent, they came to a room in which three women 
were sewing. "Dear me," one^ of the visitors 
whispered, "what vicious-looking creatures! 
Pray what are they here for?" "Because they 
have no other home; this is our sitting-room, 
and they are my wife and two daughters," 
blandly answered the superintendent. 

At Newburyport, the other day, says the 
Herald, an Englishman and a Yankee engaged 
in a game of brag. "Well," said John Bull, 
"we can beat you on guns. We have a gun at 
the Woolwich harsenal that when it is fired the 
report is 'eard in Australia." "Guns." said 
the Yankee, becoming excited and jumping to 
his feet, "guns, why, we have a gun here in 
America that Was fired off in 1776, and you 
Englishmen hain't heard the last of it yet. " 

A man who had never seen the inside of a 
law-court until he was recently introduced as a 
witness in a case pending in one of the Scotch 
courts, on being sworn, took a position with 
his back to the jury, and began telling his story 
to the judge. The judge, in a bland and cour- 
teous manner said, "Address yourself to the 
jury, sir." The man made a short pause, but, 
not comprehending what was said to him, forth- 
with continued his narrative. The judge was 
then more explicit, and said to him, "Speak to 
the jury, sir — the men sitting behind you on 
the benches." The witness at once turned 
round, and, making an awkward bow, said, 
with great gravity of manner, "Good morning, 
gentlemen 1" 



Y©^Q f ©Lies' Col 



Just too Late. 

Arthur Brown was not a bad boy on the 
whole, but he had one bad habit, which did 
him great injury. Some boys think that one 
bad habit does not matter much, but that is 
quite a mistake; it is often enough to spoil what 
would otherwise be a good character, as it did 
in the case of Arthur Brown. 

He was in the habit of getting just too late. 
He was an unpunctual boy. He was not 
prompt in what he did; he was always allow- 
ing himself to he behind. 

"There is plenty of time," he used to say; 
but he never seemed to have enough of it, and 
it was because he pushed things oti' to the lat- 
est moment before he did them. 

It was a loss to him even in his school days. 
He was a clever boy, quick to learn, and able 
to remember what he had learnt. And yet he 
never was at the top of his cla«s. 

"You should have marks for punctuality as 
well as lessons," said the master. 

But Arthur never had any of them. 

"I mean to be at school in time this morn- 
ing," he would sometimes say to himself. But 
when nine o'clock came, Arthur was pretty sure 
to be some distance off, hurrying as fast as he 
could. 

On one occasion it cost him a prize which ho 
would have been glad to have. 

"I know I want one or two more marks to 
make up the number," he said at night. "But 
if I am at school in time, and get all the marks 
for my lessons, I believe I shall have enough." 

"Then surely you will be in time to-morrow, 
Arthur," said his mother. 

"Will you call me half-an-hour earlier than 
usual, mother?" 

"Yes; then you will have no excuse for being 
late." 

"I shall be sure to get up if you call me." 
So the next morning his mother called him 
at seven instead of half-past. 

"Get up at once, Arthur," said his mother. 
'Remember the prize may, perhaps, depend on 
one mark." 

"Yes, mother, I will get all my marks to- 
day, you may be sure," said Arthur. 

But instead of springing out of bed at once as 
his mother advised, he lay a little bit longer. 

Presently he thought he would get up, and 
he began to dress; but he saw a book on the ta- 
ble, and stood for sime time reading that, so 
that it was no earlier than usual when he went 
elown to breakfast. 

"Never mind, I have tim*7" he said. "I 
must stait directly after breakfast, that is all." 

But he did not hurry over his breakfast until 
lis mother said, "Arthur it is ten minutes to 
line." 

Then he jumped up, and all was confusion in 
the room for a few minutes. 

"Where is my cap? What lias been done 
witli my slate? I left my exerciee-book some- 
where last night. It is no good going without 
it. I must have it." 

By the time all these things had been found, 
he had oDly five minutes in which to go to 
school. How he ran! He went almost as fast 
as a horse. Up one street and down another, 
across a square, through a lane, then another 
street, and yet another, he went on as fast as 
his legs could carry him, until he was quite out 
of breath. What a silly boy he was not to start 
sooner! Alibis running did no good. The clock 
struck nine before he reached the school door. 
When he did reach it it was locked. 

'Just too late! It cannot have been locked 
more than a minute, he saiel to himself. Of 
course he felt very cross, and the more so, as he 
knew that he was himself alone to blame. Still 
he hoped for the best. 

"I have lost that mark, but perhaps I have 
enough without it. I shall do my lessons well 
all day," he said. 

So he did, but when the prizes were given 
out, there was none for him. 

"Arthur Brown," said the master, "you have 
enough marks but one. If you had always been 
in time you would have had a prize." 

It was enough to teach Arthur better for 
life. But he was very slow to learn the lesson 
of punctuality. 

Not long after he was invited to spend a day 
at a farm. He would have to start early, and 
take a short railway journey, and then a friend 
would meet him. 

"You must come by that train," said his 
friend. "If you are not there, I shall conclude 
you cannot come at all." 

"Very well," said Arthur. "You will cer- 
tainly see me in that train." 

His mother again took care that he should 
be called, and that his breakfast should be quite 
ready for him in good time. But he did not get 
up till the last minute, and then he had to run 
off without even taking a cup of coffee. 

"I can have some breakfast when I get there, 
mother," he said. 

"Yes, if you go at all," she replied; "but I 
think you will not catch the train." 

Off went Arthur, but he was just entering 
the station when he heard the whistle, and saw 
the train glide away. He returned home, feel, 
ing very disappointed, and not a little ashamed- 
"Itservesyou right, Arthur," said his mother. 
"If you do not break off this bad habit, it will 
be the worse for you all your life." 

A few years later Arthur had left school, and 
was going to take his start in life. A situation 



offered, which was exactly what he wished; and 
his father spoke to the gentleman, who prom 
ised to give him a good chance. 

"I have told several lads who have applied 
to come to-morrow at ten o'clock. Let your 
son be here at that time, and I will see what 
can be done." 

But when ten o'clock came, Arthur was not 
there. The other youths had come, and the gen 
tleman had engaged one of them. 

Just as the gentleman had settled it, Arthur 
came in, red and panting. 

"You have lost your chance," said the gen 
tlema i. "I am sorry for you, but I am satis 
fied for myself. A lad who is always just too 
late, would never do for me." 

So I think Arthur, with all his cleverness, will 
never get on, unless he become more t>rompt 
and punctual. 



QOQD H E A. L TH' 



Poisons and Their Antidotes. 

Reliable statistics, running for many years, 
and extending over large areas, show that acci- 
dents from poisons are of much more frequent 
occurrence now than formerly. This fact is no 
doubt due to the much more general use of 
poisons at present than in years past, both in 
ordinary household matters and in the arts. 

While in all cases of poisoning the chief re- 
liance must be placed upon medical aid, yet it 
often occurs that the need for a remedy is 
urgent, so that others should know the most 
ready and available methods of relief. There 
are some general instructions which, in the ab 
sence of direct antidotes, will apply to most 
poisons, and the New York Independent has 
done a good work in preparing and publishing 
the following quite full directions of how to act 
in cases of emergency, or while waiting for a 
physician: 

Many poisons do their harm by their imme- 
diate action upon the esophagus and the coats 
of the stomach. Hence, if any liquid or soft 
solid substance is soon swallowed, it tends to 
diminish the effect. To this end liquids, such 
as water or milk, may be freely given. Oils 
also have a protective agency, and these dimin- 
ish the virulence, especially of the acrid poisons. 

It is also a safe indication to remove from the 
stomach by means of emetics the substance 
which has been swallowed. A teaspoonful of 
mustard in a tea-cup of warm water is generally 
nearest at hand, and may be given to an adult, 
or half the quantity to a child, every ten min- 
utes until vomiting is excited. A half teaspoon- 
ful of powdereil ipecac, given in the same way, 
will act as well. Tickling the throat with a 
finger or a feather five minutes after the emetic 
has been given, is likely to hasten its effect. 
They may well be aided in their action, as well 
as the stomach protected, by the use of flaxseed, 
or slippery-elm tea, or eggs, or jelly, or a tea- 
spoonful of melted butter, or lard, or molasses. 
Whenever the poison is one producing stupor, 
cold to the heael, warmth to the extremities, 
rubbing the skin with a flesh-brush, and at- 
tempts to rouse the person by alternate warm 
and cold sprinklings may be tried. 

Better than all, the chemical antidote should 
be given, if known. ^Vhere an acid has been 
swallowed, soda, saleratus, lime, magnesia, or 
prepared chalk should be mixed with water and 
given in frequent doses. Of these the best is 
the calcined magnesia, given freely. If an al- 
kali has been swallowed, as a lump of potash or 
lime, then acids, as vinegar, cidejr, lemon-juice, 
and the like, are indicated; but the use of oily 
and mucilaginous drinks must not be omitted. 
In poisoning with copper and its compounds, 
vfnegar must be carefully avoided. The recent 
cases of pie-poisoning in New York city were 
probably owing to the action of some acid upon 
a copper kettle, or on copper in some other 
form. 

Oxalic acid, used for cleaning metals, is some- 
times taken by mistake for Epsom salts. Chalk, 
whiting, or other alkali should be freely used 
before any attempt to excite vomiting. 

Prussic acid, although called an acid, is fee- 
bly so, and kills by its direct poisonous power 
over the nerves of organic life. The concen- 
trated juice of peach leaves and kernels, of lau- 
rel, etc., may affect in the same way. Harts- 
horn, alternate colli and warm effusive stimu- 
lants to the surface and internally are more im- 
portant than any other means. Artificial respira- 
tion, the same as directed for drowned persons, 
may be required. Smith's antidote of a half 
teaspoonful of pearlash, followed by 10 grains 
of copperas in water, is of service where you 
are sure as to the acid having been taken. 

Sugar of lead and other salts of lead are best 
neutralized by white of eggs, Epsom salts, and 
lemonade. , 

When blue vitriol, or verdigris, has been 
taken, white of eggs, paste of wheat flour anel 
flaxseed tea, sweetened with sugar, are indi- 
cated. 

When green or white vitriol, or litharge, or 
yellow ocher have been swallowed, chalk and 
flaxseed tea are of service. If lunar caustic has 
been swallowed, a cupful of salt and water is 
the antidote. 

Phosphorus, as used for poison of vermin and 
for matches, is sometimes eaten by children. 
Magnesia or other alkali, with water or mucilag- 
inous drinks, are the readiest means of relief. 

Creosote or an overdose of carbolic acid is to 
be met by white of eggs, milk and wheat-flour 



For poisons of the narcotic kind, such as 



opium, aconite, belladonna, henbane, digitalis 
and tobacco, there is not at hand anv antidote. 
Stimulating emetics, stimulants to the surfac< 
and, if need be, artificial respiration are ind 
cated. Heavy draughts of strong coffee help t 
postpone the naraotism of opium. Lemonade or 
other mild acids are deemed of some service. 

Overdoses of camphor or chloroform are an 
indication for alcoholic stimulants. We are still 
without certain antidotes for several of the nar- 
cotics. 

Arsenic, either in its metallic form as gray 
fly -powder or the white arsenious acid, has an 
antidote in the hydrated peroxide of iron. 
Until this can be secured, warm water, milk, 
plenty of eggs, and lime water must be our re- 
liance. The most frequent mistake of vegetable 
foods are the substitution of other varieties for 
the edible mushroom and the use of poke root 
{Phytolacca decandra) for horse-radish. No 
antidotes are known. But the indication is to 
use mustard or other stimulating emetics, and 
prevent further trouble by a few drops of lauda- 
num, frequently repeated, until pain or sickness 
abates. 

These, are merely directions for those sudden 
cases of emergency which may occur in any 
family, and which, in the country, at least, 
occur when the physician is not within ready 
reach. With the use of disinfectants, insect 
remedies, Paris green (arsenic), and with the 
increasing familiarity of the people with various 
chemicals, public health requires great care as 
to labeling all such articles. The medicines 
left over from physicians' prescriptions should 
either be marked or thrown away. Teach 
those under your control not to eat any vegeta- 
ble or leaf without knowing what it is. All 
flowers with the cups turned downward or 
hooded, and all stalks which exude a milk- 
white juice when broken, are to be regarded as 
poisonous. All paints, whether of oil or water 
colors, should not be held in the mouth. It 
beli ooves all householders to have a special 
place for keeping all extra hazardous or doubt- 
ful compounds, and to cast away all unmarked 
or unneeded bottles and packages. 



Mince Meat. 

Mince meat will be better if mixed several 
days before using. To make it, cover four pounds 
of nice lean beef with boiling water, and let it 
cook slowly until almost all the water is ab- 
sorbed and the meat perfectly tender. Set it 
away in the liquor to cool, after which remove 
all skin and gristle and chop the meat fine. 
Add a pound of beef suet--chopped in a little 
flour — eight pounds of chopped apples, two 
pounds of seeded raisins, two of Zante currants 
— washed and dried — three-quarters of a pound 
of citron, shaved fine, the grated rind and juice 
of three lemons and three oranges, and two 
teacups of the liquor in which the meat was 
cooked. Mix three tablespoons of ground cin- 
namon, one of cloves, half a tablespoon each of 
mace, allspice, and black pepper, three of salt, 
and a grated nutmeg, with four pounds of 
brown sugar. Stir it into the other ingredients 
with two quarts of cider, boiled down to one, 
and a pint of eider-vinegar. If not sweet 
enough add some molasses and cook the mix- 
ture in a porcelain kettle until the apples are 
done, stirring to prevent burning. Pack in 
stone jars; cover the top of each with a cupful 
of molasses and set in a cool place closely cov- 
ered. If too dry put in more cider when the 
pies are ma.de. Jam, jelly, wine and fruit can 
be added at discretion, or as much of the fruit 
and spice omitted from the compound as may 
be eleemed expedient. 

Some persons like to make only enough mince- 
meat for two or three pies, and would rather 
measure than weigh the ingredients. A simple 
rule is, one cup of meat to two of apples, with a 
tablespoon of chopped suet; three teaspoons of 
ground cinnamon, two of allspice, two of cloves, 
two of salt, one of pepper — all even full — mixed 
with a cupful of brown sugar; a cupful of seeded 
raisins, half as many currants, a cupful of cider, 
with a little vinegar and a tablespoonful of 
molasses, or, instead of cider use cider- vinegar, 
molasses and water mixed. 



A Pound Plum Pcddino. — One pound suet, 
one pound currants, one pound stoned raisins, 
eight eggs, half of a grated nutmeg, two ounces 
sliced candied peel, one teaspoonful of ground 
ginger, one-half pound bread crumbs, one-half 
pound flour and half a pint of milk. Chop the 
suet finely; mix with it the dry ingredients; 
stir these well together, and add the well- 
beaten eggs and milk to moisten with. Beat up 
the mixture, and should the above proportion of 
milk not be found sufficient to make it of the 
proper consistency, a little more should be 
added. Press the puelding into a mold, tie it in 
a floured cloth, and boil for five hours, or rather 
longer, and serve with brandy sauce. 

Goose Boiled. — Dress the goose nicely, put 
it in a dish or deep pan, cover it with boiling 
milk and let stand all night. Wash off the milk 
in the morning, put the goose in cold water on 
the fire, and when the water comes to a boil 
take it oil' and wash it in warm water; in this 
manner you will take out the oily taste. Make 
a dressing of stale bread chopped fine, season 
with pepper, salt, and a large lump of butter, 
with some sage; sew it up and put it in cold 
water, aud boil an hour or until quite tender. 



8 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 3, 1880. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Ofice, iOS Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St 

Anitoal Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
months. $1.25. When paid lullv one year in advance, 
r>TTT ousts will be deducted. No nbw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis 
tered letters or P. C. orders at our risk. 
ADvbrtisino R..TI8. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos 

Per line 25 .80 P 00 f 6.00 

Half inch (1 square). .$100 »3.00 7.60 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 



The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. T. DSWHT. 



W. B. KWBR. 



«. B. STRONG 



Quack Advertising: positively declined. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 3, 1880. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS.— Meeting: of the State Horticultural 
Society; Ostrich Ranching in Algiers, 1. The Week; 
Those'" Business Chance" Swindles, 8. Letters from 
Southern California —No. 10, 9. Notices of Recent 
Patents 12 

ILLTJSTRATIONS.-Sheds and Corrals of the Os- 
trich Ranch near Kouha, in Algiers, 1. Diagram of the 
San Jacinto Tin District, 9. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.-Growing Gloxinia, 
Calceolaria, etc.; Foothill Oranges; Weight of Fruit in 
Boxes ami Basket', 8 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Red Scale Insect on the 
Orange: Kenort from a Florida Observer; The Healds- 
hurg Joint- Wo ms, 8. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Something About Jute; 
Valley of the Carmel River, 2. 

THE VINEYARD.— Discouragements of the Grape 
Interest, 2 

POULTRY YARD —Nursing and Feeding Young 
Poultry, 2. 

PISCICDLTURE — Four Years' Experience with 
Carp, 2. 

THE APIARY — Beginnings in Beck»fping, 3. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Chinese Water Nut, 3. 

THE FI^IjD.— The Sugar Question in the United 
S'a'es; Our Beet-Sugar Factories. 3- 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -The National 
Orange; Co-operative Libor; Election of Officers. 4 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ts- of California. 4 5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 5 and other pages 

HOME CIRCLE. -Silver Hour (poetry); Two Kintlsof 
Stlf-Sacriflce; Something About Stairs; A Book of 
Verses; Woman's Influeme; Avoid the City; The Practi 
cal Use9 of Science; How a lioy Became Interested in 
Farming; An Inter. upted Serenade; The Antiquity of 
Forks, 8. Church Singing; Chaff. 7 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN — Just too Lato, 7 

GOOD HEALTH —Poisons and Their Antidotes. 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY —Mince Meat; A Pound 
Plum Pudding; Goose Boiled. 7- 

MISCELLANEOUS —Decision on the Riparian 
Rights, 5. The Youths' Directory; Our Climate, 12, 

Business Announcements. 

Spring Tooth Harrow. Van Gelder, Batchelor & Co. 
Miller & Co , Wool f onimission Merchants, S. F. 
Trees, Seeds. Ktc, W. A. Sanders, Sanders P. O., Cal. 
Th>, Fearless Horse Power and Thresher and Cleaner. 
Catalogue of Plant", John Saul, Washington, D. C. 
Dividend Notice — S. F. Sa\ings Union. 
Dividend Notice— German Savings and Loan Society. 
Los Gatos Nurseries, S. Newhall, San Jose, Cal. 
Pajaro Vallev Nurseries, Watsonville, Cal. 
Roses for Holiday Gifts, K. Gill, Oakland, Cai. 
New Floral Autograph Album, Bocemsdes & Co. 



The Week. 

The weather continues to be the uppermost 
topic, although the thermometer has shown the 
most opposite tendencies. It is now clearly 
shown that the touch of winter, which we trust 
is now withdrawing, has been the heaviest 
within the memory of the present race of Cali- 
fornians. For sharp severity as well as for 
persistent clinging, the frigor has been remark- 
able. The marks of the occurrence, aside from 
the records of the mercury, consist in a whole- 
sale slaughter of half-hardy and tender growths 
in exposetl gardens, and of nipped heliotropes, 
calias and the like in elevated parts usually re- 
garded as frostless. In tome districts we hear 
that oranges were frozeu hard upon the trees, 
but this has occurred in other orange-growing 
regions without permanent injury to the trees 
themselves. It will require another week to 
gain facts as to the general effect of the visita- 
tions upon citrus trees, and we shall be pleased 
to have reports from all growers. 

Now it is pleasant to look upon the sun, 
counting his tenth day from the solstice, and 
climbing toward the north, and hope that the 
new year will begin with a season of the old- 
time California winter — winter which is in fact 
a prolonged spring time, giving opportunity for 
the mass of field, orchard and garden work 
which now awaits the baud of the husbandman. 
The disposition, the heart of the worker, are 
awakened by the early fall of vivifying water — 
now let's to the work. 



Gas stocks are still depressed, and have a 
downward tendency, owing to the reported suc- 
cess of Edison's electric light. 



Those "Business Chance" Swindles. 

Since our allusion two weeks ago to those 
traps for the unwary, which are spread in this 
city under the guise of "business chances" or 
"business openings," we have received most 
emphatic evidence of the truth of the charge 
made, to wit, that the greater part of them are 
ingenious and well laid conspiracies to rob any 
one who may be caught by the glittering prom 
ises which are made. We are assured by those 
who have been attracted by the advertisements 
in some of the daily papers, that nothing de- 
scribed by "Victim" in the Vallejo Chronicle 
was a line over-drawn, for they too have either 
been robbed, or have been saved therefrom only 
by the caution of friends whom they consulted. 
The traps were well set and baited, but some- 
times the game is shy. 

What a shame that — right in the face of the 
community flaunting their avertisements in the 
papers which cry loudest of virtue in the public 
press — these unconscionable swindlers should be 
permitted to announce "chances for invest- 
ment" which are merely chances to be robbed. 
How cleverly they lie, these "business-chance" 
advertisers. Sickness and death are most fre- 
quently invoked as reasons why some lucrative 
business positions must be relinquished. Some- 
times, forsooth, the alleged seller has "made so 
much out of the business that he wishes to re- 
turn to the home of his father's." It matters 
little what the reason why the golden business 
opportunity must be relinquished — the reason 
must be plausible and not too stale. Doubtless 
these agents are taxed to invent reasons for 
selling their imaginative business bonanzas, as is 
the youthful culprit to assign excuses for fre- 
quent truancy. The end in all cases is the 
same. The applicant is shown a mock business 
in full swing, and each day there are several 
styles in full operation. The agents who man- 
age the business have an army of unscrupulous 
co-conspirators who work up the material points 
in the conspiracy — plan the scenes as does the 
scenic artist in the theater. An example or two 
of those reported to us during the last few days 
will suffice. 

Here is a man having recently arrived in the 
State, who is attracted by a chance for sale in 
a flourishing real estate business, located promi- 
nently. Applying to the agent who signs the ad- 
vertisement, the would-be purchaser is con- 
lucted to the "office." The* windows are 
covered with gilded signs; the sign-boards on 
the street are coated with placards of property 
for sale; the interior of the office is a busy 
sceue, with scampering clerks, and sedate ex- 
perts studying charts and heavy-pursed custom- 
ers awaitiug to negotiate, in fact, almost bidding 
against each other in their anxiety to purchase 
desirable tracts. Everything is planned to show 
a most lively business. Notwithstanding this 
flattering showing of actual activity, the appli- 
cant had caution enough to inquire concerning 
the standing of the man who wished to sell this 
business treasure to him. Ooce upon the track 
of his reputation, it became so unsavory that he 
fled the scene — saved by a hair. Need the 
reader be told that this was all a mock business — 

business constructed to sell — and a business 
which did sell, perhaps more than once. And 
what was the character of this patron of the 
agent who advertised ? His end will reflect his 
course. He was not long ago Bhot to death by 
a prostitute. 

But no enterprising dealer in "business 
chances" will confine himself to setting a single 
trap. Here is a man who bought a chance in a 
grocery business, which was advertised would 
suit his desires. He was taken to the "store" 
at a set time. Goods were coming in on trucks 
and going out in delivery wagons. Clerks were 
alert and polite. The acting proprietor was 
delicate, the strain of the active business being 
too great for his strength. Although he would 
relinquish the greatest chance for a fortune he 
ever enjoyed, he must get a partner in interest 
or he would not live. The rest of the story is 
as above, save that the activity was of mush- 
room order, and quickly subsided when the 
purchase was made. Not only this, the gro- 
ceries were of peculiar style. The clerks had 
wearied their muscles in handling boxes of sand 
and saw-dust. 

Such notes of the operations of those who sell 
business chances in the city should put all rural 
readers on their guard. With such an insight 
into what are believed to be common operations 
of city swindlers aud conspirators, one may stop 
and think that as a rule there are no "big 
things" for sale. When the rare case of a forced 
sacrifice really occurs, there are many who are 
fully posted who will quickly take it. Such 
bargains are not peddled about by business 
agents. It will be a good rule to shun wholly 
all city chances which are loudly praised. It is 
a good rule to place no confidence whatever in 
what one sees for the once, for he may be at- 
tending a play when he least expects it. If you 
have money to invest, trust it in something 
which you, of your own knowledge, fully under- 
stand. Above all things, shun the class of 
swindles which we have described, and keep 
your eyes open for the appearance of the old 
evil in the new forms which it will ere long 



The steamer Borvssia, from Liverpool for 
New Orleans, was abandoned at sea December 
2d, and it is thought that many of her passen- 
gers were drowned. 



QJee\ies ^nd Replies. 



Growing Gloxinia, Calceolaria, Etc. 

Editors Press:— What is the best treatment for seed 
like those of the gloxinia, calceolaria, and others, for 
those who have no greenhouse or hot-bed? — J. C. M., Ala- 
meda county. 

Editors Press: — Gloxinia from seed can be 
quite successfully grown by any amateur in the 
following manner, remembering that they are 
natives of the tropics, and can only be grown at 
a time in the year when the requisite sun-heat 
can be had: In April or May we would get 
some leaf loam and sift it, and while damp 
place it in an oven to heat to about 190", for 
the purpose of destroying the seeds of weeds. 
After cooling, place it in a cigar-box about two 
inches deep, and moisten thoroughly. Procure 
a candle-box aud till it one-half full of geeen 
moss — such as may be obtained from rocks or 
trees — and place in center the box of soil. 
The gloxinia seed may now be sown evenly on 
the surface, and with a coarse comb gently stir 
the soil, but not deeper than one-fourth of an 
inch. The seed being small, if covered too 
deeply will not break through the ground. The 
seed should average about one-eighth of an 
inch below the surface. Now firm or press 
lightly the soil with anything— say the bottom 
of a tumbler— and water carefully, so as to not 
wash the seed. The candle-box may now be 
placed in full sunlight in the window, covering 
it with a window light or pane of glass, which 
should be either whitewashed, or better still, 
moistened with very dirty water (almost mud) 
to break the direct rays of the sun; or dirty 
piece of muslin may be first loosely laid under 
the glass. All watering now must be done on 
the moss, which will be continually giving ofl 
moisture, and securing that damp, humid at- 
mosphere so essential for all tropical seeds. 
As poor as the plants appear (which should be 
in ten days or two weeks, all depending on 
temperature and care), air must be admitted 
very little at first, and gradually increased to 
harden them off. More light is also essential, 
by degrees, but more direct sunlight. They 
should be potted off as soon as they can be 
safely handled, replacing them in the same 
humid atmosphere. Precisely the same soil mutt 
be used, only adding one-third well-rotted HI- 
ure. Calceolarias should be grown in precisely 
the same way, only the seed must be Bown on 
the surface, aud no attempt at covering can be 
permitted. The same precaution as to con- 
tinued humidity of the atmosphere must be 
taken; but they require a stronger soil. After 
taking them out of the seed bed, by adding a 
very little strong garden loam, they may be 
very successfully growu. All kinds of very 
small green-house seeds may be treated this way 
with complete success. 

For ferns and calceolarias we very often take 
the box of moss and put a shallow dish of water 
n\he center, aud then placing a very rough 
brick or piece of a rock in the water, scatter 
otne leaf loam very lightly, then dust the seed 
on, and cover the whole with a glass. As soon 
as the seeds germinate, we take them off very 
carefully with the point of a knife and place 
them on the surface of a pot or box, wateriug 
them very lightly. — W. A. T. Stkatton, Peta- 
luma, Cal. 

Foothill Oranares. 

Editors Press:— By express we send you a small box of 
oranges, Los Angeles variety. These oranges generally 
appear for sale anout a week before Thanksgiving day — 
some time before oranges from L<js Angeles apecar in 
market. How will they compare in size, quality aud ap- 
pearance with oranges now in market from other places? 

C. M. Silva J; Sox, Newcastle, Cal. 
The fruit compares favorably with anything 
now in the market. It is of a rich, ripe color, 
perfectly bright and clean aud quite large 
enough. The samples are almost identical with 
a fine lot of sample twigs from Sierra Madre, 
Lob Angeles county, which one of our dealers 
now has on exhibition. They are, of course, 
vastly superior to the great bulk of the oranges 
now in, for many are smutty, and many more 
have been plucked altogether too green. The 
first Los Angeles fruit appeared in our markets 
about Dec. 20th. If such choice oranges as our 
correspondents send can be marketed in time 
for Thanksgiving, there will be money in them, 
for there is nothing here then but the sallow 
imported fruit. 

Weight of Fruit in Boxes and Baskets 

Editors Press:— I represent, I think, a number of your 
country readers who would like to know the price of fruit, 
wholesale, in San Fra-iciscn, by the pound, the quotation 
bv boxes and baskets not being understood. Please pub- 
lish the standard weight of the packages of fruit named in 
the list I send; the weight to be of the fruit itself, pack- 
age not included. We can then estimate value of fruit at 
home. — Westminster, Los Angeles county. 

Mr. H. K. Cummings, one of our longest es- 
tablished fruit dealers, gives us the replies 
which we append to our correspondent's list as 
follows: One box apples, Oregon, 45 lbs., Cali- 
fornia, 50 lbs. ; 1 box apricots, 30 lbs. ; 1 chest 
cherries, 12 drawers of 10 lbs. each; 1 box figs, 
15 lbs.; 1 box grapes, 17 lbs., 22 lbs., 28 lbs., 3 
sizes; i box California limes, 300 limes; 1 box 
or basket nectarines, 25 lbs. ; 1 box peaches, 25 
lbs. ; 1 basket peaches, 25 lbs. ; 1 box pears, 60 
lbs. ; 1 box plums, 25 lbs. ; 1 basket prunes, 25 
lbs. ; 1 box quinces, 50 lbs. 



Bismarck hasdeclared his readiness to propose 
an imperial contribution to a company to be 
formed for the purpose of buying the factories 
and plantations in Samoa and other South Sea 
Islands, of J. C. Godfrey & Sons, Hamburg 
merchants, who suspended business some time 
ago. 



The Red Scale Insect on the Orange. 

Editors Press: — I hereby acknowledge the 
receipt of the specimens forwarded by you on 
the 4th inst. The orange was infested by » 
scale closely related to oue which has lately be- 
come extremely common in Florida, and which 
has received the scientific name of Chryfom.' 
phalus ficus. The California insect undoubt- 
edly belongs to the same genus, and is, in all 
probability, an undescribed species. 

The ordinary remedies for bark lice have 
already been discussed in the columns of the 
Rural Press. In the orange house at the 
Department of Agriculture, Mr. Wm. Saunders 
has for some time successfully made use of coal 
oil against them. A mixture is prepared in the 
proportion of one gill of coal oil to five gallons 
of water, and applied with a garden syringe. 
The filling of the syringe keeps the liquids 
well mixed. Great care is taken to preserve 
the proportion, as coal oil is in itself very in- 
jurious to vegetation. In point of fact rnany 
trees were injured before the right proportion 
was reached, but now the most tender twigs 
are not damaged. I would unhesitatingly rec- 
ommend the trial of this remedy. — J. Henry 
Comstock, Entomologist, Dept. of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C, Dec. ISth. 

Beport From a Florida Observer. 

Editors Press: — Your letter of 4th inst., 
with specimens of orange leaves and an orange 
affected with what is known there as the "red 
scale," came duly to hand yesterday. To-day, 
I have made a careful microscopical examina- 
tion and comparison with the scale insects affect- 
ing the orange trees of Florida, and pronounce 
them identical with those recently sent me by 
Mr. Geo. M. Holmes, of Orlando, Orange county, 
Florida, an account of which was published in 
Florida Agriculturist, vol. 2, Oct. 22d. 

No description of the insect proper hae ever 
been published, although Prof. C. V. Riley has 
designated it in his manuscript notes as Chrysom- 
phalus ficus. 

I also enclose letter of Mr. Holmes, showing 
how the tree is affected by them. He says: 

I send you a leaf of an orange tree infested with what 
appears to be a species of bC-de insect, w hich is new to us 
down here, it »| reads from tree to tree very rapidly 
and is not confined to the leaf, but appears upon tender 
stems and thorns. As you can see it turns the leaf yellow 
woerever it locates itself. 

From the leaves sent. I see trees in yourStato 
are similarly affected, ami the wash (consisting 
of a decoction of tobacco leaves, whale-oil toap, 
and a little potash added) as recommended by 
me, if applied at the proper season would prove 
efficacious. 

Fruit growers make a mistake in applying 
washes at all times of the jear, whereas there 
are but two or three times during the year in 
which they ought to be usi d, i. e., when the 
voung scale insects have just hatched and be- 
fore they have become attached to the leaf or 
fruit. It applied at any other time it is useless. 
After the scale is formed, it aft' rdl protection 
for the insect and its eggs, and like a good roof 
18 impervious to all external things. 

As this particular insect has never been no- 
ticed in Florida, until this year, and as I would 
like to discover its geographical distribution and 
habitat, I would be obliged if you would en- 
deavor to find out for me, whether it has been 
imported from some foreign country, or carried 
from here to California, or vice versa. — Wm. H. 
Ashmead, Jacksonville, F.orida, Dec. 14th, 
1879. 

We are indebted to our friends for the service 
they have rendered in establishing the identity 
of the " red scale," of the citrus family, as our 
growers find it on their trees. The remedy 
which Prof. Comstock recommends, viz., kero- 
sene and water duly agitated together is one 
which we hope most from, both from its cheap- 
ness, ease of preparation and the fact also, as 
we think has been proved in our experience, 
that the scale is not impervious to kerosene, but 
that it penetrates and destroys the life within. 
Can our readers aid us in supplying the informa- 
tion Mr. Ashmead desires, namely, the source 
whence came this red pest. Where did it first 
appear in this State, and where were the trees 
there planted obtained ! This is an interesting 
question, and we hope some of our correspond- 
euts can throw light upon it. 

The Healdtburg Joint- Worms. 

Editors Press:—! have had several of the "Joint-worms" 
in wheat hatch out, and thus far they prove to be chaleid 
parasites, and wingless at that. They may be a species of 
Eupelmus. I am disappointed at this, and so shall want 
more of the swelled stuhble. If you cm send me more of 
last fall's stubble containing insects, shall he glad to set- 
tle the question as to whether the joint-worm is on the 

Pacific coaBt or not A. S. Packard, Jr., Providence, 

Rhode Island. 

This signifies that Prof. Packard is endeavor- 
ing to hatch out a grain-destroying insect from 
the stubble received, instead of a parasite which 
had destroyed the insect which he was in search 
of. This often occurs in efforts of this kind, 
and shows that the natural enemies of the pest 
are on the alert and aid the farmer greatly by 
destroying the insects which injure him. In 
order to determine the point which Prof. Pack- 
ard is in search of, he mnst have some larva 
which have not been attacked by parasites. If 
any of our readers, or of the Healdsburg Enter- 
prise, will take the pains to find some more of 
that swelled - j- lint stubble and will forward it to 
us, it will be of great value in determining 
whether we have indeed the dreaded "joint- 
worm," or whether the injury is done by some 
other insect. 



January 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



9 



Letters from Southern California.— No. 10. 

The San Jacinto Tin Mines. 

During their recent visit to southern Califor- 
nia the publishers of the Press took occasion to 
visit the San Jacinto (Temescal) tin mines. They 
were reached by a ride of about twenty-five 
miles westerly from Riverside. These mines are 
located in the Temescal mountains, which sep- 
arate the upper from the lower Santa Ana val- 
ley. They are about fifty miles east from the 
city of Los Angeles and thirty-five from Ana- 
heim landing. The existence 
of tin in workable quantities 
in the Temescal range has been 
known for twenty years or 
more; but the company now 
owning the property was organ- 
ized January, 1868, and hold 
title by purchase of a Mexican 
grant of about 50,000 acres of 
land, upon which grant the 
mines are located. Active oper- 
ations for opening up and de- 
veloping the miues were com- 
menced about six months after 
the company was organized, 
the most of thework being done 
upon the "Cajalco vein," which 
shows the largest ore croppinga 
and the heaviest body of ore 
of any of the fifty or more dis- 
tinct veins which are said to 
have been discovered and lo- 
cated upon this property. The 
roads to and from the mines are 
good at all seasons of the year, 
with water communication only 
thirty-five miles distant. There 
is an abundance of wood on 
the property for smelting pur- 
poses and for timber, and con- 
venient water power sufficient 
for concentrating purposes. 
Lumber of all required dimen- 
sions, for mine, mill or building 
purposes, cau be obtained from 
San Bernardino at a eo<t of 
from $25 to $30 per thousand. 

We append herewith a dia- 
gram (Fig. 1) showingthe boun- 
dary lines of the original grant 
of the Sobrante ranch, of about 
50,000 acres, within which will 
be seen a square location of the 
tin district, which comprises 
the property of the San Jacinto 
Tin Compauy. It will be seen 
that the lower or western por- 
tion of the lands of the River- 
side colony were embraced 
within this gram. In going to 
the mines from Riverside we 
passed through Magnolia ave- 
nue, as shown in the diagram, 
to its crossiug of Temescal 
creek, from which point the 
road skirts along the western 
bank of the generally wide 
canyon through which the 
creek runs and which is 
thickly wooded and well wa- 
tered, affording many sheltered nooks of arable 
land. 

Concentrating Works. 

The point where the Riverside irrigating canal 
empties into the creek has been selected as the 
site for the works winch must be put up for 
crushing and concentrating the ores. The site 
is a most convenient one, with abundance of 
wood and water upon the spot, and where the 
supply of wood may be kept up perpetually 
from the rapid growth which, with a very little 
care, can be secured in this locality. It is also 
the very point at which the ore from the Cojalco 
and several parallel veins can be most con- 
veniently delivered through an adit tunnel, 
which will strike the veins at a great depth, 
running in from the eastern bank of the creek 
canyon. The road, after passing along up the 
canyon a distance of some three miles, turns 
suddenly to the left and climbs the high hilly 
region in which the mines are located. After 
passing the works upon the Cojalco vein the 
road continues on to the plains beyond, as indi- 
cated, and so back to Riverside. The road to 
Anaheim landing continues westerly in nearly 
the same direction as Magnolia avenue, joining 
that avenue at the crossing of Temescal creek. 
Developments in Progress. 

Fig. 2 gives a sectional view of the work of 
development upon the mines. As will be seen 
two shafts have been sunk 77 and 98 feet in 
depth. An adit tunnel has been driven in, fol- 
lowing the course of the vein from a ravine, 
as shown in Fig. 2, to a distance, in one direc- 
tion, of 449 feet, and about 100 feet in the other 
direction. The first 100-ft level has been opened 
for a distance of 375 feet, and is connected with 
the adit level by the main shaft and also by a 
winze. The hoisting has thus far been done by 
a horse whim, of which there is one for each 
shaft. The shafts and tunnel and hoisting 
works appeared to be all in good condition at 
the time of our visit, although filled by water 
up to the drain level. No work has been done 
upon the mines for some time, the present own- 
ers waiting for capital wherewith to com- 
mence operations on a scale commensurate with 
the value and importance of the mine. 

A large amount of rock has been raised to the 
surface — sufficient to show, quite conclusively, 
the general character of the ore. Several ship- 
ments, of several tons each, have been made to 



this city, and, we believe, also to En 
which have been worked with most satisfactory 
results. Considerable work has been done upon 
other ledges in the way of sinking pits and 
shafts to determine the locality and extent of 
veins. The work upon the mine has been under 
the supervision of Mr. Williams, a Cornwall 
tin miner of thirty years' experience, who ex- 
presses the fullest confidence in the great value 
of the property. 

The mine was visited and examined some four 
or five years since by Mr. N. M. Maxwell, an 
English engineer, and at that time, if not now, 



from the tin mines of Cornwall, at a cost of 
working in excess of what would be the cost 
here, by reason of the low percentage of the 
ores there, the great depth at which the mines 
are worked, and the scarcity of wood and water. 
Ore can be profitably raised there at this time 
from only the richest of the mines. Travelers 
through Cornwall inform us that hundreds of 
tall chimneys may be seen in almost every di- 
rection looming up as silent monuments of 
mines worked out, evidences of busy life long 
past. That the tin deposits of Cornwall are 
fast becoming exhausted; that they will con- 




FIG. 1. DIAGRAM OF THS SAN JACINTO TIN MINING DISTRICT. 



manager of the Flagstaff mine in Utah. Mr. 
Maxwell has spent many years in the tin mines 
of Cornwall, and is pronounced one of the best 
practical experts in tin mining who has visited 
this coast. He made a thorough examination 
of the mine, which was being worked at the 
time, and free from water, and reported to the 
expert of the company that he believed that the 
mineH of this company contained more tin than 
existed in the whole of Cornwall. 

If we can place confidence in the opinion of 
experts, there is tin enough in these mines to 
supply the entire demand for that metal in the 



tinue but a little longer to add their annual con- 
tribution to the material wealth of the world, 
is now very generally conceded. 

Other tin districts of the world are worked to 
about their fullest capacity, and it would seem 
to be the part of wisdom for California to step 
in at this time and contribute her share, as 
she may do, to this important industry. 

Comparative Value of Mines. 

A tin mine in Cornwall that pays 2% is con- 
sidered a good property, with, if an extensive 
one, "millions in it." The Levant mine is 




FIG. 2. SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE COJALCO MINE. 



United States — a supply which is now furnished j 
from abroad at a cost of from twelve to fifteen { 
millions annually. Tin is one of our largest ar- j 
tides of import. Its uses are numerous and 
vast, and the consumption very great. Why 
not turn this large balance of trade in our 
favor ? Our capitalists should feel a national 
pride in the matter, and should be ready to aid 
with their means and influence in so useful and 
important an undertaking. The working of these 
mines on a proper scale would add thousands to 
the population of this State, and millions to the 
aggregate of our productive industry. 

England has for centuries reaped rich returns 



worked to a depth below drainage of 1,800 
feet, and yet yields an average of only 2$%. The 
Dolcoth mine, also at a depth of 1,800 feet, 
yields only 2% ore. Tailings are worked over 
at that mine that yield only one-quarter of one 
per cent, of concentrated ore. The Phoenix 
mine, near Siskeard, one of the best managed 
mines in Cornwall, is worked at a depth of 
1,500 feet, and yields only 1%, and yet the 
property, depleted as it is, is valued at $1,200,- 
000. When, in contrast with the above, we 
take the estimates of Cornish experts that the 
Cojalco mine will yield an average of 5%, what 
must be the value "of the wealth of tin buried in 



the Temescal hills ? We leave it for others to 
make the figures. 

Tin Statistics. 
Statistics giving the true amounts of the tii 
production of the world are very difficult to ob 
tain, as nearly all interested in the business strive 
to keep the particulars of the same as much a 
secret as possible. Johnson, in his recent en- 
cyclopedia, perhaps the best authority at hand, 
gives the figures for the production of tin in 
1871 as follows : 

England n m tong 

Ban <» 4,320 " 

Billiton 3,190 " 

South America 1,200 " 

OthRr sources 5,000 " 

Total 25,030 tons. 

The consumption of tin has 
ever been close upon its annual 
yield. There is seldom, if ever, 
any large surplus, and the in- 
creasing uses to which it has 
been applied during the last 
few years is steadily adding to 
the annual demand for it. 

The process of obtaining tin 
from the ore is very simple 
and comparatively inexpensive. 
The mineral occurs only in 
two forms — the oxide and as a 
sulphuret, never native. The 
oxide occurs in compound octa- 
hedrons and square prisms, 
with various modifications ; it 
is nearly opaque, and gives a 
pale brown streak. In this 
form, when pure, it yields 
78.38 tin. The sulphuret forms 
in cubes of a yellowish gray, 
giving a brown streak, and 
yielding tin 27%, copper 30%, 
sulphur 30%, and iron 13%. 
Tin is almost always associated 
with copper. The tin mines of 
Cornwall have in many cases 
been worked for copper when 
first opened, the tin coming 
in generally at about 1,000 feet 
in depth. The San Jacinto ore 
is remarkably free from many 
mineral impurities which great- 
ly trouble the smelters of Corn- 
wall, and as a consequence 
yield a much purer metal. 
This fact has been noticed by 
tin workers who have worked 
up the sm»ll amounts of tin 
which have from time to time 
been obtained from these 



The Temescal Creek 
Which passes near these mines 
runs through a pretty little 
mountain valley, well wooded, 
and often spreading nt > lilt'e 
openings, which pr sent fine 
locations for gardens and or* 
chards. One portion of it is 
much used as a picnic ground. 
The climate and soil along this 
creek is quite as favorable for 
orange and vine culture as any 
portion of Riverside. 

The Rapid Growth of Vegetation 
In Riverside is something quite remarkable. 
We noticed on the ground of Mr. G. W. Gar- 
clon, eucalyptus trees seven years from seed 18 
inches in diameter. An orange tree in Mr. T. 
W. Cover's garden seven years old, measured 
18 inches in circumference, 10 to 12 feet across 
its branches and 18 feet high. Another meas- 
ured 21 inches in circumference. Some experi- 
ments are being made to raise the banana. We 
saw quite a number, several of which were 
fruiting, on the ground of Mr. Henry Fox. 

Plummers' Fruit Drier 
Will be introduced into the colony next season 
— the right for the same having been purchased 
while we were there. This drier will afford a 
ready means for saving and rendering market- 
able much surplus fruit that is now allowed to 
go to waste. We are pleased to state, in this 
connection, that quite a number of these driers 
are about to be put in operation in various parts 
of southern California — rights for the same hav- 
ing been sold the past season for Los Angeles, 
San Bernardino, San Diego and Santa Barbara 
counties. Mr. 0. N. Sanford, of Cajon Valley, 
near San Diego, who has bought the right for 
that county, has already received one of the 
largest of these driers, and will soon be ready 
to supply them, of all sizes, to any in the county 
who may wish to utilize their surplus fruits, 
vegetables, etc. 

The Riverside House 
Will be found a pleasant stopping place for visi- 
tors. It is a two-story brick structure contain- 
ing some forty rooms, and is very conveniently 
and centrally located. Health seekers and 
other visitors will find good accommodations here 
at reasonable rates. The proprietors are Messrs. 
Cunnigham & Moody. W. B. E. 

Nearly Fifty Pounds and Not Like a 
Yam.— D. W. McLeod writes to the Riverside 
Press that the sweet potato, grown by John 
Beckett, and described in the Anaheim Gazette, 
weighed, when fresh out of the ground and 
all washed clean, just 474 I 03 -. an(1 its circum- 
ference was four feet. The seed was purchased 
for Carolina sweet potato seed. The potatoes 
are excellent eating and not watery like the 
yams usually are, 



10 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PBESS. 



[January 3, 1880. 



Purchasers of Stock will pisd in this Directory the 
namks or some ok the most reliable breeders. 

Our Rates.— Six lines or less inserted In this Directory at 
60 cents a line per mouth, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



PETER SAXE & SON, 520 Bush St. 3. F. Importers 
and breeders ol all varieties of thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pedigreed. 



M. B. ST/URGES. Centerville, Alameda County, Cali- 
fornia. Breeder of Thoroughbred Short Hum Cattle 
Young Bulls and Heifers for sale. Correspondence 
solicited. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petuluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breoder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 

L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 

MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market. S 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Dors, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



BEES. 



JOS. C- EN AS. Sunnyfwde, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen bees. Imported Queens furnislied. 



PACIFIC DEPARTMENT 

LONDON AND 

LANCASHIRE 

Fire Insurance Company, 

OF LIVERPOOL. 

CAPITAL $7,500,000 

CASH ASSETS 1,709,076 

U. S. BONDS, depobited in America 400,000 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., 

General Agents, 
316 California Street, - - - San Francisco 

PIANOS 

LARGEST MUSIC HOUSE 

On the Pacific Coast. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Lowest Prices and Best Goods. 

43T Write for information concerning any Musical In- 
strument, and terms of sale. It will be (riven with plea- 
sure. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1850. 

KOHLER & CHASE, 

137 and 139 Post Street, San Francisco. 

ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE. 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 
715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This It 1 1 - la especially fattened as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and ladies visiting the city from the iuLerii.r N>> 
dark rooaaa. tias and running watt r in each room, The floors 
are covered with body Bni>s«.U carpet, and all ot the furniture 
is Diade of solid Unci walnut. Each bed hat* a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dihhes and keep up a constant tire from 
6 a. M. to 7 p. m. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand l'iatio— alt tree to guests. Price 
slugle rooms per night, 5u cts ; per week, from £'J,uO upwards. 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 
At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
to corner Third and Howard. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



Rare Opportunity 



- FOU A 



coLOnsr^r 

— OR — 

Farming Enterprise ! 

A tract of land, comprising 20,000 acres, lying in Town- 
ship 16, south, range 19 and 20 east, in 

FRESNO COUNTY, 

Is offered in whole or in part, as a very desirable location 
for a Colony or extensive fanning enterprise. 

This land is in the immediate vicinity of several Colo- 
nies, which are already in successful progress. 

Work for bringing 1 water upon the land has already 
been commenced, and the land is sn situated that it can 
be irrigated at very little outlay. It is also convenient for 
Railroad transportation. 

Terms Reasonable. 

For further particulars inquire of FRANKLIN D. 
COTTLE, No. 932 Howard Street, San Francisco, or of 
COTTLE & LUCE on the premises, or at Fresno 
City, Cal. 



TO LET. 



TUB CELEBRATED 



BARTON VINEYARD, 

Situated at Old Sun Bernardino, in San Bernardino Co., 
Cal , consisting of eighty (SO) acres of Mission Grapes, 
together with two (2) cellars, one brick and one adobe, a 
small lot of tubs, Tats and pipes, distillery and brick 
dwelling house. Location good and crop sure. Would 
prefer to let for a number of years on easy terms. For 
particulars address H. M BARTON, P. O. Box 88, San 
Bernardino, Cal. 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAfee brothers, 

202 Sansoine Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



LAND 



Good land that w ill r-iise a crop every 
year. Over 14,000 acres for sale in lots to 
suit. Climate healthy. No drouths, bad 
floods, nor malaria. Wood and water 
U. S Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
trated circular, to EDWARD FR1SB1E, Proprietor of 
Reading Ranch, Anderson, Shasta County, CaL 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

W. COLBY President 

.IHHX LKWKLLINti Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPKLLIER Cashier and Manager 

1 RAN K McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

fl. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

.JOHN LEWKLLINU, Vice-President Napa Co 

.1 V. WEBSTER Alameda Go 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. a MEKYFIELD Solano Co 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON JEWETT Keru Co 

C J. CRE8SEY Stanislaus Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOG AH Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted iu the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT isjued for Gold and Silver. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 6% per annum if left for 3 months; V/. per annum if 
left for 6 months: 8 V. ner annum if left for 12 montlm. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States bought and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELiLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Oct. 15th, 1879. 



Comb Foundation. 



Any size sheets and any quantity, 40 cents per pound. 

Feeders, 50 cents each. 

Sample Simplicity Hive, 83.00. Address 

RUFUS MORGAN, 
Bernardo, 6an Diego Co. , CaJ. 



GOOD CROPS EVERY SEASON. 

Productive farms for sale on easy terms in Santa Cruz 
and adjoining counties. State requirements and obtain 
suitable particulars from the Real Estate 

EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal 

Meyrick tt Co,, Insurance and Money Brokers and Agents 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotyp- 
ing done at tho office of the Minimi 
UTD Scibntitio Press, San Francisco, at favorable rate*. 



Engraving.; 



Seedsmen. 




J. Hutchison's Nurseries, 

OAKLAND, CAL, 

Established in 1852 

An immense stock of NEW and RARE PLANTS, Ever- 
green Trees ami Ornamental Shrubbery. 

CYPRESS FOR HEDGES, 

One to three years old. 

Roses. Fuchias, Pinks, Magnolias. 
Camelias. Daphnes. Etc.. Etc., 

In endless variety, at 

BEDROCK PRICES!! 

SEEDS and BULBS of all kinds. Send for Catalogue. 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 

SEED WAREHOUSE, 

409 & 411 Davis St., San Francisco. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

Keep constantlv on hand the largest stock of FIELD 
GARDEN, CONIFER, or 

CALIFORNIA TREE SEEDS, 

On the Pacific Coast. Seeds all FRESH and GENUINE. 
Our Stock is large, especially of the following varieties: 

ALFALFA, BLUE GRASS, 

Red and "White Clover, Red Top, Timothy, 
Australian Rye Grass, Mesquit Grass, 
Lawn Grass and Millet Seeds 

Ol different varieties. Field Seeds, Mangel Wurzel and 
Sugar Beets, Rutabagas, Carrot Seeds of all varieties, 
Peas. Beans, etc. Our assortment of GARDEN and 
FLOWER SEEDS are full and complete. Also, FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES at Nursery Prices. 

Trees For Sale at Lowest Market Rates. 

For Catalogue, Price Lists, etc., apply as above. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Importers, growers of, wholesale and retail dealers in 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 
BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We call the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. £27Trade price 
list on application. 
We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege 
tables. Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc , with full instructions 
as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

607 Sansome Street, S F, 



Thomas A. Cos <& Co., 

Importers and Dealers in 

Vegetable, Flower, Field, Grass 
and Tree Seeds. 



We wish to announce 4o country merchants and the 
trade generally that we are ready to supply all descrip- 
tions of Seeds 'of the New Crop of 1879. 

S|»ecial prices on application. 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds put up in small packets for 
the retail trade. 

FRESH AND TRUE TO NAME. 

Wo will send the following Seeds, postpaid, on receipt 
of price. Remit by P. O. Order or postage stamps: 



Beets, per oz 10c 

Carroto, per oz 10c 

Cabbage, per oz 26c 

Lettuce, per oz 16c 

Onion, per oz 15c 



Parsnips, per oz 10c 

Radish, per oz 10c 

Spinach, per oz 10c 

Turnip, per oz 10c 

Tomato, pcros 25c 



We will mail to any address a collection of 20 packets of 
choice Flower or Garden Seeds for 91. 
Fruit and Ornamental Trees at Nursery Prices. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 

409 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 



PRINGLE'S 

New Hybrid Wheats, 

Champlain and Defiance, 

Heads 6 in. long— 128 bushels to the acre. 

Illustrated circulars showing different methods of cul- 
tivation by which this and other wonderful yields were 
produced, mailed to all applicants. Price of each variety, 
$2.00 per peck, 87.00 per bushel. Bags containing two 
bushels, #13 00. Prices for larger quantities on applica- 
tion. Trial packages by mail, 1 lb., 40 cts.; 3 lbs., $1.00. 

B. K. BLISS Sc SONS, 

P. O. Box 4129. 34 Barclay St., N. Y 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds for 18SO. rich in engravings from 
photographs of the originals, will be sent FREE to all who 
apply. My old customers need not write for it. I offer 
one of the largest collections of Vegetable Seed ever sent 
out by any Seed House in America, a large portion of 
which were grown on my six Seed Farms. Full direction* 
for Cultivation on each package. All seed warranted to 
be both fresh and true to name; so far, that should it 
prove otherwise, 1 will refill the order gratie. The original 
introducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney'e Melon, 
Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores of other 
Vegetables, I invite the patronage of all who are anxunu 
to UN their Heed directly from the grower, freth, true, 
and of the very best strain. 

New Vegetables a Specialty. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY. SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZOUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Eta 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRE8H AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer In Seeds, 
425 Washington Street. - San Francisco. 



A NEW VARIETY! 

Examined and endorsed by Agricultural Departme nt a 
Washington. 

A Large and Luscious 

HYBRID TOMATO. 

Superior to all other Species, taste and flavor assimila- 
ting orchard fruit. 

This species of Tomato, the Yellow Large and Red 
Medium, eash equally delicious in flavor, may be pro- 
cured in packages of about 60 seeds, and will be sent to 
any address on receipt of 25 cents. 

Address SEVER1N MILLER, 

P. O. Box 394, Davenport, Iowa. 



CALIFORNIA 
SUGAR REFINERY, 



Cor. Brannan and Eighth Sts. 



Office, 215 Front Street. 



This Company manufactures all grades of 



HARD AND SOFT SUGARS, 

And a Superior Quality of Syrup known aa 

DIAMOND S 



Supplies only Exporters and Jobbers. 



HMD'S 



BUSINESS 

COLLEGE, 
24 l'ott Street. 
Roar Kmtbj, 

San Pranciia. CaL 



The largest and beet Business College In America. It* 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a S)iecialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structions given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modern Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, ana ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Department. — Ladies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telegraphic Department. — In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College. San Francisco, Cal. 



ASSESSMENT NOTICE- 

The California Fruit Growing Association. 

Location of principal place of business, San Francisco 
Location of works, £1 Dorado county, California. 

Notice fs hereby given, that at a meeting of the Directors, 
held on the 24th day of November, 1879, an assessment (No. 
10), of $4.00 per share was levied upon the capital stock of 
the Corporation, payable immediately in United States fold 
coin, to the Secretary, at the office of the Company, (41 Sac- 
ramento street, Han Francisco. 

Any Btock upou which this assessment shall remain unpaid 
on the 8th day of January, 1880, will be delinquent, and ad- 
vertised for sale at public auction; and unless payment is 
made before, will be sold on Monday, the 3d day of Febru- 
ary, 1880, to pay the delinquent assessment* together with 
costs of advertising and expenses of sale. 

D, A. BROWN. Secretary. 

Office— 641 Sacramento Street 



60 



rOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
.Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford.'Conn. 



Chromo, perfumed. 8nowfiake& Lace cards, name on all 
10c. Game Authors, 15c. Lyman 4; Co., OUntouvUie, Ct 



January 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIP 



URAL PRESS. 



11 



Nurserymen. 



Berries and Jmall Fruits. 

The most certain and best paying Market Berries and 
well tried sorts. 

Monarch of the West 

STRAWBERRIES, 
Most Productive, Largest Berries and Healthiest Grower. 

English Red Antwerp, Naomi & Hersteine 
RASPBERRIES, 

Best paying for market, and are perpetual bearers when 
irrigated. 

KITTATINNY BLACKBERRY, 

The most prolific, largest and most popular sort. 
I offer also a large assortment of new ana old varieties of 

STRAWBERRY, RASPBERRY, 
Blackberry, Gooseberry and Currants. 

For full Price List send for a Catalogue. 

To secure a crop of Berries the first season it is impor- 
tant to plant very early. 

JOHN ROCK, 

San Jose, Cal. 



LOS ANGELES NURSERY. 

The undersigned will furnish Fruit Trees of all kinds 
at low rates. We offer an unusually large stock of 

Apple, Peach and Apricot Trees, 

— ALSO — 

Orange and Other Fruit Trees, 

Our Trees are free from Disease or Blight of any kind. 



We have 

WOOD'S EARLY APRICOT, 

That bears four weeks earlier than any known variety, 
We also have new Apples and Peaches of much promise. 
43T Send for catalogue at once. 

MILTON THOMAS, 

Los Angelea, Cal. 



THOS. MEHERIN, 

516 Battery St., San Francisco. 

Seeds, Trees and Plants. 

We offer for Bale the present season the largest and best 
collection of Fruit and Ornamental Trees ever offered on the 
Pacific Coast, at REDUCED PRICES. Also, 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 

KENTUCKY, AUSTRALIAN and ITALIAN EYE 
GRASS, RED and WHITE CLOVER, Etc. 

Agent for the 

Nurseries of B. S. Fox. 

ASTSend for Price List. 51C Battery Street. San Francisco 



1,000,000' 



Strawberry, Raspberry. Blackberry and 
Cranberry Plants. 

Strawberry Plants.— The Essex Beauty, Crescent, 
Cinderella, Forest Rose, Glendale. Jucmula. Monarch of 
West. Laugforth Proline. Triumphe d' Claud, Wilson Al 
bany. 

RaHpheruy Plants — Cuthbert Early, Early Prolific, Re- 
liance, Pride of the Hudson, Rramiywine, Herstint*, Phila- 
delphia Red, Clark, Henrietta, Hornet, lielle do Fontenay, 
Delaware Bristol. 

Blauk.be rry Plants.— Deering Seedling. Early and 
the most productive of all. I will give satisfactory proof 
that these Berries have realized £750 per acre. It paid more 
than twice as much as the old varieties; also the Early Clus- 
ter, the Vina Beedling, Kittatiuuy, the Mammoth Cluster, 
Missouri Mammoth, Dorchester and Lawtou. 

Cranberry Plants — The Cherry Cranberry Vines at 
310 per 1 . it 11. by mail 64 cents more. 

I will sell to responsible parties on time, part cash, 10-acre 
field of Cranberry vines under cultivation. Can be soeu at 
tbo place. Send for Catalogue. 

H. NYLAND, 
Boulden Island, San Joaquin River, 



Phylloxera-Resisting Vines. 

Vineyard proprietors desiring to plant American Grape 
Vines, which resist the attacks of the Phylloxera, 
either as Grafting Stock, or for direct production, which 
proves to be the only salvation and means of reconstruct- 
ing the destroyed Vineyards of France, will do well to 
address BUSH & SON & MEISSNER, 

Bushberg, Jefferson Co., Mo 



New! The Very Best! 

TRUE TO NAME I 





Nevada City, Cal. 

SPECIALTIES: 

NUTS OF ALL KINDS 

— AND — 

STRAWBERRIES. 



Prceparturiens Walnut, 

[Introduced in California in 1871, by Fbmx Gili.f.t.] 




Prceparturiens Walnut. 

The most piecocious of all soft-shell varieties of Walnut, 
bearing even when three years o'd; hardy; a late bloomer; 
very productive. First bearing trees in California, at 
Felix Gillet's Nursery, fifth crop, 1879. (Full description 
in Descriptive Catalogue.) 

ONE-YEAR-OLD TREES 

Of that new and valuable variety sent to any part of Call 
forriaand the United States, bv mail, FREE of CHARGES, 
in packages of two feet; packed in damp moss and oiled 
paper, and guaranteed to arrive in as FRESH a condition 
as when leaving our Nurseries, at the following prices: 
$1 per tree for less than half a dozen; $8 per dozen, 

$50 Per Hundred. 
Also, One-Year-Old Late or Serotina. 

— AND — 

JEWELER'S WALNUTS, 

At the above Prices. 



Marron de Lyon and Marron Combale 

CHESTNUTS. 



Italian and Spanish Filberts. 

MEDLAR (Monstrueuse.) 
BLACK MULBERRY (NOIR OF SPAIN.) 

23 Varieties of English Gooseberries 

FRENCH, ENGLISH and DUTCH STRAWliERKIF.S 

French Ever-Bearing Raspberry. 

FORTY VARIETIES OF GRAPES, Etc , Etc. 
[£2TSend for Descriptive Catalogue and Price ListT£S 

FELIX GTIiLET, 

Nevada City, Ca?. 



100,000 

AUSTRALIANGUM TREES. 

First-Class Plants. 

Biz to 12 inches high, transplanted into boxes, in good 
condition for transportation. Price, 86 to 812 per 1,000 

JAS. T. STRATTON, Agent, 

Comer 12th Street and 'Jth Avenue, 

Brooklyn, Alameda Co , Cal. 



JAMES HANNAY'S NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I offer for sale at low prices a well assorted stock of 
one-year-old 

Apple, Pear and Cherry Trees. 

Also, a large stock of Apricot, Peach, Pear, Cherry and 
Plum, ID the dormant bud, fur 800 per 1,000. Address 
JAMES HANNAY, San Jose, Cal 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

(Established 1868.) 
For sale at reduced prices, a general assortment of 
Fruit Trees and Small Fruits; also choice Ornamental 
Shrubs, Roses, etc. A limited supply of Cook's Seedling 
Apple, one and two years old. Catalogue and list of prices 
furnished on application. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



B. KOHLER, 
Florist and Nurseryman, 

St. Helena, Napa Co., Cal., 

Will send Grape Cuttings of the principal varieties grown 
n St. Helena District, Napa Valley, to any part of the 
United States at Moderate Charges. 
£3TCorrespondence on Viniculture invited. 



TAKE _NOTTCE ! 

To those contemplating planting ORANGE and LEMON 
Trees, I would recommend only the Best Varieties of 

THORNLESS TREES. 

Catalogue containing full particulars furnished free on 
application, Address THOS. A. GAREY, 

P. 0. Box 188, Los Angeles, Cal 



1879-80. 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 

Field, Garden, Lawn and Tree 

SEEDS. 



Our stock is FULL, FRESH and RELIABLE. In these 
essential particulars we claim to be unsurpassed. We 
have largely increased our list of varieties by importations 
from the best growers in the East and Europe. We make 
specialties of 

ALFALFA, RED CLOVER, 

Timothy, Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass, 
HUNGARIAN GRASS, MILLET, 

Mesquit Grass, Lawn Grasses, Etc. 

Also, DUTCH FLOWERING BULBS of every descrip- 
tion. Catalogue mailed free on application. We also do a 

Wholesale Commission Business, 

Handling all kinds of California and Tropical, Green and 
Dried Fruits, Nuts, Honey and General Merchandise. 
All orders promptly attended to. Address 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 
6, 8 and lO J Street, Sacramento, Cal 



Santa Clara Valley Nursery, 

B. S. FOX, Proprietor. 

I offer for sale this season a large general assortment of 
Nursery stock, 

FRUIT TREES, SMALL FRUJTS, 
Shade and Ornamental Trees 

— AND — 

PLANTS, ROSES, ETC. 

Apple and Pear Seedlings 

AT REDUCED PRICES. 

Also the MYROBOLAN PLUM STOCK, which does 
not sucker. 

To partite buying largely I offer Special Inducements. 
Address B. S. FOX, San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 

516 Battery St., San Francisco. 



A MAG NIFICEN T FRUIT 
THE JAPANESE PERSIMMON 




SEVEN BEST VARIETIES— All Guaftetj 



Fruit grown at San Rafael, Cal., 10 Inclir.s in 
circumference, 
i, 2 and 3 year old trees for sale. 
j^O-EIsTTS WANTED. 



HENRY LOOMIS, 

320 Sansomo St. San Francisco. 



HAN NAY'S NURSERY. 

San Jose, Cal. 

I offer for sale this season, a large and well assorted 
stock of 

Fruit, 'Shade and Ornamental Trees. 
My trees are WELL GROWN and HEALTHY, and of the 

Best Known Varieties. 

JOHN HANNAY. 
Succcessor to Hannay Bros,, 
San Jose, Cal. 




Will be mailed prks to all applicants, and to customers without 
ordering it. It contains four colored plates, 600 eiizravlnrs, 
About 200 paces, and full descriptions, prices and direction, for 
planting 1500 varieties of Vegetable and Flower Seeds, Phots, 
liv-l.-, v U, Invaluable to .ill. Send for it. Address, 

D, M, FEREY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



River Bank Nursery. 

The undersigned offers .'or sale the present si 
fine stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 
EVERGREENS, SHRUBBERY, 

Green-House Plants, Palms, 

ORANGE TREES, TUBEROSE BULBS, ETC. 
Also, a large and fine assAment of Roses. 

A large stock of "MONARCH OF THE WEST" Straw- 
berry Plants, one of the best market Berries, especially 
for light, sandy soils. 



L. F. SANDERSON, 



San Jose, Cal. 



Comer of Twelfth street and Berrye^sa road —one block 
from terminus o north side horse railroad. 

THE DINGEE & CONARD CO'S 

BKAUTIFUIs EVER-BLOOMING 




We deliver STRONG POT ROSES for Winter 
Bloom and Fall Planting, snfrhj by mail, at all 
post-offices. Five Splendid Varieties, your choice, 
all labeled, for $1 ; 13 for $£ ; 19 for $3 j 20 for 
$4s 33 for $3; 75 for $10; 100 for $13. Send 
for our New Guide to Rose Culture, and 
Choose from, over 500 Finest Sorts. Our Great 
Specialty is growing and distributing Roses. 
THEJDINGEE & CONARD CO., 
Rose-Growers,W'EST Grove, Chester Co.,Pa. 



Poultry. 



Napa Yalley Poultry Farm. 




logue and Price List. 



Headquarters for all the 

leading varieties of 
PURE BRED POULTRY 1 
WHITE and BROWN 
LEGHORNS, 
PLYMOUTH 
ROCKS, 
AYLESBURY 
DUCKS, BRONZE 
TURKEYS, TOULOUSE 
GEEESE, ETC,, ETC., ETC. 

Price of Fowls and Eggs as 
low as the high standing Of 
stamp for Illustrated Cata- 
R. G. HEAD. 
Napa, Cal. 



Putah Creek Poultry Yard. 

Plymouth Rocks and Bro.vn Leghorns, bred from the 
best imported strains, offered cheap for the next six 
weeks to reduce stock. 

MAMMOTH BRONZE TURKEYS, the best in the State, 
all last spring's hatch, bred from the finest imported 
stock, offered for sale cheap. For price list address 
MRS. L. E. McMAHON, 

Dixon, Solano Co., Cal. 




If You Want to Make Money 

By raising any number of Chickens at any season of 
the year without setting hens, frocure an 

ECLIPSE INCUBATOR 

(E. A. Samuel's Patent). 

In both public and private trials on this coast as else- 
where, the "ECLIPSE" has proved itself a perfect and 
successful Egg Hatcher. It may be examined and its 
merits proven to customers before they make purchases. 
Write for particulars and circulars to 

G. G. WICKSON, 319 Market Street, S. F. 

Agent for the Pacific Coast. 



K EATING'S COUGH LOZENGES! 
The Gre it British Remedy, There is unquestion- 
ably no other remedy so certain in itseffects. ASTH- 
MA, WINTER COUGH, BRONCHITIS and DIS- 
ORDERS of the THROAT alike yield to its influ- 
ence. The highest medical testimony states no 
better cure for these complaints exist (now proved 
by over a half a century's experience.) They contain no 
opium, morphia, or any violent drug. KEATING'S COUGH 
LOZENGES prepared by THOMAS KEATING, London, 
Britain, are sold by all Druggists. 



SITUATION WANTED. 

A Mechanic, 41 years of age, desires a situation on a 
Farm. Wages not so much of an object, for the first f x 
months, as a wish in remove from the city for the winter, 
and to gain some general information of farm work, be- 
fore going into the farming business for himself. Ad- 
dress, J- SHOER3, 
No 639 Mission St.. S. F. 

Agricultural Books. 

Orders for Agricultural and Scientific Books in general 
will be Ktippli d through this office, at published rates. 

Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed & Chromo Cards.name 
in gold and jet, 10c. Cliuton Bros., Clintonville, Ct 



62 



12 



THE PACIFIC 'RUftAL PRESS. 



[January 3, 1880. 



A TENTS AND ^I NVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



[From Official 
Press, 



Reports for the "Mining and Scientific 
' Dcuea>& Co., Publishers and U 



iWSJ*) 

S'. and Foreign Patent Agents.] 

For tiik Wkrk Ebtduts Decrmber 16tii, 1879. 
222,670.— Rock Crusher— E. Coleman, S. F. 
222,ti88.— Grain Separator— A. Fugt-1, Clayton, Cal. 
222,584 — Brc-KLB— J. H. Goldstein, S. F. 
222,708 — Ovhralls— C A. Jones, S. F. 
222.758.— Binif.r—G. Wedel, S. V. 
222, 7b«.— Valvk— F. Woodward, S. F. 
2,1111-2,162.— Bittkrs— Label— H. J. McCormick, Port- 
land, Oregon. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Drwiy ii Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible lime. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 'a Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention i 

Improvement in Middlings Scourers and 
Purifiers. — George Summerton, 1422 Pacific 
street, S. P. Patented Nov. ISth, 1S79. No. 
221,751. In the ordinary machines for purify- 
ing middlings, difficulty is experienced in re- 
moving a peculiar fuzzy substance with which 
the middlings are intermingled. This substance 
seems to cling to the middlings in such a man- 
ner that it is not removed by an ordinary air 
blast, and can only be thoroughly removed by 
rubbing. It is not desirable to regriud this 
fuzz or light substance, and the inventor has 
therefore devised a means of scrubbing the sub 
stance under treatment so as to remove the 
fuzzy or light material from the middlings and 
blow it away, thus separating the valuable 
material from the dross. To accomplish this, a 
aeries of corrugated tables is mounted, one 
above another, in a cylinder or case, at the top 
of which is a peculiarly constructed propeller 
shaped fan for inducing an air current or blast. 
In the center of the c\ Under is a series of verti- 
cal circular diaphragms, corresponding in 
number to the number of tables, in the bottom 
of which are arranged circular rows of brushes 
which may be kept in contact with the tables, 
these brushes scouring or scrubbing the mid- 
dlings on the tables so as to separate the light 
material which is drawn off by the air current. 
These diaphragms also answer the purpose of 
air tubes for directing the blast. Suitable 
arrangements are made for controlling the feed 
of material, for regulating the blast of air, and 
for adjusting the scrub of the brushes. 

Atmospheric Pumpino System. — VV. P. 
Barclay, S. F. Patented Nov. 25th, 1879. No. 
221,903. The improvements consist in provid- 
ing at the surface of a mine an air-discharge 
cylinder or vacuum engine, connected by an air 
pipe with a series of atmospheric engines, situ- 
ated at different levels in the mine, said engine 
being suitably connected with plunger force 
pumps. The air-discharge cylinder takes the 
atmospheric pressure or weight from opposite 
sides of the piston of the atmospheric engines 
alternately, so that these engines and their con- 
nected pumps will be operated at different 
levels by the one air-discharge cylinder, thus 
dispensing with all heavy pump rods. By this 
means, in a mine, for instance, two thousand 
feet in depth, instead of the pumps being 
worked by a massive engine on the surface, con- 
nected to the pumps by heavy pump rods ex- 
tending the whole depth, with the attendant 
balance rod, bob, etc., the separate pumps are 
worked hy the single air-discharge cylinder, as 
described. 

Finger Rings. — Charles M. Halsey, 131 
Kearny street, San Francisco. Patented Nov. 
18th, 1879, No. 221,728. In the construction 
of tin- ring an outer perforated ring is provided 
with a milled edge or tlange, and an inner ring 
having characters upon it and a milled edge or 
flange, the edge of one of said rings having a 
teat or lug which fits into a groove in the edge 
adjacent to the milled tlange of the other, for 
securing them together. Different designs or 
combinations of letters may be engraved on the 
inner ring, which will all show through the 
openings or slots in the outer one, as it is turntd 
one way or another, one design showing at one 
time and another at another, as the outer ring 
is turned. 



A Cow-Testino Club. — We recently an- 
nounced an approaching meeting in New York 
city of those interested in determining the com- 
parative value of different breeds of cattle by 
the pail test. The meeting was held Dec. 10th, 
and the following officers were elected. Each 
name is followed by the name of the breed in 
which the person is particularly interested: 
President, T. S. Gold, natives; first vice, H. C. 
Hoffman, Holsteins; second vice, Henry Stew- 
art, Ayrshires; Treasurer, E. H. Allen, Short 
Horns; Secretary, L. S Hardin; Executive Com- 
mittee, F. D. Curtis, Ayrshires; \V. L. Ruther- 
ford, Jerseys; James \Vilson, Holsteins; Edward 
E. Waring, Jerseys; Ezra Michener, Guernseys. 
The title of the "National Dairymen's Cattle 
Club" was taken by the association. 



The Youths' Directory. 

Editors Press: — This institution, maintained 
by the generous offerings of the public, is a 
temporary shelter for friendless boys of any 
race or creed, awaiting situations. It includes 
in the same building an intelligence bureau, 
equally free for all aorta of young people, of 
either aex, in quest of work. The establish- 
ment affords gratuitously all the necessaries of 
a home. There is no class discrimination made 
between applicants at the reception office, No. 
1417 Howard street, open every day from 9 
o'clock in the morning until 1 in the afternoon. 
During the twelve months ending December 1, 
1879, there were placed at service, in town and 
in the country, 4,390 boys, 982 girls, and inci- 
dentally, 2S9 men; making a total of 5,6'6'2, or 
about 1 6 per day, on a medial estimate. Very 
many of the stronger lads were hired to pick 
hops, gather fruits and harvest the grain. Their 
wages averaged S15 per month including board 
and transportation. 

For the same period the refectory provided 
G,993 warm, substantial meals, while the dor- 
mitory furnished 2,276 lodgings, with clean 
beds, wearing apparel and requisites for wash- 
ing purposes. 

The Youths' Directory was organized by the 
large hearted citizens of San Francisco, and it 
now stands upon a pasis of the broadest charity, 
without distinction of origin or denomination. 
Among its promoters may be mentioned at ran 
dom the names of Archbishop Alemany, D. 0. 
Mills, James C. Flood, Milton S. Latham, 
John W. Mackey, Lloyd Tevis, Joseph A Dono 
hoe, W. Lane Booker, James R. Kelley and 
• iustave Touchard. It was founded in 1874. 
From that time to this, according to records 
carefully kept, the agency has procured employ 
ment to upward of lb',000 boys, 2,000 girls and 
some 800 men, repre8enting individuals of every 
tongue, kindred, religion and type in society, 
with ages ranging in the aggregate, from early 
childhood to mature life. 

The institution, in all its departments, con- 
tinues to be managed on principles of the strict- 
eat economy conaistent with efficiency. Its run- 
ning outlays have never exceeded the rate of 
$100 per month. 

Contributions in cash, or in kind, for the 
benefit of our waifs and wards, are earnestly 
solicited at this season of blessed benefactions to 
the poor and of universal joyance. 

A. P. Dietz, Superintendent. 



False Butter in New Y'ork. — In New York 
State they have a law against marketing "oleo- 
margarine," or the false butter made from beef 
suet without plainly branding it so that pur- 
chasers may not be led to believe it .the genu- 
ine product of the cow. Some New York mer- 
chants persist in getting around the law by 
using indistinct brands, etc. The evil has gone 
so far that a society of dealers in the true article 
has been formed, called "The National Associa- 
tion for the Prevention of Adulteration of But- 
ter." The society lately held a meeting at the 
American Exchange in New York and elected 
W. Winsor, President, and T. Mortimer Seaver, 
Secretary. A committee of five was appointed 
to take steps to vigorously prosecute all parties 
violating the law; against palming off oleomar- 
garine and other compounds as butter; and at a 
subsequent meeting of the committee Mr. 
Seaver was appointed attorney and counsel for 
the association, with instructions to proceed at 
once in New York, Brooklyn and New Jersey. 
The committee on subscription reported every 
prospect of raising the $5,000_in a few days 
necessary for prosecution. 



Bone Fertilizers. — We are pleased to learn 
that the preliminary tests which are being made 
in the use of bone meal in this State are yield- 
ing very satisfactory results and the shipments 
to the country are constantly increasing. Among 
others who give emphatic testimony to the value 
of bone meal in his vineyard is G. Gro>singer of 
Yduntville. Mr. Grcesiuger has seen the effect8 
from full trial of it and ia applying more each 
year and advising his neighbors to do the same, 
Bone meal is known by the experience of other 
countries to be excellent for cereals and forage 
plants as well as for vines and fruit trees. In 
fact, in almost any case of diminished yield in 
field or garden crops, bone meal is a powerful 
restorative. Mr. Haas, of the Pacific Bone- 
Coal and Fertilizing Co., 523 Market street, 
San Francisco, informs us that the call for sam- 
ple lots for experiment is increasing, and he is 
hopeful that the demand will soon be so great 
that he will not be obliged to ship the Lone 
meal to Australia to find a market. 



Our Climate. 

What weather! Will it never stop raining? 
Drizzle, drizzle all day long; then with night- 
fall bigger drops coming thicker and taster, till 
their steady patter lulls the somnolont Sacra- 
mentan into dreams of a second Noachian Del- 
uge, the promise of Scripture to the contrary 
notwithstanding. Mornings following full of 
promises to the eye, only to break them before 
midday to the new bonnet or hat that ventures 
away tiom home without an umbrella. Then 
how freezing cold the nights! "Don't you think 
the climate is changing?" Well, no; we guess 
not. "'The conjunction of the planets " aside, 
we think that nature is going on in about the 
same old style. She don't take her fashions 
from Paris, and the old lady is getting too far 
along in years to be trying on new styles every 
quarter. In fact, she is growing conservative. 
Science assures us that she is not nearly so 
much given to "getting on a tear " as in her 
younger days. And her habits on this coast 
have certainly been pretty much the same as 
now for thirty years past. Read Bayard Tay- 
lor's desciiption of a rain-storm here in '49, and 
you have only to change the date to '79 to have 
a perfect description of what we have just been 
experiencing. The same alternation of shine 
and shower; the same quiet downpour for a 
time, mcceeded by gusty blasts that whip the 
falling drops into a white spray, and drive them 
through the air like clouds of snow. We re- 
member, also, one morning near Christmas fif- 
teen years ago, here in Oakland, we found our 
well-pump frozen up tight. We had to admin- 
ister a morning dram, a sort of hot temperance 
toddy, from the boiling tea-kettle, before we 
coull persuade the tiling to "resume'' and 
"emit.' Per contra, we remember to have 
seen, four or five years earlier, here in this same 
Oakland, a hollyhock growing in the garden of 
Rev. J. D. Strong, that was fifteen feet five 
inches high. Rev. Dr. Bell assured us that it 
liad withstood the frosts of three winters, and 
started out on a new growth three successive 
springs. This annual threatened to become a 
perennial and grow into a tree, and hold perma- 
nent possession of the ground, against all no- 
tices to quit from King Frost, or Winter's pro- 
cesses of ejectment. Among other things that 
give us a "Merry Christmas," let us thank God 
for a beautiful climate. — Work and Pkiy. 



Giving a Pig Medicine. — At a recent meet- 
ing of an English farmer's club, Prof. McBride 
spoke of the difficulty of administering medi- 
cine to a pig. He said: To dose a pig, which 
you are sure to choke if you attempt to make 
him drink while squealing, baiter him as you 
would for execution, and tie the rope end to a 
stake. He will pull back until the rope is tightly 
strained. When he has ceased his uproar and 
begins to reflect, approach him, and between the 
back part of his jaws insert an old shoe, from 
which you have cut the toe leather. This he 
will at once begin to suck and chew. Through 
it pour medicine, and he will swallow any quan 
tity you please. 

Black Sea Canal. — The gigantic project for 
the construction of a canal through the Cau- 
casus, from the Black sea to the Caspian sea, 
is meeting with great favor in St. Petersburg 
from those interested in direct commerce from 
the Black sea with Central Asia. 



From an Advertiser. 



Morf, Exported Sheep. — The movement of 
California sheep for the great central grazing 
regions of the country bids fair to continue. 
We learn from the Bakersfield Courier that 
Mr. S. Jewett proposes to start for Montana in 
April next, with a band of fine-bred bucks, 
about 500 head. We trust this enterprise will 
turn the attention of purchasers in Montana, 
Wyoming and Colorado to our supply of well- 
bred bucks. There is no occasion to go East 
for such stock. 



Entomological Specimens.— To preserve 
from insect ravages: Place crystals of carbolic 
acid throughout the cabinets, and the evapora- 
tion of the crystals will keep them thoroughly 
saturated with carbolic acid vapors, which will 
kill all living insects therein, 



Napa, December 9th, 1879. 
Drwrv B Co , S. F — &>»/*:— Please send some of those 
catalogues without delay. I will he compelled to discon 
tinue advertising unless I get them. The Prrss certainly 
has a very extensive circulation, or are all of your sub- 
scribers poultry raisers? From the one insertion of my 
advertisement I have received just thirty-eight letters for 
price lists of poultry and eggs, and as the Rural Prbss 
is the only paper I am advertising in at present and as 
you know only one insertion, it certainly pays to adver- 
tise, at least that has been my experience since Saturday, 
only three davs ago. Yours truly, R. O. Hrad. 



Tim Rivrrbidr House is pleasantly located in the center 
of the town in Riverside Colony, San Bernardino Co. It 
is a new two-story brick building, containing some 40 
rooms. Health-seekers and other visitors to this most 
favored climate will find good boarding accommodation 
at favorable rates. For further information address the 
proprietors, Cunningham Si Moodt, Riverside, San Ber- 
nardino Co., Cal. 



How to STOr this Paper. —It is not a herculean task to 
stop this paper. Notify the publishers by Utter. If it 
comes beyond the time desired, you can depend upon it 
we do not know that the subscriber wants it stopped. So 
be sure and send us notice by letter. 



Insurance —We refer to the announcement in another 
column of the old and well-known fire and marine in- 
surance firm, Hutchinson & Mann, of No. 322 and 324 Cali- 
fornia street. They represent twelve companies, with an 
aggregate capital of $23,000,000. 



The Kalamazoo Spring Tooth Harrow. 

Editors Press:— We were shown at Messrs. Van Gelder, 
Batchelor & Co. 's manufacturing establishment. No. 902 K 
St., bet. 9th and 10th, a new invention of a harrow made 
with spring teeth, the first presented on the Pacific coast. 
The company has lately established themselves in our city, 
coming here from Michigan, bringing high testimony of 
esteem which farmers bear to the company and theirgood 
opinion of the spring tooth harrow, which is now largely 
used from the Hudson river to the Rocky mountains. 

The principal points of the harrow are that the teeth 
are made of the best quality of steel, and by adjusting 
them it is in full control by the operator. The teeth are 
self-sharpening, and being broad they All all depressions, 
acting like a cultivator and pulverizing the soil finely. 

The teeth easily vibrate. Wheu one strikes any solid 
surface it springs back, without interfering with the 
others. The wood is the best heart oak. There is no 
mortise in its construction. It is fastened by bolts, mak- 
ing it strong and durable, and well suited for our climate. 
It seems to me the strongest point is the manner the 
harrow pulverizes the soil, leaving an admirable surface, 
obviating a large per cent, of wear and tear of a reaper 
and mower. 

There are three sizes for general use, 7, 8 and 10 feet, 
used for one to four horses. The company is daily re- 
ceiving orders from abroad. To show how they are taken 
in various parts, it is stated that the sale from the 1st of 
November to the present time reached over $2,000. Eight 
thousand of these harrows were sold East since the 1st of 
October. The testimony of J. A. Nickenton, at Lincoln, 
Cal., states that the harrow was worked at the vineyard 
of the California Raisin Co., Rocklin, and that it is the 
implement for vineyard culture In California. He esti- 
mates that their exclusive use in the vineyard will sara 
the company $800 per year, besides saving most of the 
hoeing. r 

Sacramento, Dec. 17th, 1879. 



Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. G ruber's groat 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Fisher, Richardson & Co.'s Semi- Tropical 
Nurseries. 

Editors Press:— While recently visiting the western 
suburbs of Los Angeles, we tarried awhile in the flourish- 
ing semi-tropical nurseries of Fisher, Richardson & Co., 
which cover some 20 acres. The nurseries front on San 
Pedro street, near the railroad, and convenient for ship- 
ping easily and securely packed while fresh. Having 
been established several years, under careful and able 
management, it is well grounded in the esteem of its 
numerous patrons, and is one of the permanent institu- 
tions of southern California. We saw over 60,900 orange 
and lemon trees, 20,000 limes, 25,000 apples, and a choice 
lot of pear, peach, apricot and other trees now in demand. 
Mr. C. H. Richardson exercises a constant supervision 
over all details of the management, assisted by skilled 
help. 

The straight, vigorous and healthy growth of the trees 
attest the efficiency of his labors as we glance over row 
after row of even stock stretching across the field. We 
saw here in operation a notable device called the Western 
Tree Digger, used in digging deciduous trees. It is semi- 
square, in shape something like a scraper, but much 
deeper, and without a back, with long handles extending 
behind for guidance. The front is a sharp cutting edge* 
running eighteen to twenty inches beneath the surface, 
severing the roots with a clean cut, preserving the fibrous 
roots induced by root pruning in the spring of 1879. 
Thus, the trees are in admirable condition, as they corns 
from the clean sandy loam, and are ready to renew a 
speedy and vigorous growth in their new quarters. 

Trees, in large or small quantities, and in great variety, 
may be obtained at reasonable rates by addressing Fisher, 
Richardson * Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 



OUR AGENTS. 

Our Friends can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
innuence and encouraging favors. We Intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. Tharp— San Francisco. 

B. W. Crowkll — California. 

A. C. Knox— Pacific Coast. 

S. V. Blakksi.ee —California. 

G. W. McGrrw— Santa Clara county. 
J. B. Bacbelder.— Shasta County, Cal. 
James Rooirs— Oregon and Washington Ter. 

Tuos. H. Manning— Nevada, Idaho and Montana Ter. 
Capt. W. H. Seamens— Arizona. 
M. P. Owen— Santa Cruz County. 

H. E. Hallktt— Los Angeles County. 
Perlev P. Kilbournk -Sacramento County. 
M. R Starr— Contra Costa couuty. 



Fearless Railway Threshing- Machine. 

Wc call the attention of farmers and threshcrmeo 
to the advertisement of the Fearless Horse-Power 
and Thresher and Cleaner, elsewhere in this number 
of our paper. This machine is the only one that 
received an Award on botli Horse- Power and 
Thresher and Cleaner at (he Centennial Exhibition, 
Philadelphia, and ranks as best of its class. An 
Ex-Prcsidcnt of the New York State Agricultural 
Society said of narders' Machines, " they are the 
best ever made ", and the same testimony has been 
borne by equally good authority time and again. 

For further information send to Hinard Harder, 
Cobleskil), N. Y. 



Sample Copies —Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending it 
circulation. We call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate ths copy sent. 



Extra Copies can usually be had of each issue of this 
paper, if ordered sarly. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 



Every new subscriber who does not receive 
the paper, and every old subscriber not credited 
on the label, within two weeks after paying for 
this paper, should write personally to the pub- 
lishers without delay, to secure proper credit. 
This is necessary to protect ourselves and sub- 
scribers against the acts and mistakes of others. 



Bound Volumes of the Press— We have a few sets of 
the back files of the Pacific Rural Press, which we wi]I : 
sell for $3 per 0>alf-year|y) volume. In cloth and leather 
binding, $6. These volumes, complete, are scarce, and 
valuable for future reference and library use. 



uary 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUHL PRESS. 



13 



Noti. — Our trad* review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Tuesday, Dec. 30, 1819. 

The week is in the heart of the holidays, and the duties 
incident to the close of the year's business occupy consid- 
erable attention in commercial houses. The general tenor 
of Produce prices has been firm, but transactions have 
not been considerable. The most important feature of 
the week lies in the advance in the Wheat market and the 
hightened confidence among holders. This is owing 
chiefly to the continued reports of unusual needs in 
Europe, and is in part produced by the excitement in 
New York and Chicago, where purchases of Wheat for 
speculation are reported to be unprecedented in amount. 
The Provision market is also affected by the excitement at 
packing points at the East, and prices of Eastern goods 
have shown an upward tendency. The Fruit market is 
fairly active. Supplies of Los Angeles Oranges are coming 
in more freely, and the best sell as high as 850 per M, the 
price fixed last week. Detailed prices of other commodi" 
ties may be found in the tables below. 

The Liverpool Wheat cable has remained stationary du- 
ring the week, as may be seen by the following: 
Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

Thecour86 of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 





Cal. Avhraoh. 


Club. 


Thursday 


10s 


8d<ails 


7d 


lis 


6dt311s 


lOd 




108 


8d@lls 


7d 


lis 


6d@12s 


lOd 


Saturday. . . . 


10s 


8d@lls 


7d 


lis 


6d<ai2s 


lOd 




10s 


8d@Us 


7d 


lis 


6d(»12s 


lOd 


Tuesday 


10s 


8d tails 


7d 


lis 


6d(»lls 


lOd 


Wednesday . 


10s 


8d@lls 


7d 


lis 


6d@lls 


lOd 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Club. 

1877 12s 7d@12s lid 12s 10d@13s 2d 

1878 9s ld@9s 6d 9s 6d@ 9s lOd 

1879 10s 8d@lls 7d lie 6d@lls lOd 

* Freights and Charters. 
The latest charters reported are the British iron bark 
Cape Clear, 880 tons, Wheat to Cork or Havre at £3 7fl 
6d, and the British iron bark Havilah, 472 tons, Wheat to 
Cork or Havre, £3 10s. 

The Foreign Review. 

London, December 30. —The Mark Lane Express says: 
There is little to be said concerning the trade during the 
past week, as in consequence of the holidays, business is 
almost at a standstill. There were a few retail sales of 
Wheat at previous prices. There has been more Maize 
offering, both on the spot and to arrive, and it declined 
6d. Sales of English Wheat during the week were 47,- 
048 quarters, at 47s Id per quarter, against 54,381 quart- 
ers, at 39s 9d per quarter, for the corresponding week last 
year. Imports into the United Kingdom, duringj£the 
week ending December 20th, were 1,243,448 c»ts of 
Wheat, and 250,875 cwts of Flour. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, Dec. 27.— Wool is moderately active at full 
prices. Offerings are small. Advices from abroad are 
strong and buoyant, and indicate a reduced amount of de- 
sirable stock. Sales of 117,000 lbs, and 100 bales Fall 
California, at 21@35c. 

Boston, Dec. 27.— The market is quiet, but sales are 
quite large for a holiday week. Medium Wools are held 
firmly, with no disposition to yield on the part of holders. 
Offers for large lots of Wool have been refused with only 
about Jc per lb difference in the views of buyers and sel- 
lers. Pulled Wools are in very fair demand and quite 
firm. In combing and delaine fleeces sales aggregated only 
50,000 lbs, but there was considerable doing in English 
combing, the latter mostly for clothing purposes. East- 
ern Ongon, 32ic; super and X pulled, 40@G2c; scoured, 
49@75c. California is in steady demand, and supplies of 
Fall are fast disappearing on a quiet market. Sales of 
Fall this week, S54,000 lbs at 22J@32e, and 3,000 lbs Spring 
at 32@36Jc. Total sales of domestic for the week, 1,277,- 
660 lbs. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets?. 

Chicago, Dec. 27.— The Grain market has been so com- 
pletely under the thumb of the New York speculative 
ring that all theories based on receipts, shipments, de- 
mand and supply are necessarily wholly out of place and 
needless. With Grain piling up'here at the rate of from a 
million and a half to two million bushels weekly, with 
prices much lower in Liverpool and New York than here 
—taking freight charges into account— with No. 1 Spring 
Wheat selling a cent lower than No. 2, the anomalous 
market affords few opportunities for intelligent trading, 
and none for justifiable prophecy. What the ring intend 
to do with their large accumulation of property it would 
be impossible to say; but as they are reported to be finan- 
cially able to take care of what comes, they may be able 
to carry prices to a point when they can let their Wheat 
go without breaking the market so seriously as to impair 
their fortunes. Their friends here assert that such is their 
plan. But it is certain that in the present condition of 
the market it would not require any serious depressing 
circumstance to bring about a steady break that would 
interfere seriously with the plans of the extremists. On 
the other hand, the short interest is trimming its nails 
very closely, and is afraid to bid against the combination 
lest some morning there be a great rise. A European war, 
or a very bad stretch of weather in the Northwest, would 
in all probability effect a strong advance of prices. 

New York, Dec. 27.— Tho markets present a quiet ap- 
pearance, and trade is somewhat restricted by prepara- 
tions for the usual annual balances and settlements inci- 
dent to the end of the year. Breadstuffs are dull and not 
much trade is expected until prices advance in Europe or 
largo holders of grain in this city get tired of carrying the 
immense stock they have on hand. Prices quoted bj cable 
from Europe denote very little prospect of an advance in 
price. Provisions are dull and prices are about steady. 



BAGS AND BAGGING. 

jobbing pricks.1 

Tuesday m., December 30, 1879. 



Eng Standard Wheat. 11 #12 
California Manufacture. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36 . 11 ©12 

24x36 HJ<ai2 

22x40 _ §12 

23x40 _ @12J 

24x40 13 @13j 

Machine Swd, 22x36. — @11 
Flour Sacks, halves.. . . 8 @10J 
Quartan £ a 64 



Eighths 

Hessian, 60 Inch 

45 inch 

40 Inch 

Woolsacks, 

Hand Sewed, 3J lb . . 

4 lb do 

Machine Sewed . . 
Standard Gunnies. 
Bean Bags 



3|0 4 

- @14 

9 §10 

8}«e a 

46 ©47 
47R5-55 
45 

- mi 

6!@ 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

fWHOLRSALB.l 

Tuesday m.. December 30. 1379. 

18 



16 



BEANS A PEAS. 

Kayo, ctl 1 10 @1 25 

Butter 1 25 @1 40 

Castor 3 25 @3 50 

Pea 1 25 @1 40 

Bed 95 @1 05 

Pink 95 @1 05 

Sm'l White 1 ^jai 25 

Lima 6 00 C*6 50 

Field Peas, yellow.l 37(@1 50 
do, green.. 95 @1 00 
BROOM €OK.\. 

Southern li@ 2 

Northern 2|@ 3- 

CHICCOKY, 

California 4 i 

German SJl, 

DAIRY FRWDITCE, ETC 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 25 <& 28 

Fancy Brands — @ 30 

Pickle Roll 22i@ 24 

Firkin 18 @ 22 

Western 12j@ 15 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb.... 14 tfb 
N. Y. State — @ 

EOGS. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 

Ducks' 

Oregon 

Eastern, by expr'sB. 

Pickled here 

Utah 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 11 00 @17 00 

Corn Meal 22 60 i«23 50 

Hay 7 50 @12 50 

Middlings (a22 00 

Oil Cake Meal... 34 00 & 

Straw, bale 40 @ 50 

H Ol It. 
Extra, City Mills. .6 12J<a6 62J 
do, Co'ntry Mills 5 75 ^6 00 

do, Oregon 5 25 ©5 62* 

do, Walla Walla. 5 75 @6 12 j 

Superfine 3 50 @4 25 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 6 @ 

Second 44®' 

Third 3l® 

Mutton 4$@ 

Spring Lamb 6 @ 

Pork, undressed... 3j(6? 

Dressed 5 @ 

Veal 5 <§ 

Milk Calves 64<g 

do choice... 6$@ 
GRAIN, ETU. 
Barley, feed. ctl... 70 @ 77 
do, Brewing. . . 85 @ 97 

Chevalier 1 50 ©1 75 

do, Coast.. 1 00 @1 20 

Buckwheat 1 25 (eel 35 

Corn, White 95 @ 97 J 

Yellow 95 @1 00 

Small Round.... 97J(5l 02{ 

Oats 1 00 m 35 

Milling - <al 50 

Rye 1 10 ©1 25 

Wheat, No. 1 2 05 ©2 07* 

do, No 2 1 97|®2 02J 

do, No. 3 1 70 ©1 75 

Choice Milling.. 2 05 @2 10 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 20 © 20* 

Wet sal ted 9 @ 10 

HONEY. ETC 

Beeswax, tt> 22i@ 251 

Honey in comb. . .. 15 18 

do. No 2 12j@ 15 

Dark 10 



75 



Filberts 17 @ 

ONIONS. 

Alviso 40 © 

Union City, ctl.... 87J© 

San Leandro — @ 

Stockton — © 

Sacramento River. 40 © 

Oregon — @ 

Red — © 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma. ctl 40 © 62J 

Tomales 40 © 62j 

Humboldt — "3 — 

Cuffey Cove 85 © 

Early Rose, sk.... 20 © 

4 J Half M'n Bay, new 35 © 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



874 

40 

SO 



Extracted . 



Alvarado. red 65 ® 

Jersey Blue , . 85 ^1 (JO 

Sweet — © 50 

POULTRY .V GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 00© 7 00 

Roosters 4 00© 5 50 

Broilers 3 00© 4 00 

Ducks, tame. doz.. 6 00« 7 00 

Mallard 3 00© 3 50 

Sprig 1 60© 1 75 

Teal 1 00@ 1 25 

Widgeon 1 00© 1 25 

Geese, pair 1 75© 2 25 

Wild Gray, doz.. 2 50,» 3 00 

White do 1 00.* 1 25 

Turkeys 14 @— 16 

do, Dressed 16 @— 18 

Snipe Eng - ® 1 50 

do. Common — @ 50 

Quail, doz — @ 75 

Rabbits 50 @ 1 00 

Hare 1 50 © 2 00 

Venison — ®— — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, H'vy. lb 84© 9 

Medium 9 © 94 

Light 9 © 10 

Lard 84© 9J 

Cal. Smoked Beef Si© Si 
Shoulders, Cover'd 64(5 7 

Hams. Cal 94© 10 

Dupee's — © 15 

None Such — (§ 144 

Whittaner — © — 

Royal 144© 15 

Reliable — @ — 

Palmetto 13J© 134 

Browu's — © 13J 

H. Ames &. Co.. 144© 15 
SEEOS. 

Alfalfa 6 © 

do, Chile 5 

Canary — 

Clover, Red 16 

White 50 

Cotton — 

Flaxseed 2Ji_ 

Hemp 8 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 20 © 

Perennial 30 

Millet, German . . 

do, Common . . 
Mustard, White... 

Brown 

llape 

K y Blue Grass 25 

2d quality 20 <| 

Sweet V Grass. .. . - 

Orchard 20 

Red Top - 

Hungarian 

Lawn 30 © 

Mesquit — (0 

Timothy - 

TALLOW. 
Crude, lb 5S @ 



HOPS. 

Oregon, 35 © 

California, new ... 35 © 

Wash. Ter 324© 

Old Hops — @ 

NIITS-Jobblne. 

Walnuts, Cal 12 © 

do Chile 8 © 

Almonds, hd shl lb 8 (<6 

Softsh'l 175* 

Brazil 15 © 

Chestnuts. Italian. 25 © 

Pecans 16 (g 

Peanuts 8 © 



10 © 12 J Refined 7 




WOOL. ET4J. 

40 | FALL. 

424 San Joaquin and S. Coast. 

Burry 13 © 15 

Free (dusty) 14 @ 16 

Free (choice) 16 © 18 

Northern. 

Free 26 © 30 

Burry 20 © 23 

20 Oregon. Eastern ... 27 @ 30 

16 | do. Valley 28 © 32 

3241 do. Lamb 30 © 36 

17 Mendocino & Hinn- 

9 I boldt 28 © 30 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

I WHOLK8ALH. I 

Tuesday m.. December 30, 1879. 



IK! IT MARKET. 

Apples, box — 50 © 1 25 

Apricots, box ... © 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 © 5 00 

Blackb'ries, ch'st @— — 

Cherries, ch'st. . . @ 

Citrons, Cal., 100 © 

Cocoanuts. 100. . 4 00 © 5 00 

Crab Apples @ 

Cranberries, bbl. 10 00 ©14 00 

Currants, chest.. © 

Figs, box — — © 

Gooseberries. . . . (* 

Grapes, bx — 55 @- 75 

Damascus ©— — 

Muscat - 50 @— 75 

Isabella © 

Conichon 1 50 @ 1 75 

Tokay - 50 @- 75 



Citron 23 © 



Dates 9 © 

Figs, pr. ssed ... 7 © 9 

do, loose 4 © 5 

Peaches 11 © 13 

do nared ... 18 @— 22 j 

Pears, slio d 5 © 6 

do, peeled . . 9 @ 11 

Plums 3 © 4 

Pitted 15 ®— 16 

Prunes 12j<§ 13 

Raisins. Cal, bx 2 25 © 2 50 
do, Halves... 2 50 © 2 75 
do, Quarters. . 2 75 © 3 00 

Eighths 3 00 © 3 25 

Loud'n Lay'rs bx 2 75 © 3 00 
do. Halves.. 3 00 © 3 25 
do, Quarters 3 25 © 3 50 
lo, Eighths. 3 50 © 3 75 



25 ©— 

30 <§ 50 
. - @ 

- © 

. - @ 

■ 6 @- 7 



Limes, Mex 5 00 © 6 50 i Malaga 2 75 @ 3 00 

do CaL box... 1 00 © 1 50 Zante Currants.. 8 © 10 

Lemons, Cal M.15 00 ©25 00 VEGETABLES. 

Sicily, box 8 00 ©10 00 Asparagus, box..— - © 

Australian @ IBeets, ctl — 50 © 

Nectarines, bsk. © Beans. String. . . @ 

Oranges, Cal M.20 00 (&50 00 Cabbage, 100 lbs 40 ©— fO 

do. small © Carrots, sk 

do Tahiti. ..25 00 ©30 00 Cauliflower, doz 

do, Mexican 20 00 ©30 00 Chile Peppers, bx 

Peaches, bsk @ Cucumbers, bx. . 

do. Mountain. © Egg Plants, bx. .■ 

Pears, bx — 75 © 1 00 Garlic. New, tt>.. 

W. Nelis 1 25 @ 2 25 Green Com ■ 

Seckel — — @ Green Peas, lb ..- 

Pineapples, doz. © 6 00 Lettuce, doz 10 © 

Plums, box — — © Mushrooms, lb.. — © 

Pomegranates lb @ I Parsnips, lb lit*— 14 

Prunes, bsk — ©— Horseradish 

Quinces, box — 25 @ 60 Rhubarb, lb 

Raspb'ries, ch'st. © .Squash, Marrow 

St'wberries. ch'st © fat, tn 6 00 © 8 00 

DRIED FRUIT. Summer, box.. © 

Apples, sliced, lb 4 © 5 Tomato, box....— 15 g— 30 

do. quartered. 3 © 4 Turnips, ctl — 40 @— 50 

Apricots 15 ©— 18 White ©— 50 

Blackberries.... — © 15 I 



&- 



6 ©— 
— © 



LUMBER. 

Tuesday m., December 30, 1879. 



CARGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, M 14 00 

Surface 24 00 

Rustic 24 00 

do. No. 2 18 00 

Flooring 24 00 

do. No. 2 17 00 

Beaded Flooring 28 00 

Refuse 20 00 

Half-inch Siding 20 00 

Refuse 16 00 

Half-inch Surf aced 24 00 

Refuse 18 00 

Half-inch Battemi 16 00 

Pickets, Rough 11 00 

Rough, Pointed 12 50 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 

Shingles 1 76 



REDWOOi>. 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Pickets, Rough 15 00 

Pointed 16 00 

Fancy 22 50 

Siding 20 50 

Surfaced & Long B.-aded30 00 
Flooring 25 00 

do, No. 2 17 00 

Rustic, No. 1 25 00 

do, No. 2 18 00 

Battens, lineal ft 

Shinnies M 2 00 

PLGET SOUND PINE 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fencing 18 00 

Laths 3 60 



CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 17 ©174 

Eagle 12 @— 

Patent Sperm 30@— 

CANNED GOODS. 

Assorted Pie Fruits, 

24 lb cans 2 25 @ — 

Table do 3 50 © — 

Jams and Jellies. .3 75 © — 

PickleB, hf gal 3 25 © — 

Sardines, qr box..l 674@1 90 
Hf Boxes 2 50 ©2 75 

Merry, Faull & Co. 's. 

Preserved Beef, 

2 lb. doz 3 75 ©4 00 

do Beef. 4 tb,doz.6 50 @ — 

Preserved Mutton, 

2 lb. doz 3 50 @3 625 

Beef Tongue 6 25 @ — 

Preserved Ham, 

21b, doz 6 00 © — 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 4 50 © — 

do Ham, 4tbdoz.3 00 © — 
Boneless Pigs Feet, 

3 tbs 3 75 © — 

2 tl.s r 2 75 © — 

Spiced Fillets, 

2 lbs 3 75 © — 

Head Cheese. 

3 lbs 3 75 © — 

COAL— Jobbing. 
Australian, ton.. 6 50 * 7 50 

Coos Bay — © 5 50 

Bellingham Bay. — @— — 

Seattle 5 50 © 6 00 

Cumberland 13 00 ©15 00 

Mt Diablo 4 75 © 5 75 

Lehigh 11 50 ©12 00 

Liverpool 6 00 © 6 50 

West Hartley. . . — © 8 00 

Scotch - © 8 00 

Scranton — © 

Vancouver Id.. . 7 50 @ 

Wellington — © 7 00 

Charcoal, sack... 75 @ 

Coke, bush 60 © 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Id, lb. — @— — 

Costa Rica 18 © — 

Guatemala 18 © — 

Java 25 @— 26 

Manila 17 © 

Ground, in cs. . . 25 © 

FISH. 

Sac'to Dry Cod..— 2J@ — 
do iu cases.. — 3J@ — 

Eastern Cod © 

Salmon, bbls.... 7 00 © 7 50 

Hf bbls 3 50 © 4 00 

1 It, cans 1 40 © 1 50 

Pkld Cod, bbls.. © 

Hf bbls © 

Mackerel, No. 1. 

Hf Bbls 9 50 ©10 00 

In Kits 3 00 © 3 25 

Ex Mcsb 3 50 © 3 75 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 © 3 50 

Boston SmkdH'g 50© 

LIME. Elc. 

Plaster, Golden 
Gate Mills.... 3 00 © 3 25 

Land Plaster, tn 10 00 ©12 50 

Lime, Sta Cruz, 
bbl 1 25 © 1 50 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 00 © 2 25 

Portland 4 00 © 4 £0 

NAILS. 

Ass ted sizes, keg 4 25 © 4 75 



73J 

45 
45 
90 



1 WH0LB8ALB. 1 

Tuesday m., December 30, 1879. 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 © 90 

Castor. Nol 130© — 

do, No. 2 1 20 © — 

Baker's A A — ©1 30 

Olive, Plagniol....5 25 @5 75 

Possel 4 75 @5 25 

Palm, lb 9 @ - 

Linseed, Raw, bbl. 85© — 

Boiled 90 © - 

Cocoanut 60 © 

China nut, cs 724@ 

Sperm 1 40 © 

Coast Whales 35 @ 

Polar — © 

Lard 80 © 

Oleophine — © 

Devoe's Bril't..... 16 © 

Photolite — @ — 

Nonpariel — @ — 

Eureka 19 © 20 

Barrel kerosene... 20© — 

Downer Ker 30 © — 

Elaine 344© — 

PAINTS. 
Pure WTiite Lead. 8 © 8i 

Whiting 1J@ — 

Putty 4 © 5 

Chalk 14© — 

Paris White 25© — 

Ochre 34© — 

Venetian Red 3i@ — 

Averill Mixed 
Paint. gaL 

"White & tints. . .2 00 ©2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 ©3 50 

Light Red 3 00 ©3 50 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 ©1 60 
RICE. 
China, Mixed, tt>.. 4S@ — 

Hawaiian 64© — 

SA1T. 
Cal. Bay, ton.. ..17 00 ©24 00 

Common 10 00 ©12 00 

Carmen Id 12 00 ©25 00 

Liverpool fine. . .18 00 © 

SOAP. 

Castile, lb 

Common brands . . 44' 

Fancy brands 7 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 474' 

Cassia 19 

Nutmegs 974 

Pepper Grain 14 1 

Pimeuto 19 © 20 

Mustard, Cal., 

4 lb glass - ©1 25 

SUGAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube, lb - © 

Powdered — © 

Fine crushed — © 

Granulated — 

Golden C — © 

Cal. Syrup kgs... 70 @ 
Hawaiian Mol'sses 25 © 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 40 @ 

Country pekd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 35 @ 

Hyson 30 © 

Fooo-Chow 274® 

Japan, 1st quality 40 © 
2d quality 25 @ 



Commission Merchants. 



05 



RETAIL GROCERIES. ETC. 



Butter, California 

Choice, lb 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard, Cal 

Eastern 

Flour, ex. fam, bbl8 

Com MeaL lb 

Sugar, wh. crshd 

Light Brown.... 

Coffee, Green 

Tea, Fine Black... 

Finest Japan 

Candles, Admt'e.. 
oap. Cal 



25 



25 © 

is a 

25 (01 

is a 

20 © 
00 ©9 00 

24© 3 
124© 134 

8 © 9t 
23 <§ 35 
50 ©1 00 
55 ©1 00 
15 © 25 

7 © 10 



Tuesday m 

Rice 

Yeast Pwdr. doz. .1 50 ©2 00 
Can'd Oysters doz2 00 ©3 50 
Syrup, S F Gold'n 75 ©1 02 
Dried Apples, tt>.. 10© 14 

Ger. Prunes 124© 10 

Figs, Cal 9 © 15 

Peaches 11 © 10 

Oils, Kerosene 50 © 60 

Wines, Old Port. .3 50 ©5 00 

French Claret 1 00 ©2 50 

Cal, doz bot 3 00 ©4 50 

Whisky, O K, gal.. 3 50 ©5 00 
French Brandy... .4 00 ©8 0C 



December 30, 1879. 

; © 12 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co.] 

San Francisco, December 30, 3 r. M. 

SiLVBR i par. 

Gold Bails, 890©910. Sllver Bars. 10@18 '(9 cent, dis- 
count 

Exchange on New York, 20, on London bankers, 4!H@ 
494. Commercial, 60; Paris, five francs W dollar; Mexican 
dinars. 90@91 
London Consols. 97 5-16; Bonds (4%). 1064 
QjTU K.iil.veR In S. K . hv tho flask 59 11. 39c. 



PENSIONS. 



Every wound or injury, even by 
accident or any disease, entitles a 
soldier of the late war to a pension. 
All pensions by the law of January. 1879, begin back at date 
of discharge or death of the soldier. All entitled should 
apply at once, Thousands who are now drawing pensions 
art- entitled to an increase. Soldiers and widows of the war 
of 1812, and Mexican war, entitled *o pensions. Fees in all 
cases only -S10. Bounty yet due to thousands. Sample copy 
Citizen Soldier free. Send two 6tamps for new laws, 
blanks, and instructions to 

Col. N. W. Fitzgerald. TJ. S. Claim Att'y. 

Box 588, Washington. D. C. 



Fisher, Richardson Ac Co.'s 

SEMI-TROPICAL NURSERIES, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

FIKST PREMIUM received for three successive years for 
Best Budded Orange Trees. We have all the varieties, both 
native and foreign. Wc have the GENOA LEMON, thoru- 
less. an early and heavy bearer. 

We grow and furnish all kinds of deciduous fruit trees at 
the lowt st rates. itSTCatalogues sent promptly on application. 



CHAS. RYHNER, 

(Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

— Dealer in — 

FLOUR, GRAIN, FEED AND PRODUCE. 

216 Davis Street, 

Between Clay and Commercial, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 
Consi nments of all kinds of Produce solicited. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rbpkrknck. — Tradesmen's National Ban*, N. T. ; EU 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, CaL 



Charles Nauman. Frank Naumah. 

C & F. NAUMAN & CO., 

Wholesale Commission Merchants 

— AND DEALERS JN — 

GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, POULTRY, 
EGGS, GAME, ETC. 
227 & 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 

iSTConsignments Solicited.*®! 



Dewey & Go] ^st * Patent A g'ts 



A California Book for Horticulturists, Gar- 
deners, Farmers and Euralists generally. 

PACIFIC 

EUEAL 

HANDBOOK 

Containing a series of brief and Practical Essays and 
Notes on the Culture of Trees, Shrubs, Vegetables and 
Flowers, adapted to the Pacific Coast. Also, Hints on 
Farm and Household Economy. Prepared especially for 
the publishers of the Pacific Rural Press. CHAS. H. 
SH1NN, author. Purely a California book, fresh and in- 
teresting to rural readers at home and abroad. 

Contents of Sfven ovt or Fifteen CHArrE»s: 

Chapter I.-LAVING OUT THE GROUNDS. — Innate 
Love of Rural Life. — The Pleasantness of Found- 
ing a Home. — We can Read Men's Characters in their 
Homes. — Value of Originality. — Importance of a weJl 
Considered Plan. — Hints on General Effects and Results 

Chapter II. —IMPROVING THE SOIL. —Whatever is taken 
from the Soil must be Restored.— We may even Increase 
the Fertility of Soil — Otherwise Farming would be a 
Sad Affair — Thorough Cultivation.— Rotation of Crops. 
— Wasteful Methods of many California Farmers. — Com- 
mercial Manures. — Barnyard Manures. — Composting. — 
Alkali Soils. — Adobe Soils. — Sandy Soils. 

Chapter III. — IRRIGATION. — The Object one of Great 
Importance —Need of Better Legislation. — Water, the 
Property of the People. — Examples of Successful Irriga- 
tion— Value of our Mining Experience. — Sources from 
which Water is Obtained. - Methods of Lifting Water. — 
Artesian Wells. — How to Use Water, when Obtained. — 
Winter Irrigation. —Examples of its Use. — Irrigation in 
Lombardy, and elsewhere. — A Govermental System 
Needed Here Also. 

Chapter IV — WIND-BREAKS AND HEDGES. — Bene- 
fits to be Derived from a Use of Wind-breaks — Kinds 
most Popular. — Other Valuable Varieties. — The Best 
Way to Procure Trees in Large Quantities. — Hedge 
Plants for Fences. — The Plants Adapted to our Climate. 
— Tlte Value of Low Boundaries for Ornamental Pur- 
poses. — Shrubs which may be Used. 

Chapter V. -FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS.— 
California's Leading Industry.— Orchards: Where to 
Plant Them. — Treatment Pruning, etc.— A List of Fifty 
Trees, for a Family Orchard. — Leading Market, Drying 
anil Canning Varieties. — Their Culture, and Best Kinds 
Known. 

Chapter VI — SHADE TREES — Universal Love of Shade 
Trees — Their Measureless Beauty — My Friend who uses 
too many Evergreens. — The Proper uses of Conifers, and 
the most Desirable Kinds. —How to Transplant Ever- 
greens. — Deciduous Trees. — Their Great Variety, and 
Place in Landscape Gardenings-Leading Varieties. — 
Nut-bearing Shade Trees.— Trees with Tropical Foliage. 
—The Weeping Trees. — Ancestral Oaks. 

Chapter VII.-SHRUBS.— The Value of Shrubs.— Their 
Easy Culture, and Clustered Memories. — Shrubs for 
Each Season. — Deciduous and Broad-leaved Shrubs. — 
Diseases, Treatment and Method of Training. 

Sold in substantial cloth binding (postpaid) for SI. 
DEWEY & CO., Publishers, Pacific Rural Press office, 
No. 202 Sansome street, San Francisco. 



Fearless 




Stands i 
by the 



ase of team, the Horse-Pow«r rnns, »s shown 
' than one-third le*8 frlctioa than any 



Centennial Medal 



on both Horse-Power and Threshpr and Clpanpr, at the centennia* 
Exhibition, as shown by Official Report, which «av<: " For «r« " 
feature in the Power to secure llcht mnnlmr and mlnimnm Mt- 
tlon. For the Insenlona form of tho Straw Shaker., whuh o.nre 
the proper ailtntlon to separate the cr.ilnfrom the straw. tot, 
Catalocne, Priee-Llst. and full report of trial, addreia 

- MINARD HARDER. Cobleslill, Schoharie Co.. N. Y.' 



Hutchinson A Mann, 

INSURANCE AGENCY, 

No8. 322 and 324 California Street, - - San Francisco, 



Cal. 



INSURANCE: 

ST. PAUL of St. Paul 

UNION of Galveston 

TiSUTONIA of New Orleans 

BBELiN-COLOGNB of Berlin 

LA COxNFIANCB of Paris 



FIRE 

GIRARD of Philadelphia 

HOME of Columbus 

NBW ORLEANS ASSOCIATION 

PEOPLE'S of Newark 

REVERE of Boston 

La. CAISSE GENERALE of Paris 

MARINE INSURANCE. 1 

Paris Underwriting Association, of Paris | London and Provincial Marine Ins. Co. , Londo 
CAPITAL REPRESENTED, $23,000,000. All Losses Equitably Adjusted and Promptly Paid. 



14 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 3, 1880. 



Agricultural Articles. 



The Famous "Enteror.ee." 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS. 

Pumps & Fixtures- 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always irive sat- 
isfaction Simple, strong and 
durable in all |>art8. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double branny* ; for the crank 
to work m. all turned and 
run in hahhitWd boxes.. 

Positively nelf regulating, 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
da Mills in use six to nine years in govj older now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., 401 Market Street 




MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
In Stockton, in 1870 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
fn the construction of Oang Plows. It is quickly adjusted, 
aufflcient play is given so that the tomruo will pass over 
•radle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Oang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON. 

STOCKTON. CAL. 



COOLEY CREAMER. 

Supersedes lar.-e and small 
pans for setting milk. 

It requires no milk 
room. It require* capac- 
ity for one mdking'only. 

Import air, dust or flics 
cannot reach milk set 
in it. 

It makes more butter, 
because it raises all of the 
nrmm and the quantity is 
never lessened by unfavor- 
able weather. 

It makes better Butter. It requires less labor. It is 
cheaper. Butter made by this process took the Highest 
Awahu at the Intkrsational Haiky Faih. bald In New 
York, December, IsTS. and at the Royal Agricultural Ex- 
hibition, held in Loudon, June, Is7'j, and brings the high- 
est price in all the great markets. 
Send stamp for Hie Dairyman to 

VERMONT- FAhM MACHINE CO., 

Bellows Falls, Vermort. 




The Boss Primer. 

Patented Jan. 8. 1878. 

ENTIRELY NEW! 

Works on a cog principle. Smallest Ri/ecuts one inch, and 
largest aize two inches iu rT.11T.Ottr Has beta thoroughly 
tested, ami giveu perfect satisfaction. Bold by 

GEORGE LARKIN. 
Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



WANTED ! 

Reliable, competent, active Agents for the sale of my 

Orange and Lemon Trees, 

In all the counties and cities of the State adapted to Citrus 
culture. The best of references required for competency 
and reliability. Address w ith re erences, 

THOS. A. GAREY. 

P. 0. Box 188, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 

CERTIFICATE OF CO-PARTNERSHIP. 

We certify that we constitute a partnership transacting 
business in this Stat-;; its principal place <>f business is San 
Francisco. California; its naiui is RANKIN, BRA.YTON I 
CO. The full names aud respective places of residence of all 
IU members are signed hereto. San Francisco. Dec. 6. 187'J 
lit v I'Ai'K AI.'l) RAN KIN. , f San Francisco, CaL 
ALBERT I'ACI.DiNi; ISUAVTON of Oakland, Cal. 

Duly acknowledged Dec 9th. 1879. before James Q Ward, 
Notary Public. Endorsed: Mad December 9th. 1S79. Win 
A. Stuart County Clerk By .lerry Whalen. Deputy Clerk 

Kfl Pi r/umrd, gilt edge s. chroruo Cards, inelegant case, name 
In nold. luc Atlantic Card Co . y. Wniimirford. Ot 

Klegant Perfumed Cards, Chromo. Motto, Lily. Etc 
15c. Gilt with eochipack. H. M. Sunn. Clintonville, Ct. 



60 



SUB-IRRIGATION. 





-FOR- 

Orch.ards, Vineyards, Small Fruits, Alfalfa, 
Lawns, Vegetables, Etc. 

The Asbestine System consists in conducting the water in concrete pipes laid below reach of 

the plow. , , . , . . . 

It saves from three-fourths to nine-tenths the water used ID surface irrigation. 
It is uuder perfect control, and can be applied wherever irrigation is needed. 
The surface remaiuin" dry there is no need of Summer Cultivation, either before or after 

irrigating. !_t t i 

The soil is never excessively wet and cannot bake, but remains moist, loose and at a nearly 

uniform tempemture, promoting a long-continued Summer's growth. 

Anything which the soil lacks as plant food (manure, lime, etc.,) can be easily, directly and 

econoniically'applicd in liquid form; the pest of the vineyard— phylloxera— can thus be easily 

No grading is necessary, as the system works perfectly on hillsides and undulating land. 

Roots cannot get into the pipe, neither can it stick mud— difficulties never overcome by any- 
other Rvstcm of sub-irrigation. 

The pipe is made continuously with a recently patented machine which makes and lays it in 
the trench, following all the undulations and curves. 

Water is not kept in thejripea; but is applied about twice a month. 

Three men will easily lay 1,200 feet of two-inch pipe in 10 hours. 

This system and machines used are fully protected by U. S. Patents. 

Our pipe machine makes the cheapest and best tile drain known, and is especially valuable 
for niakin" and laying pipe for conducting water from sprint'", out of canyons, etc. 

!',„. tnrth. r information, circulars, etc , address WILSON & KR0WER, Genera] Agents for 
California, Sacramento, Cal., or 

Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Co., 

Los Angeles, Cal, 



Nathaniel Curry <fe Bro, 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




Sole Agents for the 



Sharps Rifle Co.,of Bridgeport. Conn. 



FOR CALIFORNIA, ORKfiOV, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 
Also Airents for W. W. BRE WER 'S Celehrated Wedgatut, Chokehorc, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
all kind, of GI'NS, RIFLES and PI*T 'LS nude hy the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit. 




A Few Choice Young Sows in Farrow 
to Imported Boars For Sale. 

PRICE, $35 EACH, BOXED and DELIVERED at STOCKTON. 



\ Also, 6 Fine Pigs 

fcafe About 3 month-sold, one litter. Will sell the lot to one person 
^ for $60, Boxed and Delivered at Stockton. 



My Fens arc too much crowded and must sell to make room. Address 



ALFRED PACKER, 

Bellota. San Joaquin County, Cal. 



"fti&ffifir BUTTER COLOR 

QtVMlSutK-r tin* xilt-crfk'f c*rl or the yrur round. The largest UutUsr Buyera recommend its use. Thousands 
of D iirymcn *iy IT IS I'EItFECT. ' ' v :r dm ^rixt or merchant for it : or write to ask what it Ib, what it 
i here to irot it. M'lII.I.S, RICHARDSON & CO., Proprietors, Burlington, Vt. 



Oiles II. Gray. 



Jauks M. Haven. 



GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

In building of Pacific Insurance Co., 
Comer California and Leidesdorff streets, Sau Francisco. 



A GENTS ! READ THIS! 



We will pay Agents a Salary of $100 per 
month and expenses, or allow a large Commis- 
sion, to sell our new and wonderful inventions. We 
mean what we say Sample free. Address 

SHERMAN & CO.. Marshall. Mich 



50 



Perfumed, Snowflake, Chromo, MottoCards, name in 
gold and jet 10c. Q. A. Sfrixo, E. Wallingford.Ct. 



PH0S PHATE 



OAP 




THE BEST soap for toilet uso ever 
manufactured. BEST because it con- 
tains all the excellencies of the most 
expensive foreign or American Eoaps 
without tneir defects. BEST because 
it combines strength with delicacy 
in such away that its strong detersive 
qualities do not injure the skin. 
BEST because ic is the result of years 
of study and experiment in the soap 
manufacturing ousiness, assisted by 
modern chemical discoveries. BEST 
because it contains ingredients bene- 
ficial 10 the skin, which unite chemi- 
cally with the soap in such a manner 
as to increase its saponaceous quali- 
ties. Every chemist familiar with 
soap manufacture knows that some 
ingredients which are in themselves 
beneficial to the skin cannot be sapon- 
ified; some aro partially neutralized, 
while others injure tho quality of the 
soap. There aro soaps in the market 
whioh are to some extent beneficial to 
tho skin, but thev are inferior articles 
for toilet use. PHOSPHATE SOAP 
is tho ONLY article offered to tho 
public which combines all tho best 
elements of toilet soap with medical 
ingredients beneficial to the skin. 

If you wish to make vour hands 
soft buy a cake of PHOSPHATE 
SOAP, and when that is gone you will 
buy a dozen and recommend your 
friends to do the same. 

Ladies who wish to make the skin 
look beautiful and natural should use 
PHOSPHATE SOAP. 

For chapped hands the constant use 
of PHOSPHATE SOAP will be rec- 
ommended by all who give it one fair 
trial. 

TESTIMONIALS. 

Sas Jose, September £1, 1379, 

To the Standard Sf-ap Co. — Gentlemen: 

It affords mo pleasure to say to 
the public that I have used and pre- 
served your PHOSPHATE SOAP 
a3 a remedy in various forms of 
cutaneous diseases with the hap- 
piest results. I am of the opinion 
that it is the mildest and most per- 
fect detergent that can bo U3ed, 
cither for cleansing the skin and 
leaving it soft and healthy, or for 
removing the fetor and corroding 
influences of sores and ulcerations. 
I should be sorry to be without it 
in shaving my face or making my 
toilet, to say nothing of my good 
opinion of it3 remedial qual ties. 

A. J. SPE-NCEIi, M. D. 

San Kkancisco. Aug 27, 1679. 

Gentlemen : 

I received a package of your soap 
(Phosphate Soap; and it gives me 
great pleasure to testify as to its su- 
perior excellence. As a toilet soap I 
have i;ever seen anything to sur- 
pass it. It also possesses superior 
remedial qualities. I have used it 
m two cases of obstinate skin dis- 
ease, ono of intolerable itching, 
I'm. Ums, tho other an Eczema. in 
both great relief was obtained. 
Its emollient properties are remark - 
aDle. Bespectfully, 

W. A. DOUGLASS, JS.. D., 
120 O'Parrell St. 
To the Standard Soap Company. 

San Fhancisco, July 19, 1879. 
Standard Soap Co.— Gents : 

I have tried your PHOSPHATE 
SOAP, and have no hesitation in 
saying that it is the bjst toilet 
soap I ever used. My wife has used 
it and is of the same opinion. I 
have paid ashigh as fifty cents per 
cake for an article in every respect 
inferior to what you sell for twenty- 
five cents. HENRY H. LYNCH, 
515 Haight etreet. 

Tho genuine merits of PHOS- 
PHATE SOAP and persistent ad- 
vertising will force every druggist, 
groceryman and general dealer to 
order it by the gross sooner or later. 
Ask for it in every store. The re- 
tail price is 25 cents per cake. We 
wish to sell it only at wholesale, but 
in case you cannot find it wo will 
send a nice box of three cakes by 
mail, postage paid, on receipt of 85 
cents in stamps. 

Address STANDARD SOAP CO.. 

204 Sacramento St., San Francisco 



January 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



15 



LATEST 

WINCHESTER REPEATER. 

MODEL 1879— TARGET RIFLE-45 CALIBRE. 60 GRAINS POWDER. 

CAUTION I The w R - Arms Co - manufaut - 

V* H U ' I U II ■ ure Cartridges f or^ their own 
arms, and persons are hereby cautioned against 
using those made by any other Cartridge Compa- 
nies who have no interest in such arms or the'r effi- 
ciency, if they wish to be insured against accident. 






ith the 



With Pistol Grip, Vernier and Wind Gauge Sighls. 

Uses Centra! Fire Cartridges (straight shell) 45 calibre, CO grain 
o w ler, 300 grains lead. This splendid (iuu is perfection as a Sporting 
Rifle, for defense or as a target Rifle. 

The SAN FRANCISCO AGENCY is now fully supplied with this splendid Arm— Standard blued or extra finish— set or plain Trigger. 

New Winchester Express Rifle, 

50 Calibre, straight Cartridge, 95 grs. powder, 330 grs. lead. Also the 

ZLSTIEW HOTCHKISS R/EPEATER, 

st out, using the U. S. Government Cartridge, 45 calibre, 70 grains powder. Both Sporting and Military styles of this fine Arm are ready for delivery to the trade. 

o a large and complete stock constantly ou hand of Models, 1866, 1873 and 1876, as well as all other kinds of goods manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Co., viz. 

CARTRIDGES, 

Both RIM and CENTRAL FIRE, by the million, for all kinds of Rifles and Pistols. 

Brass and Paper Shot Gun Shells, Primed Cartridge Shells, Reloading Tools, Primers, Percussion Caps and Gun Wads. 



JOHN SKINKER, 115 Pine St., S. F., 

Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast. 



MONEY FOOD 

For Farmers. For Hogs. 

CHEAP PORK. 

The Brazilian Artichoke, 

Is the cheapest and best food for Hogs, being ahead of any- 
thing in existence for that purpose. 600 to 1,000 bushels to 
the acre. Little trouble. No harvesting. No feeding. The 
Hogs will help themselves if allowed to do so. 

I have eight acres of Artichokes this year, and will furnish 
seed for half the price of last year, when my seed cost me 
25 cents a pound. 

PRICE— I will send by Express or common freight, 50 to 
300 lbs. at 3£ cents a pound. Over 300 lbs., 3 cts.; 1,000 lbs. 
and over, 2£ cts.; 3 ths. by mail for SI. I will send a circular 
with each package giving all information. Send all money 
in draft on San Fraucisco or P. O. Order on Hollister Post- 
office. 

Winter is the best time to ship Artichokes. Frost does not 
hurt them. 
150 Its. plants an acre. 

For further information send for circular. Address 
J. H. F. GOFF, 
San Felipe, Santa Clara County, Cal. 



THE WILSON ADJUSTABLE CHAIR, 

With 30 Changes of Position. 

Patented n the United StateB and Foreign Countries. 
BEST OH A IB IN THE WORLD. 



Parlor. 



[LIBRARY, 



Combining 
Beauty, 




LOUNGE. 



READING POSITION. 



Comfort. 



Same Chair in Cane Seating, very desirable for summer. 

Manufactured of the best of wrought iron and rivets. 
Castors made purposely for the Chair. Everything to au 
exact science. aa"WILL LAST A LIFE-TIME. 

Has been awarded Medals, Prizes and Diplomas for its 
superiority and merit wherever it has been exhibited. 

Orders by mail promptly attended to. Goods shipped to 
any address, C. O D. Send for Illustrated Circular. 

Address the Wilson Adjustable Chair M'fo Co., 
535 Washington St., Boston 



CARD. 

The undersigned having purchased the business of the 
Marin and Sonoma County Land Office, and recognizing 
the necessity for a radical change in the matter of con- 
ducting it, have made arrangements to carry it on upon 
a basis and principles such as must insure satisfaction to 
our patrons. No shading descriptions permitted; all 
guaranteed. LINGLEY & BEATTY, 702 Market street. 

Refer to Hon. C. Palmer, Hon. C. Clayton, R. McElroy, 
Esq. , L. Shore, Esq. 

N. B.— All descriptions of farms and city and Oakland 
.property for sale and exchange. L. & B. 

THE DEAF HEAR 

I THROUGH THE TEETH! RE 
PERFECTLY, all Ordinary Conversation, tm 
Lectures. Concerts, etc., by NEW 4 hnnm<K, 
to the XerTM i>r Hearing, bt a wonderful New 8el- HI 
entitle fanrallon.f H E DENTAPHONE. ■ 
For remn k.i pulilic le«ta on the |,onf-ak.> on HH 
the Deaf am! Dumb- See New York Scroti, HH 
Sept. 28, cnrUttim Standard. Sept. 27, etc. It ■ 
displace* all Enr-trumnctii. Size of an or- bVibH 
•Unary VVuteli. Sen.l for our HIKE pamphlet. Atlilrem 
AMERICAN OENTAPHONE CO., 287 Vine St., ClDclonatl,01il» 



JOHN ROGERS & SONS, 

GENERAL STOCK AND SALE YARD, 

Corner Market and 9th Sts. , San Francisco, 

HORSES and MILCH COWS sold on commission. Also, 
dealers in HAY and GRAIN. 

Parties consigning Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
prompt sales and quick returns. 



The American Exchange Hotel, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 

Is situated on Sansome street, next adjoining' Bank of California, and is in the very center 

of the great city. 

Sansome Street is one of the finest and principal business streets in S. F. 

The Hotel is'gituatcd within two blocks of the U. Land Office and U. S. Surveyor General's Office; also within 



^■iili^ii 



iiif 
1' 



iiiiEimiiH 
3 if till tttlt im 




two blocks of the City Hall, Supreme Court and all the District Courts; within two Mocks of the P.>stoffice and 
Custom House. Allfplaces of amusement are convenient to the Hotel, {street ears for all parts of the city pass the 
Hotel every minute. 

THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL 

Having been recently? renovated and refurnished throughout is in every respect the BEST FAMILY HOTEL 
San Francisco. It has/Two Hundred Rooms, well ventilated and neatly furnished, and being easy of access, fire-proof 
and sunny is decitledly the Hotel for comfort and convenience for the traveling public 



— OFFICE OF THE 



BLACK FIT PAD AND SLAUGHTER HOUSE. 

MERRY, FATJLL & CO., Proprietors. 
TO OWNERsTf LIVE STOCK! 

We are prepared to receive on Consignment, CATTLE, SHEEP aud HOGS, charging mod- 
erately for killing, delivery and guarantee, and making advances to shippers on receipt at our 
Yards, which are supplied with every convenience. We assure our customers a 

SQUARE DEAL and FULL MARKET PRICES 

For their product, and invite their inspection of our facilities, which are the best on the Pacific 
Coast. We shall be pleased to give all information in our power as to Market Prices. 
Please address our 

Principal Office, No. 125 & 127 California Street, San Francisco. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRXNS' SAUCE, 

•which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signatwi 

thus, 



■ ~> 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

4sk for LEA &* PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and Blackwell, London. 
<&*<:., Gr'c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throv -hout the World, 

To be obtained of CROSS St CO., San Francisco. 



NEW MUSIC BOOKS I 

Parlor Organ Instruction Book. 

($1.50). A.N.JOHNSON. This very easy, thorough 
and practical hook teaches both lij^ht and Sacred music; 
that is, songs, marches, waltzes, rondos, Sunday School, 
school and church music; in fact everything that can be 
played on a reed organ. It includes 50 tunes for one 
hand, 150 exercises for fingering, 80 graded pieces for 
lessons, and about 140 Hymn Tunes and Glees, all with 
full and plain directions. 

Johnson's New Method for Thorough Base 

is for Chord, Glee and Snored Music, aud is published 
tor. ($1 OO) 

Temperance Jewels. (35 cts. boards); 

Commends itself to clergymen by the religious charac- 
ter of its contents and to all temperance people by the 
excellence of its poetry and music. 
Send for Specimen Copy! 

Whifp "Rnhp<j (3 ° cts ? : se " 8 very rapidly « 

11 11! to XlUUCoi proving that it is appreciated 
as "the sweetest Sunday School Song Book ever made." 
Send for Specimen Copy! 

Present yourself with a New Year's Subscription to 
"THE MUSICAL. RECORD," ($2 OO), and 
receive ten times that amount in good music, all the 
news, and valuable instructive articles. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C. H. Ditson & Co., 843 Broadway. N. Y. 



P. JONKS. 



J. Thompson. 



JONES & THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Hay, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Rates. 

COUNTRY CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED, and will 
receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as soon 
as sales are made. For further particulars address as 
above, 

1535 Mission St.. San Francisco. 



M. COOKE. R. J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

t3T Communications Promptly Attended to. !E1 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cookb & Gregory. 

PLEASANT SUMMER READING. 
THE NEW PENELOPE 

— AND — 

Stories of California Life. 

By MRS. F. F. VICTOR. 



The best delineations of Western character and incident 
ever produced on this coast. Agents wanted for this popu- 
lar work. Easy sales and large commissions. Ai'dress 

MRS. F. F. VICTOR. 

721 Market St., S. F., Bancroft's Building, top floor. 

PRICE, $2 OO. 

A Card to Grangers and Farmers. 

HAY, GRAIN, HORSES and CATTLE. 

The undersigned ia now prepared to receive and sell Hay, 
Grain. Horses aud Cattle that may be consigned to him at 
the Highest Market Rates, aud will open a trade direct with 
the consumer without the intervention of middlemen. He 
also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock buyers to 
co-operate with him, aud thus have but one commission be- 
tween producer and buyer. Adilress S. H. DEPU4T, Nos. 11 
and 13 Bluxome St., San Fraucisco. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to Sl.b'O per gallon For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL 6c CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. F 



SEND FOR THE 
SI.50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 principal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases and books. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAFEL, 
Homooopathic Pharmacy, San Francisco. 

CARP FISH FOR SALE 

— BY — 

LEVI DAVIS, 

At Forestville, Sonoma County, California, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By A J. Kino. The latest work on the Apiary, 
embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for $1. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome Street, S. F. 



16 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



j Januar 



Baling 

Fencing 

Telegraph 

Telephone 

Galvanized 



WIRE 



Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order 




THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 




EGGS 
Guaranteed 



Devoted to the 
Business. 



LANG9HAN3 I now breed this justly celebrated 
Fowl. Send 3c. stamp for price list mid circular describ 
ing the different breeds I keep. Incubators. 

M. RYRE, Napa, Cal. 

iaTPamphlet on Breeding, Hatching, Diseases, etc., 
adapted especially to Pacific Coast, sent for 15c. 




Entirely different from other Saws. When dull, sharp 
teeth, which only cost a trifle, c n be inserted in a few 
minutes, without taking the saw off of the mandrel, and 
no skill is required in doing it. Send for Catalogue show- 
ing their vast superiority. More of them are being sold 
than of any other kind, and we are altering all other kinds 
to the Chisel Tooth. 

TATTJM «fc BO WEN, 

329 Market Street, 3 Fremont Street. 

JOHN SAUL'S 

Catalogue of New, Rare and Beau- 
tiful Plants 

Will be r^ady in February Willi a Colored Plate. It is full 
in really good and B autiful Plants. — New Dracocnae; New 
Crotous; New Pelargoniums; New Hoses; New Geraniums: 
Clematis, etc , with a rich collection of fine foliages and 
other Greenhouse and H»)t house Plants, well grown and 
at low prices; free to all my customers; to others, 10 cts., 
or a plain copy free. Catalogues of Seeds and Koses free. 

JOHN SAUL. Washington, D. C. 



STOCKTON 

Telegraph Institute 

)udt<i<tedd ■>"<> 

NORMA!, SCHOOL. 

Open day end evening for 
both sexes. Expenses less 



than one. half the usu... 
rates. Excellent board in <y 
private families from $»to $10 per month. Ad 
dress, for College Journal and Circulars, 

F. It. CLARKE. Principal, Stockton, Ca. 



Pajaro Valley Nurseries, 

WATSONVILLE, CAL., 

His for sale this season a general a-sortmenl of all kinds 
of FRUIT TREES. SHADE and ORNAMENTAL HIKES 
FLOWERINU SHRL'US. ROSES, etc. 

Thirteen varieties. .f oTRAWBKRRlES and nine varie- 
ties of RASPBERRIES — all to be sold at the lowest mar- 
ket rates. For catalogue and price list address 

JAMES WATERS, Prop'r, 

Watsonrille, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 



Geo . 



. Silvester 



r/j IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 

Q 

W 

w 

£ Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc 

W 
Q 

^ In large Quantities and offered in Lots to suit Purchasers. 

O GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES. 

Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington Street, San Francisco. 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 



•3J 

r 
o 

w 
H 
H 




ZDZEWZE^T &c OO.'S 



A FITTING GIFT FOR THE 



Holidays ! 



ONE HUNDRED CHOICE ROSES, 

Distinct varieties, of vigorous growth, correctly named will 
be furnished from our larg.. collection for $20. 

Also a large geueral coheclion of Nurseiy Stock at corres- 
ponding figures. Address 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, 
28th Street (near) San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, Cal. 




[ESTABLISHED 1860.1 

Inventors on the Pacific Coaat will Mud it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, lirst-claes Agency. We have able and trustworthy associates and Agents in Wash 
ngton and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our ed 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, we hav 
other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other Agencies, Th 
information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions brought before us, enables us often to give advice which will save inventors the 
expense of applying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice sent 
free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 202 Sansome St., S. F, 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. B. STRONO. 



BUY DIRECT! TREES, SEEDS,Etc, 



5 Cents per lb — Eu'»ptian Corn (white and brown); 
Broom Corn; Extra Early Vermont, Snow flake and bre-B- 
see's Prolific Potatoes; Pop-Corn. 10 Ct8 per lb— Pearl 
Millet in heads; Sorghum; Evergreen Imphec (for feed); 
Evergreen or Golden and Dwarf Broom-Corn; Golden 
Millet 20 Ct-s. per lb — Libcrian, Kenny's, Amber, 
Oomseana and Neeazana SugarCanes; Best Spanish Chufas; 
Pearl M.IIct In hulls. 40 Cts. per )b —Beet; Mangold 
Wurtzcl; Tu- nip; Chinese Imphfe. largest and richest in 
sugar, (See page 250 Report of Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture for 18T7). TREES *tt 5 to lO Cts each — 
Chestnut, Walnut. Maples (sugar, red and silver); Catalpas, 
Ailanthus, Kir, Pine, etc. 25 Cts per lOO— straw- 
berry Plants, Poplar, Osier and Hop Hoot Cuttings. 
At 1 Ct each— Arbor Vitie trees (1 foot high); Prickley 
Comfrcy; Early Blackberry, and Panicum Spectabile Hoot 
Cuttings, Pomegranate, Fig and Black Mulberry Cuttings 
Semi-tropical and other Kruit Trees, CHEA P. 
jtzfTrees, Seeds, eti\, packed and delivered on care 
without extra charge, or sent by mail for 1G cts per th. 
additional. Send for illustrated dialogue free. Address 

W. A. Sanders, 

SANDERS P. C, 

Fresno County, Cal. 



THE FAMOUS 




Spring Tooth Harrow 





Liberal auvauooB on uiajmnmnnrn 

Wool Sacks, T«ine, Shears, and Ranch Supplies furnished 



Los Gatos Nurseries. 

I offer the trade this scasm a Large and General 
Assortment of 

Fruit Trees and Small Fruits. • 

My trees arc healthy, stalky and well grown. Prices 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 
San Jose. Cal. 

FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

FEUTTVIAXT CT7.A.1TO 

First-Class for Fertilizing:. 



Apply at the office of 
JOHN PARROTT, - 414 Montgomery St. 



PLANTS GROWN 

IOO ■}''"■"*. wiili Ben lea inn 

IVW VUietfea of Selected r'rniu IUO 

See N .•«- ( 'at a'.vn,. f or what .11 .. to i .• •■ „ r v „. , r . 
JOHN 8. COLLINS, .»IoorcstoWii,N.Jer«y 



Manufactured and sold on the Pacific Coast only by 

Van Gelder. Batchelor & Co.. 

902 K St., Sacramento. 

THE GRANDEST ACHIEVEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL 
IMPLEMENTS ! 

The Most Perfect Woiking 
Harrow in Use! 

It can be easily adjusted to run at any depth from one 
to eight inches, and u thereby adapted to nil larieticeand 
conditions of soil. The broad teeth smooth the surface 
nihng furrows and other depressions; cut up and destrov 
vegetation and cover grain to any desired depth Their 
oscillating motion thoroughly pulverize* the c»ith and 
being made of the best Oil-'l cmpcred Spring Steel' thev 
puss over sti jip stems or other obstructions as easily as 
those ofa hay rake. 

It is not liable to clog with trash or clods and seldom 
getsdul. They do the work of a h rrow or cultivator 
and will save one-half the expense nf putting in a crop. ' 

Anyone who has an orchard or vineyard cannot afford 
o do without thcni. See one 0|*rate and be convinced 
before buying any other. 

For descriptive circulars and price list address the 
manufacturers. wlt 

Corrcsr.ondcnce solicited. 



R. J. TRUMBULI & CO. 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMB ILL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholes. , and 
Dealers in 



Farmers, write for your paper. 



ROOMS TO RENT. 

Elegantly Furnished, and with Gas and 
Hot and Cold Water In Every Room. 

A PLEASANT LOCALITY and REASONABLE TERMS 

At 103> Market St.. San Francisco. 

This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co.. 509 South lOtb 
St.. Philadelphia & 59 Gold St.. N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast-Joseph H. Dorety, 120 
Sutter St., S. F 




r'LOWERING PLANTS AND BtJLf 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. ; 
DESIGNS. GARDEN TRELLI 
INGES, GARDEN HA HI ' 

Comprising the Moat Comp: 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PA 
Prices Unusually Lo 
*. '"Guide to the Vegetable an 
will be sent rail to all Customr* 
structione on the culture of Fruit, Nt 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc 

R. J. TRTJM 
410 and 421 Sansor 



FRUITS AST) 
NCY WIEg 

5, SYB, 
JIE. 

Stock 

F10 00 Aft 

Tower Garoo, 
It contains a. 
and OmaneataJ 

ILL 4 CO, 
8treet, 8. F 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Cor Sixteenth and Castro Str ta, Oakland. 




Constantly on hand and f ir sale, cho: ipocimeiis ol the 

following varieties of Fowls: 



Dark and Lierht Brahmas, Bt 
Partridge Cochins, White 
Leghorns, Dorkings. 
Hamburgs. Plymouth Ho> 
and Sebright Bantams, Broi 
Pekln, Aylesbury and R< 
ii/'Sufe arrival of Fowls and Eggs ( 

Satisfaction Guarar 

,T - I '• r further information send Ha 
Circular, to GEO. E 

P. Box 1771. Sa 



White and 
d Brown 
dish, 
3, Game 
i Turkeys, 
an Duclo. 
natced.1t 

ed. 

for fJluttnttd 
JAYLIY, 

i ■. CaL 



CHEAPER YT! 

Tension Sewing M chines! 

A large number of nearly new mine SINGER, 
WHEELER A WILSON. HOWE, \ ED, W1L8M, 
GROVER & MAKER, DOMESTIC, etc ill he sold toy 
cheap, many as low as $10 These Me* its were takes 

in exchange from families for the "Al OMATICor 

NO TENSION MACHE. 
Wilcox & Gibbs' S M. Co., 

124 POST ST., S.\ N ERA. SCO. 
No 361 Twelfth Street. O land, Cal 



BERKSHIRE A SPElALTY. 




f 



My ierkfbires are Thoroughbred, I selected rltb 
great care from the beet herds of Imp -d stock in lbs 
United Stale- and Canada, and for indi lual merit an- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock ai -eenrded la jM 
'American Berkshire Record," where n i but pure rate 
Hogs arc admitted. I'lge sold at reaso >le rate* Cer 
rcspondcticc solicited. 

JOE RIDER, 

18th and A Streets, Sac aento City, da 



DIVIDEND NODE. 

San Francisco Saving Union, 

f>32 California Street, cor. ' 9b. 

For the half-year ending with I>ecen r Slst, 167°, • 
ivideud has beeu declared at the r» • f Si» and 9 *' 
tenths per cent (u 6 10 per cent.) per al m on term do 
posits, and Five and One-halt per cent | Pet cenl.) I* 
annum on ordinary deposits, free of Fed I Tax, payab" 
on and after Thursday, lit i of January MO. 

U)VELL V ITE, Cashier- 



DIVIDEND NOT !E. 
The German Savings and Lin Society. 

For the half-vear endinz this date, Uv oerd J*J£ 
rs of I HE GERMAN SAVINGS ANT OAS SOCW" 
is declared a Idvidend on Term Dcpoei al U>§ *JJt5* 
x »nd Nine-Tenths ((1 1>-10) per cent f lnnum. ato I J« 
rdinary Deposita at the rale of Five » Th"» "ill^M 
per cent, per annum, free from Fi ral "axee, aji^ 
able on and after the 15th dav of Ji »ry. lwa m 
„cr. i;i:o I I , ^ ■■<■■■*'} 

San Fi-ancisco, December Slst, 1870. 



pay 
order 



AN ELEOANT PRESENT. —The N 
lbum. Gilt-bound. 48 pages, with ham 
Birds, Ferns, Scrolls, etc., all 15c. post 
Agents wanted. BoCUtsuKa & Co 



oral Auu.jtaj* 




Volum. XIX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 10, 1880. 



Number 2 



■I 

ril 




I 



New Omge House at Washington. 

Our horti'ltural readers will be interested 
in the show g of a special branch of the work 

of the Dei''tment of Agriculture which we 
make upc 
this p a g 1 
It is evide. 
that Con 
missioner } 
Due has u 
dertaken t 
enterprie 
which m a 
prove of gre- 
benefit to o - 
gro w e r s 
citrus fruit 
and which 1 
doubt not w 
be carried o 
with gre; 
care and sk 
by Mr. Sau 
ders, chief 
the Horticu 
tural Burea 
Sometime aj 
h e Depar 
ment securt 
from abroad 
collection 
the c i t r u 
family tree 
embracin 
many of t) 
leading vari 
ties of tl 
orange, lemc 
and lime. Tl 
trees anivc 
in poor cond 
tion and ba< 
ly infested vith Bcale insects. They were, 
however, hulled skillfully and brought 
into good -owth. .Tin* collection forms 
the basis of e citrus oper- 
ations of tl Department. 
Some of the irieties which 
have alread fruited have 

E roved of l^h order, and 
ave been p>pagated and 
distributed. The Navel or 
Bahia oraie, splendid 
specimens o which were 
Bhown at i Riverside 
citrus fair la winter, were 
grown from trees distri- 
buted by th Agricultural 
Department. We are glad 
to know thait is the dis- 
position of te Department 
to extend his valuable 
work, and t secure better 
facilities forgrnwing and 
proDagating e best varie- 
ties, the . ran house shown 
in the engrsings on this 
page has bee erected. We 
do not find-ecord of the 
area enclose in the new 
structure, bi it is evident 
from the en^ivings that it 
isconsiderab. Itisplanned 
so that the itire roof can 
be removed during the 
summer moths, and the 
trees are gron in beds of 
soil and a, in boxes. 
These two f;ts of course 
send to the ttainment of 
tuccessful giwth under 
natural con tions — points 
of the highe importance. 
The trees \il enjoy open 
air culture ntil the ap- 
proach of \nter renders 
protection nessary. 

Besides th introduction, 
test and utribution of 
good foreigi varieties of 
citrus fruits, t would seem 
desirable tb: the depart- 
ment should cure the va- 
rieties origit ing in this 
country and otermine their qualities as com 
pared with • best imported. The new sorts 
which are be 



by enterprising propagators doubtless embrace growth, and this will afford the best opportu- 
some qualities which deserve recognition. | nities for comparison and correct decisions. 



NEW ORANGE 



THE 



DEPARTMENT 



AGRICULTURE— EXTERIOR VIEW. 



Another work which will naturally receive I It is fitting that the government collection 
attention is the correction of the nomenclature should serve this purpose. 

of the citrus family. There is now much con- I General Le Due is entitled to much credit for 




A Service to Producers. 

It promises to be a fact of no slight import- 
ance to producers and manufacturers on this 
coast that Gen. Stoneman, of Los Angeles, has 

accepted the 

position on 
the Indian 
commis s ion 
tendered him 
by the jPresi- 
dent. * The 
position is not 
a salaried one, 
and therefore 
the question 
of individual 
emol u ment 
does not n- 
trude. It is 
an honorable 
public trust, 
to be adminis- 
tered for the 
general good. 
More than 
this, the ap- 
pointment of 
Gen. Stone- 
man will be 
a step toward 
justice to this 
coast in the 
matter of sup- 
plies furnish- 
ed to the In- 
dians. These 
supplies are 
valued at a 
million and 
one-half dol- 
lars per year. 
Heretofore 
the materials have been bought at the East for 
distribution here, thus taking our money and 
expending it for the benefit of Eastern pro- 
ducers and manufacturers. 
This is not right. If we 
are to be taxed to support 
Indians, we should also have 
an opportunity to supply 
the demand which is thus 
created for produce and 
manufactured goods. Gen. 
Stoneman declares that this 
point is one which he will 
insist upon. Thus, while 
we believe he will deal 
justly with the red man, 
he will see that the pur- 
chase of bounty is not con- 
fined to distant markets. 



Squirrel Poison. — Benj. 
Boorman, a reader of the 
Press at San Pablo, Contra 
Costa county, gives us the 
following recipe for pre- 
paring phosphorus poison 
for squirrels, which has 
worked admirable results 
in his experience: "Take 
some vessel that you can 
close tightly (say, a coal-oil 
can), and put in dry barley; 
then add one pint of boiling 
water to the gallon of dry 
barley, and put it over the 
fire until hot. Then add 
five inches of phosphorus 
to the gallon, cut up in 
small pieces. Be careful not 
to let it burn. Turn it over 
as often as convenient for 
two days, and it is ready 
for use. " This dose, Mr. 
Boorman assures us, knocks 
the pests very effectually, 
and it is recommended to 
all. 



G. M. Berry, book- 
keeper for ex-Sheriff Nu- 
nan, and Secretary of the 
Mutual Building and Loan 

fusion of names both in this State and in Flor- I the enterprise, which will be of direct and I Association of\ this city has decamped, taking 
ida. What is needed is a standard collection practical benefit to an important branch of our with him nearly §20,000 belonging to Nunan.and 
brought forward/in this State ' of truly named varieties in a healthy state of 1 horticulture. - jTCHVKD 1 abont the same amount from the association. 



a NEW ORANGE HOUSE OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-INTERIOR VIEW. 



16 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 3, 1880. 



Baling 

Fencing 

Telegraph 

Telephone 

Galvanized 



WIRE 



Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALL! Oi E 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order 




THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 




EGGS 
Guaranteed 



Devoted to the 
Business. 



LANGSHANS I now breed this justly celebrated 
Fowl. Send 3c. stamp for price list and circular desenh 
ing the different breeds I keep. Incubators. 

M. KYRE, Napa, Cal. 

iarPamphlet on Breeding, Hatching. Diseases, etc 
adapted especially to Pacific Coast, sent for 15c. 




Entirely different from other Saws. When dull, sharp 
teeth, which ouly cost a trifle, c n be inserted in a few 
minutes, without taking the saw off of the mandrel, and 
do skill is required in doing it. Send for Catalogue show- 
ing their vast superiority. More of them are being sold 
than of any other kind, and we are altering all other kinds 
U> the Chisel Tooth. 

TATUM «fc BOWEN, 

329 Market Street, 3 Fremont Street. 



JOHN SAUL'S 

Catalogue of New, Rare and Beau- 
tiful Plants 

Will be ready in February wi:h a Colored Plate. It is full 
in really good and B autiful Plants. — New Dracainas; New 
Crotons; New Pelargoniums; New Hoses; New Geraniums; 
Clematis, etc , with a rich collection of tine foliages and 
other Greenhouse and Hot house Plants, well grown and 
at low prices; free to all my customers; to others, 10 eta., 
or a plain copy free. Catalogues of Seeds and Hoses free. 

JOHN SAUL, Washington, D. C. 



STOCKTON 

Telegraph Institute 

) na-M-iedd »•»«> 

NORMAL, SCHOOL,. 

Open day end evening for 
both sexes. Expenses less 



for ^ 



than one- half the usual ^ v T*&4&£j 
rates. Excellent board iu p 
private families from $Sto $10 per month. Ad- 
dress, for College Journal and Circulars, 

F. It. CLAHKE. Principal, Stockton, Ca.. 



CO 

Q 
W 
W 

CO 



G o o . F 1 . Silvester, 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



r 
o 

m 



£ Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc ft 

Q 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 



^ In large Quantities and offered in Lots to suit Purchasers. Q 



Pajaro Valley Nurseries, 

WATSONVILLE, CAL., 
Has for sale this season a general assortment of all kinds 
of FRUIT TREES, SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES 
FLOWERING SHRUUS. HOSES, etc. 

Thirteen varietiesof STRAWBERRIES and nino varie- 
ties of RASPBEKR1 ES— all to be sold at the lowest mar- 
ket rates. For catalogue and price list address 

JAMES WATERS, Prop'r, 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 



A FITTING GIFT FOR THE 



Holidays ! 



ONE HUNDRED CHOICE ROSES, 

Distinct varieties, of vigorous growth, correctly named, will 
be furnished from our larg.- collection for $'2Q. 

Also a large general col.ec'.ion of Nuraeiy Stock at corres- 
ponding figures. Address 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, 
28th .vie*' (near) San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, Cal. 



O GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES. 

Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington Street, San Francisco. 



DEWEY &c CO.'S 



Scientific Press 




Patent Agency. 



[ESTABLISHED 1860.1 

Inventors on the Tacitic Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, first-class Agency. We have ablo and trustworthy associates and Agents in Wash 
ngtou and the capital cities of the priucipal nations of the world. In connection with our ed 
torial, scientific and Pateut Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, we have 
other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other Agencies. The 
information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions brought before us, enables us often to give advice which will save inventors the 
expense of applying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice sent 
free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 202 Sansome St., S. F. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. EL STRONO. 



BUY DIRECT! TREES, SEEDS, Etc. 



5 Cents per lb — E:.'»ptian Corn (white and brown); 
Broom Corn; Extra Early Vermont. Snowflake and BN* 
see's Prolific Potatoes; Pop-Corn. lO CtS per lb— Pearl 
Millet in heads; Sorghum; Evergreen Imphec (for feed); 
Evergreen or Golden and Dwarf Broom-Corn; Golden 
Millet 20 CtS. per lb — Liberian, Kenny's, Amber, 
Oomxcana and Neeazana SugarCanes; Best Spanish Chufas; 
Pearl Millet in hulls. 40 CtS. per ib —Beet; Mangold 
Wurtzcl; Tu- nip; Chinese Imph*e. largest and richest in 
sugar, < See page 250 Report of Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture for 1^77). TREES %t 5 to lO Cts each- 
Chestnut, Walnut. Maples (sugar, red and silver); Catalpas, 
Ailanthus, Fir, Pine, etc. 25 Cts per 10O— Mraw- 
berry Plants, Poplar, Osier and Hop Root Cuttings. 
At 1 Ct each— Arbor Vita: t-ees (1 foot high); Prickley 
Conifrey; Early Blackberry, and Panicum Spectabile BooJ 
Cuttings, Pomegranate. Fig ami Black Mulbcrr> t uttings 

Semi-tropical and other Fruit Trees, CHEA P. 

£3"Trees, Seeds, et"\, packed and delivered on cars 
without extra charge, or sent by mail for 10 cts per th. 
additional. Send for illustrated c.ttilogue free. Address 

W. A. Sanders, 

SANDERS P. O.. 

Fresno County, Cal. 




Liberal aovaucon on .wusiunmciils. 

Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch Supplies furnished 



Los Gatos Nurseries. 

I offer the trade this season a Large ami General 
Assortment of 

Fruit Trees and Small Fruits. 

My trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Prices 
ow down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose. Cal. 



THE FAMOUS 



Spring Tooth Harrow, 






Manufactured and fold on the Pacific Coast only by 

Van Gelder. Batchelor & Co.. 

902 K St., Sacramento. 

THE GRANDEST ACHIEVEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL 
IMPLEMENTS ! 



The 



Most Perfect Woiking 
Harrow in Use! 



FOR SALE 1ST LOTS TO SUIT. 

PEHTJVIAXT GT7AXTO 

Firat-Cla33 for Fertilizing. 



Apply at the office of 
JOHN PARROTT, - 414 Montgomery St. 



PLANTS GROWN 

for trmiKpIoiilinK, and Fi nil for the market. 
IAA Acre* Bfiuiteil with Hen ic» I f\ f\ 
IUV Varletfea of Helmed Fraita I w VI 

S,i> New Catalogue for wh:it ».. irtn to plant. Stutfrte. 
JOHN S. COLLINS, -HiHircstowii, X.Jersey. 



Farmers, write for your paper. 



It can be eisilv adjusted to run at any depth from one 
to eight inches, and Hi thereby adapted to all varieties and 
conditions of soil. The broad teeth smooth the surface, 
tiding furrows and other depressions; cut up and destro) 
Vegetation and cover grain to any desired depth Their 
oscillating motion thoroughly pulverizes :he emth. and 
buiiigmadi of the bent < 'il- tempered Spring Steel the\ 
pass over STUMP btems or other obstructions as easily as 
those of a hay rake. 

It is not liable to clog with trash or clods and seldom 
gets dull They do the work of a harrow or cultivator, 
and will gave one-half the expense of putting in a crop. 

Anyone who has an orchard or vineyard cannot afford 
to do » ithout them. See ono 0|*rate and bo convinced 
before buying any other. 

For descriptive circulars and price list address the 
manufacturers. 

Correspondence solicited. 



R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers. Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers In 




ROOMS TO RENT. 

Elegantly Furnished, and with Gas and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Room. 

A PLEASANT LOCALITY and REASONABLE TERMS 

At 1031 Market St., San Francisco. 

This paper 1b printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South lOtb 
St., Philadelphia & 69 Gold St., N. Y. Airent 
for Pacific Coast^Joseph H. Dorety, 120 
Sutter St., S. F 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIONS. GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 

Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
•."•Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden I 
will be sent nn to all C'I'Stomsra. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street. S. F 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 




Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens of the 
follow ing varieties of FowIb: 

Dark and Lisrtat Brahmas. Buff. White and 
Partridge Cochins, White and Brown 

Leghorns, Dorkings. Polish, 
Hamburgs, Plymoutn Rocks, Game 
and Sebright Bantams, Bronze Turkeys, 
Pekin, Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks. 

£3TSaje arrival of Fowls and Eggs Guaranteed. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

fzTFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to GEO. B. BAYLET, 

P. O. Box 1771. San Francisco. Cal. 



CHEAPER YET! 

Tension Sewing Machines! 

A large number of nearly new genuine SINGER , 
WHEELER & WILSON, HOWE, WEED, WILSON, 
GROVER & BAKER, DOMESTIC, etc., will be sold very 
cheap, many as low as 910. These Machines were taken 
in exchange from families for the "AUTOM ATIC" or 

NO TENSION MACHINE. 
Wilcox & Gibbs' S. M. Co., 

124 POST ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
No. 361 Twelfth Street, Oakland, Cal 



BERKSHIRE A SPECIALTY. 




My herkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
irreat care fn-m the Wat Mffdi <>f Imported *tock in the 
United State" and Canada, and fur individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding Block are recorded in the 
'American Berkshire Record," where none but |*ure bred 
tinware admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 
ISth aud A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

San Francisco Savings Union, 

632 California Street, cor. Webb. 

For the half-year ending with December Slst, 1870, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate i f Six and Six- 
tenths per cent (<3 6-10 per cent.) per aunuru ou term de- 
posits, and Five and Oue-half per cent. (5} per cent.) per 
annum on ordinary deposits, free of Federal Tax, payable 
on and after Thursday, of Juuuary, 1SS0. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half-vear endinar this date, the Board of Direc- 
tors of 1HE GERMAN SAVINGS AND Li'ANSOCIElY 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of 
Six and Nine-Tenths (0 9-10) per cent, per annum, ai.d on 
Ordinary Deposits at the rale of Five and Threc-fourtlis 
(5| > per cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and 
payable on and after the lath day of Jauuarv. 1830. By 
rder. GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, December Slst, 1879. 



AN ELEGANT PRESENT.— The New Floral Autograph 
Album Gilt-bound. 48 pages, with handsomo engravh.gs of 
Birds. Foma, Scrolls, etc, all 15c.. postpaid Stamps taken. 
Agents wanted. BociMsoza & Co., West Haven. Ot. 




New OniDge House at Washington. by enterprising propagators doubtless embrace growth, and this will afford the best opportu 



NEW 



Our horticultural readers will be interested 
in the showing of a speci il branch of the work 

of the Department of Agriculture which we 
make upon 
this page. 
It is evident 
that Com- 
missioner Le 
Due has un- 
dertaken an 
enterprise 
which may 
prove of great 
benefit to our 
gro w e r s of 
citrus fruits, 
and which we 
doubt not will 
be carried out 
with great 
care and skill 
by Mr. Saun- 
ders, chief of 
the Horticul- 
tural Bureau. 
Sometime ago 
h e Depart- 
ment secured 
from abroad a 
collection of 
the citrus 
family trees, 
embracing 
many of the 
leading varie- 
ties of the 
orange, lemon 
and lime. The 
trees anived 
in poor condi- 
tion and bad- 
ly infested with scale insects. They were, 
however, handled skillfully and brought 
into good growth. .This collection forms 
the basis of the citrus oper- 
ations of the Department. 
Some of the varieties which 
have already fruited have 
proved of high order, and 
have been propagated and 
distributed. The Navel or 
Bahia orange, splendid 
specimens of which were 
shown at the Riverside 
citrus fair last winter, were 
grown from trees distri- 
buted by the Agricultural 
Department. We are glad 
to know that it is the dis- 
position of the Depar-ment 
to extend this valuable 
work, and to secure better 
facilities for gr.iwiug and 
proDagating the best varie- 
ties, the orange-house shown 
in the engravings on this 
page has been erected. We 
do not find record of the 
area enclosed in the new 
structure, but it is evident 
from the engravings that it 
is considerable. It is planned 
so that the entire roof can 
be removed during the 
summer months, and the 
trees are grown in beds of 
soil and not in boxes. 
These two facts of course 
send to the attainment of 
tuccessful growth under 
natural conditions — points 
of the highest importance. 
The trees will enjoy open 
air culture until the ap- 
proach of winter renders 
protection necessary. 

Besides the introduction, 
test and distribution of 
good foreign varieties of 
citrus fruits, it would seem 
desirable that the depart 



some qualities which deserve recognition 



nities for comparison 



correct decisions. 




DEPARTMENT 



AGRICULTURE— EXTERIOR VIEW. 



A Service to Producers. 

It promises to be a fact of no slight import- 
ance to producers and manufacturers on this 
coast that Gen. Stoneman, of Los Angeles, has 

. accepted the 

position on 
the Indian 
commis s ion 
tendered him 
by the jPresi- 
dent. W. The 
position is not 
a salaried one, 
and therefore 
the question 
of individual 
emol u m e n t 
does not n- 
trude. It is 
an honorable 
public trust, 
to be adminis- 
tered for the 
general good. 
More than 
this, the ap- 
pointment of 
Gen. Stone- 
man will be 
a step toward 
justice to this 
coast in the 
matter of sup- 
plies furnish- 
ed to the In- 
dians. These 
supplies are 
valued at a 
million and 
one-half dol- 
lars per year. 
Heretofore 



Another work which will naturally receive 
attention is the correction of the nomenclature 
of the citrus family. There is now much con- 



It is fitting that the government collection 
should serve this purpose. 
General Le Due is entitled to much credit for 




the materials have been bought at the East for 
distribution here, thus taking our money and 
expending it for the benefit of Eastern pro- 
ducers and manufacturers. 
This is not right. If we 
are to be taxed to support 
Indians, we should also have 
an opportunity to supply 
the demand which is thus 
created for produce and 
manufactured goods. Gen. 
Stoneman declares that this 
point is one which he will 
insist upon. Thus, while 
we believe he will deal 
justly with the red man, 
he will see that the pur- 
chase of bounty is not con- 
fined to distant markets. 



Squirrel Poison. — Benj. 
Boorman, a reader of the 
Press at San Pablo, Contra 
Costa county, gives us the 
following recipe for pre- 
paring phosphorus poison 
for squirrels, which has 
worked admirable results 
in his experience: "Take 
some vessel that you can 
close tightly (say, a coal-oil 
can), and put in dry barley; 
then add one pint of boiling 
water to the gallon of dry 
barley, and put it over the 
fixe until hot. Then add 
five inches of phosphorus 
to the gallon, cut up in 
small pieces. Be careful not 
to let it burn. Turn it over 
as often as convenient for 
two days, and it is ready 
for use." This dose, Mr. 
Boorman assures va, knocks 
the pebts very effectually, 
and it is recommended to 
alL 



ment should secure the va- 
rieties originating in this 

country and determine their qualities as com- I fusion of names both in this State and in Flor 



3 NEW ORANGE HOUSE OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-INTERIOR VIEW. 

the enterprise, which will be of direct and 



G. M. Berry, book- 
keeper for ex-Sheriff Nu- 
nan, and Secretary of the 
Mutual Building and Loan 
Association of\ this city has decamped, taking 



pared with the best imported. The new sorts ida. What is needed is a standard collection practical benefit to an important branch of our with him nearly §20,000 belonging to Nunan, and 
which are being brought forward/in this State of truly named varieties in a healthy state of ' horticulture. ^iCHVttP 1 about the same amount from the association. 



18 



THE PACIFIC MURAL PRESS. 



[January 10, 1880 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. —Eds 



Cucamonga Colony. 

Editors Press: — Having been for some time 
past a reader of your valuable paper, and hav- 
ing read in its columns correspondence setting 
forth the particular advantages of certain colo- 
nies in southern California, I would like, with 
your kind permission, to place before its readers 
the merits of a modest little colony, for which 
no champion has ever appeared. I refer to the 
Cucamonga colony, whose lands adjoin the Cu- 
camonga Vineyard Company, located in San 
Bernardino county. 

The Cucamonga colony was started five years 
ago, but its projectors haviug studiously avoided 
trumpeting its superiority to other colonies, the 
settlements have been few, and to-day there is 
ample room for those wishing to find homes in 
southern California to settle here and grow up 
with the place. 

In setting forth Cucamonga's advantages, no 
fact shall be asserted, nor any superiority 
claimed, that cannot be maintained. That it 
has superior advantages, an investigation will 
prove, and those desirous of purchasing a small 
farm in this portion of our State are earnestly 
urged to visit Cucamonga and investigate its 
advantages. 

The first point of excellence claimed for Cu- 
camonga is comparative freedom from wind- 
storms. There have been this tall in our valley, 
up to date, two storms, each lasting three days. 
From the first storm Cucamonga received but 
16 hours' visitation; from the second storm, one- 
half hour. All our windstorms come through 
the Cajon and San Gorgonio passes; the two 
mentioned above came through the Cajon, and 
the reason Cucamonga escaped with but ItH 
hours' visitation, is found in its location being 
on the north side of the valley. All the Cajon 
windstorms first blow directly south, they then 
gradually veer or spread around to the east, as- 
suming the shape of a fan, the Cajon being the 
handle. Sometimes they veer enough to the 
east to reach Cucamonga, and sometimes not. 
They follow the same course when receding, 
finishing their blowing-up at the place of be- 
ginning. Of the San Gorgonio storms, and they 
are infrequent, Cucamonga escapes but few, but 
she is never the first place attacked, and never 
experiences as much of the storm as other locali- 
ties. 

The second point is freedom from frost. 
From the frost of last January, which visited so 
many of the colonies of southern California, and 
injured acres of orange and lemon trees, Cuca- 
monga wa? happily exempt. I am aware that 
one of your correspondents had published, in 
your paper, an article referring to that frost, 
and named several localities that suffered from 
it, among them Cucamonga. Had he taken the 
precaution to found his article on facts, by 
making inquiries, he would have learned, that 
in Cucamonga, by that frost, not a tree was in- 
jured; and not within the recollection of the 
oldest settler has frost ever done any injury to 
its citrus trees. 

The third point is cheapness of land. Upon 
this point it is not necessary to dwell, as figures 
speak for themselves. All that is asked ia the 
uniform price of $25 per acre, one-sixth at time 
of purchase, balance in five annual payments. 
The advertisements of other colonies show their 
lands are sold from $30 to SI 00 per acre. It 
can thus be easily seen that their forest land is 
dearer than Cucamonga's best, and no better 
soil than this can be found in California. 

The fourth point and the crowning one is free 
water. The water is sold with the land and 
thus belongs to the settlers, who have an or» 
ganization for the regulating of the water, in 
which every settler has a voice and vote. To 
anyone who has had experience in some of the 
colonies of California, who has invested his all, 
and who has found out, when too late to recede, 
that the price of water for irrigating and domes- 
tic purposes, has, by a grasping water company, 
been advanced from a low price to an extortion- 
ate sum, the advantages of free water appeal 
with wondrous force. No man of experience 
would ever buy land in a colony where water is 
sold, when he could buy it in a colony where it 
was free. Here it is free ; the settlers own it, 
no soulless water company. 

The soil of Cucamonga is very fertile and is 
especially adapted to the growth of oranges, 
lemons, limes, figs, peaches, pears, plums, etc., 
and its advantages for grape culture is manifest 
from the national reputation of the Cucamonga 
vineyard. It offers special inducements to those 
who intend to buy small farms and commence 
grape culture for wine purposes, as they will 
have a market at their very door; the Vineyard 
Company will buy at market prices all the grapes 
that can be raised here. If they wish to grow 
raisin grapes no better spot can be found. Other 
market products, such as potatoes, corn, beans, 
etc., grow abundantly. 

The location of Cucamonga is a very pretty 
one, being on the north side of the valley, within 
six miles of the mountains and at a sufficient 
elevation to place the whole valley at its feet. 
The scenery of its surroundings is grand. Its 
water is very pure, coming from natural springs 



one-half mile above the colony. It has a school 
open eight months each year, in which nearly 
all the branches of the city schools are taught. 
It has two hotels, two stores and a postoffice. 
Cucamonga station on the S. P. R. R. is but 
three miles off. 

In conclusion, I would again urge those in- 
tending to buy land in southern California to 
visit us, learn our advantages, and they will be 
sure to settle. Free Water. 

Cucamonga, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 



Agriculture in Amador County. 

Editors Press : — Amador county is located 
east of Sacramento county, its limits include 
the lower or timberless belt, and extends east- 
ward nearly to the summit of the Sierra Nevada 
mountains. The county embraces all the im- 
aginary "belts, " so graphically described by 
some one in the Record- Union in his notes on 
Placer county. Amador's northern boundary is 
50 miles south of Auburn, and the "hired cor- 
respondent's" statements will apply with greater 
exactness here than there. After a residence 
here of 27 years' duration, on a ranch all the 
time, I can state positively that semi-tropical 
fruits, such as oranges, lemons, olives, pome- 
granates, etc., cannot be profitably grown here 
in any of the " belts " described in the Record- 
Union. 

The extreme cold weather of the past week 
is only a repetition of what has happened often 
before in Amador. The more hardy fruits 
grow to perfection here, as is well knowrr The 
climate is delightful; these cold snaps only re- 
mind us of what we endured at the East in the 
long winters there. There are several thousand 
acres of government land in this county still 
unoccupied, on which comfortable homes can be 
made. 

It is according to established laws, over which 
we have no control, that years of toil, rigid 
economy and continued effort is imperatively 
demanded of the small farmer in order to insure 
success. No one can reasonably expect success 
in farming by any other method, no difference 
where he may be located. The higher the 
order of intelligence in farming, the greater the 
success. 

To prove that the farmers in Amador county 
are cultivating the soil to advantage, I will give 
some facts and figures. I have been engaged 
for the past five seasons in running a steam 
thresher, and the amount threshed has increased 
from 8,000 bushels of grain in 1875 to 35,000 in 
1879 in this part of the county; all raised on the 
red-hill land. Of this last amount 25,000 
bushels were barley, and the balance rye, oats 
and wheat. The average yield per acre was 25 
bushels of barley and 20 bushels of wheat. 

Early potatoes can be raised without irriga- 
tion. Irrigation is no advantage in raising 
grain, as there has never been a failure of crops 
from drouth where the grain was sown early. 
Methods will be adopted and carried out, by 
and by, to secure the rainfall and utilize it for 
irrigating purposes. Fruit and vegetables re- 
quire irrigation, and all the flowing water in the 
larger streams during the irrigating season is 
owned and controlled by mining corporations. 

The fact that Amador county is one of the 
richest mining counties in the State is well 
known. The climate is extremely healthy, and 
is far ahead of the coast counties for stock, rais- 
ing. The extreme healthfulness of the climate 
and other advantages will cause this region to 
be the best in the State for the raising of fine- 
blooded stock. In all mountainous countries 
the men and women are noted for their fine 
physical development and powers of endurance. 
Why will not the same rule apply to horses, 
cattle and sheep as well '! The experiment has 
never been tried of raising blooded stock to any 
extent in this region to my knowledge. After 
the land held by speculators has been disposed 
of, and emigrants allowed to make their own 
selections for their future homes, some few may 
find their way up here, and in the meantime 
our own people will not lie idle and let the 
golden opportunity pass by unheeded. 

A larger amount of grain is already sown than 
ever before, and most of it is doing well, the 
cold weather will not injure only that recently 
sown and not sprouted. S. C. Wheeler. 

Plymouth, Cal. 



Fisu Killed by Electricity. — A correspond- 
ent of Land and Water says: A curious incident 
of the whole of the occupants of a small tish 
pond being destroyed by a flash of lightning, is 
reported from Seek, Grand Duchy of Nassau. 
The Nassauer Bote states that during a very 
heavy thunder and hail storm at night time, a 
flash of lightning struck a small pond, well 
stocked with various kinds of fish, the property 
of the pastor of the parish. The following 
morning the whole of the fish were discovered 
dead upon the surface of the water. They had 
all the appearance of having been half boiled, 
and crumbled to pieces at the least touch, just 
as is the case with fish after being boiled. 
Neither any external nor internal injury could 
be observed, the scales being intact and the 
swimming bladder filled and well preserved. 
The water in the pond was still muddy and dull 
the morning after the storm, as if the lightning 
had only then struck it. 



Points for Small Planters. 

Editors Press: — The season for planting is 
now upon the farmers of California. Through 
your paper I desire to throw out a hint or two 
for those farmers who are trying to support and 
educate families by cultivating the soil. I have 
been in this State since 1857, and have closely 
observed farming and its causes of failure. The 
great struggle of the farmer in this State has 
been, first and last, to raise'something to seU; 
and then he buying what his family consumes. 
Now I would suggest that the first object of 
every farmer should be to raise all that he con- 
sumes, and sell only the surplus, if any. 

Farmers must always sell at lowest wholesale 
competition prices, and purchase at highest re- 
tail prices. The history of the California farmer 
has been that he has bought all of his wood, fruit, 
meat and vegetables. If the farmer were to raise 
all of his wood and food, except groceries, he 
would never suffer by reason of bad years. Home 
needs would always be provided for. To ac- 
complish this, I call attention to the follow- 
ing plan: 

Plant out two acres of eucalyptus (blue gum), 
setting them out, say, 14 feet. apart This will 
give 225 trees per acre, or 450 trees on two 
acres. These trees should be planted out so 
that the dwelling-house, out-buildings, barn, 
corrals, etc., would get the benefit of the shade. 
The trees should not be planted in rows, but 
should be scattered in forest style; irregularly 
set here and there, giving a natural beauty to 
the grove. At three to four years old, the far- 
mer can begin to cut for fuel." Each tree will 
make at least three days' wood for a family, 
and 120 trees will give fuel for a year. Each 
tree when cut off will grow from the stump 
with greater vigor than a new plant. Each 
year cut 120 trees for fuel and the growth will 
supply the consumption. 

The farmer should next plant one-eighth of an 
acre of vineyard. Vines 7 feet apart will give 
111 vines on one-eighth of an acre. Use choice 
varieties. This will give all the grapes that the 
family can use, both fresh and dried as raisins 
for winter use. 

Next set out three-quarters of an acre of de- 
ciduous fruit trees, embracing say 20 apple, 10 
peach, 10 pear, 5 apricot, 2 figs, 3 chestnut, 2 
almond, and 4 plum trees, with 1 or 2 trees of 
such other fruits as the person may desire. Set- 
ting the trees 20 feet apart will take SI trees 
for three-quarters of an acre. This orchard 
will furnish all fresh and dried fruit that a 
family will use in a year, with some to sell. 

These fruit trees should, if convenient, be 
near the well. Among the trees, and near the 
well, devote 50 feet square to vegetables, plant- 
ing those having as long roots as possible, such 
as cabbage, turnips, carrots, squash, parsnips, 
etc. A space of 15 feet square can be put in 
with radishes, lettuce, etc. A few hills of 
melons, corn and beans should be planted. 

Plant, in the proper season, 100 feet square 
in early potatoes, then in the summer and fall 
plant the same quantity of late potatoes, thus 
giving all that the family will use during the 
year. 

In between the other rows of trees in the 
orchard can be planted pumpkins, corn and 
beets, for cow feed. 

All of the foregoing will occupy a space less 
than 350 feet square, and can be irrigated by 
an ordinary pump two or three times a summer. 
But if well cultivated and free of weeds, the 
two acres of blue gums will need no water after 
the first year, thus leaving a space less than 
276 feet square to be irrigated. Out of this 
space, the vineyard and fruit trees will require 
not more than one or two irrigations a Beason. 

To the foregoing should be added two acres 
of alfalfa, for cow feed. This will, if watered 
once a month after cutting, give all the feed 
necessary for two cows. 

Near the chicken-house should be planted 
one-half an acre of barley, one-half an acre of 
wheat, 50x100 feet of Egyptian com, and 20 or 
30 hills of sun-llowers, all to be used for the 
chickens. 

This whole space will be less than six acres, 
of which less than four acre* will need irriga- 
tion. The cost of irrigating the whole six 
acres would be very little. In years of drouth, 
the farmer will have more time to put in this 
small field, and can from it support his family 
in such years. In ordinary years, five acres in 
wheat and five or ten in barley will furnish 
bread and stock feed. WiU our farmers try it 
— make a first-class home, and make money 
afterwards. R. M. W. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Fruits for the San Joaquin Valley. 

Oliver Holden, the Superintendent of the 
Fruit Drying Company, at Fresno, gives the 
Ejcjmsitor a list of fruits which he considers 
most desirable in that region and likely to gain 
the best prices at the drying establishment. 
We quote as follows : 

Apricots (standard varieties, freestone). — 
Royal, Moorpark, Peach and Large Early. 
New varieties, very large, freestone — Hind's 
Seedling and Jackson's Seedling. 

Nectarines (freestone). — Boston, New White 
and Stanwich. 

Plums (large and handsome fruit, aU lirst-class 



in flavor, and freestone).— Coe's Golden Drop, 
Washington, Jefferson, Peach Plum and Vic- 
toria. 

Prunes (best for curing and for market). — 
Fellenberg, Gros Prune d'Agen and Hungarian. 

Peaches (all freestone).— Princess of Wales, 
Crawford's Early, Smock's Late Free, Shinn'a 
Rareripe, Foster, Jones' Seedling, Merthen's 
Free (yellow flesh), very large, and Fulgham'i 
Free, very large. 

Grapes for Raisins. — Muscatel, Muscat "and 
Sultana. 

Figs. — Endrich, Genoa White, and Brown 
Smyrna or Turkey. 

Blackberries. — Lawton, Dorchester and Kit- 
ta tinny. 

Mr. Holden also names the following as best 
trees for wind-break and ornament : 

Silver Acacia, South Carolina Poplar, Euca- 
lyptus and Fig. 



Random Pullets. 

A first-class poultry-raiser says : "To keep 
the flying breeds within bounds, use twine net- 
ting stretched across the top of the yards, which 
is far cheaper than a high fence, and much bet- 
ter that clipping the wings of the birds. " 

If a man can fill his ears with cotton, or move 
out on the prairie where he has no neighbors, it 
will pay to keep a few Guinea hens. They lay 
more eggs than the common fowl. It is also 
claimed that one of them will keep one-half an 
acre of potatoes clear of beetles, etc., and at 
the same time answer the purpose of a barom- 
eter in predicting the changes of the weather. 
If their merits balance their music, get some 
eggs and hatch out some. They are good eating 
ana very pretty. 

Fowls of aU kinds are very fond of charcoal, 
and will eat it with relish when properly pre- 
pared. Pounded charcoal is not in the shape in 
which fowls usually find their food, and conse- 
quently is not very enticing to them. To please 
their palates the charcoal should be in pieces 
about the size of a grain of corn, and if these 
are strewed around their quarters, they will 
readily eat thereof. Corn burnt on the cob, 
and the refuse, which consists almost entirely 
of the grains reduced to charcoal and retaining 
their perfect shape, placed before them, make a 
marked improvement in their health, as ia 
shown by the higher color of their combs, and 
their sooner producing a greater average of eggs 
to a flock than before. 

An English writer says : I am glad the sub- 
ject of game poultry has been taken up by you. 
The brutes that take prizes now are simply 
awful. I speak more especially of Black -reds. 
I have been a breeder since I was a very small 
boy, as also was my father and grandfather, and 
have tried as far as possible to keep to the old 
style, which, however, is difficult to do. I think 
a dash of Malay, if well manipulated, does good 
by increasing size and style, but it requires 
great care; one-eighth is sufficient. After that, 
breed in from those nearest the proper color 
and shape. Some fanciers breed from Black- 
reds, Duckwiugs, Piles, etc., for the chance of 
getting odd birds the "right color," hence the 
nondescript brutes we see at shows, and among 
prize-takers, too. I shall never forget the ex- 
pression used by a pitman when looking at a 
prize bird at Bedlingtou. After looking for a 
time, he said, "That one has been bred from an 
ostrich." As to the laying powers of game 
fowl, I am convinced they are a fair average; 
and being very hardy, bad weather does not 
affect them anything like so much as other kinds 
that are morg tender. The chickens are also 
very easily reared, and I don't see how there 
can be any difference of opinion as to their suit- 
ability for the table. Some of my yonng cocks 
weigh from six to eight pounds, and are as 
round and plump as partridges, and flesh as 
white and delicate as possible. 

The Fanciers' Journal give* the following cure 
for roup: To cure the roup, when a bird is at- 
tacked with the characteristic cough of the mal- 
ady, or has tenacious mucus about the beak with 
difficulty of breathing, I place it in a wicker 
coop in a quiet shed, and put before it a drink- 
ing fountain containing about a gill of water 
with which I have mixed one drop of solution 
of aconite, third potency, (may be had of any 
homoeopathic physician). In every instance dur- 
ing three years, this treatment has had an effect 
almost marvelous, for upon visiting the patient 
an hour or two afterwards, I have found that 
the symptoms have vanished. The attack for a 
day or two is liable to return, yet each time in 
a lighter form; continuing the application has 
in no instance with us failed to completely re- 
move the ailment in about 4S hours. In case 
the disease should have made so much progress 
before it is observed, that the sufferer is unable 
to drink, it will be necessary to give the dose. 
This is easily accomplished by pouring into the 
throat about a tcaspoonful of the water every 
hour. Such an instance occurred here during 
excessive wet weather, when I was absent from 
one of the houses two days. Upon going to see 
that all was kept in condition, I found a fine 
old fellow under one of the perches almost dead 
from very acute roup. I separated and dosed 
him immediately. He soon lost all the roupy 
symptoms, but continued extremely weak, and 
appeared to be fast sinking from atrophy. A 
medical friend suggested trying the homoeopathic 
solution of arsenicum. His advice was taken, 
with the best result. 



- 



January 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS . 



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Vine Planting and Culture. 

L. J. Rose, of Los Angeles, one of the fore- 
most viticulturists cf southern California, has 
written an article for the Los Angeles Herald 
embodying, among other things, the results o f 
his wide experience and observation in vine 
growing. Now that the grape industry of onr 
State is enjoying wholesome stimulation, and 
planting of vineyards is widely contemplated, 
these remarks of Mr. Rose wiU be read- with 
interest by many in aU parts of the State. We 
present his views in condensed form : 
Exposure of a Vineyard. 
In southern California, this land of perpetual 
sunshine, a level piece of land is preferable; 
and, if a hillside, a northern exposure is prefer- 
able to a southern. A level piece of land will 
absorb nearly all the water that falls as rain, 
while a slope will shed it. Where irrigation is 
practiced, water will wash the land and soon 
wash all the finer particles of soil — the valuable 
portions — away, whereas, the nearer a level, the 
more easily it will be Hooded. Nearly all be- 
ginners in planting in this are almost sure to 
make a mistake, for they have learned that the 
finest vineyards of Europe and the East are 
grown on hillsides and southern exposures, but 
they do not remember that in this country the 
conditions of rain and sunshine are entirely 
changed. Here we have a lack of water, but 
an abundant supply of warmth. There a good 
season consists in a dry and warm summer; here 
in a wet season. A hillside is necessity there, 
for it sheds the rains and sooner drains its 
water, which is taken up by the soil during 
rain, and every favorable condition to get all 
the warmth the sunshine can furnish has to be 
taken advantage of; whilst here, if grapes are 
not ripe in September they can hang on the vine 
until December. 

Kind of Soil Most Suitable. 
Life has as yet been too short to speak about 
this subject with certainty, and in a century 
from now opinions will still have to be modi- 
fied. My experience is confined to my imme- 
diate neighborhood; and, even in this limited 
space, there have been trials only to a limited 
txtent, for the soil that may suit one grape may 
be entirely unfit for another. There are, how- 
ever, some general facts that are safe to accept. 
A. finely divided sandy soil will absorb water 
readily and is easily worked. It will, too, re- 
tain water in summer much better than adobe 
ir clay, or a coarse, porous soil. Adobe and 
:lay soils are good for the raising of such crops 
is grow in the winter, like grasses, wheat, bar- 
ey and oats; sandy soils, on the other hand, 
are adapted for summer-growing products like 
;orn, melons, pumpkins, fruit trees, grape- 
vines, and are not suited to grasses. The first, 
in summer, with heat, shrinks and cracks. It 
.8 in a favorable condition to evaporate its wa- 
;er easily; for a solid, hard earth will sooner 
ose its water than a soft, mellow surface. 
Such a soil can be easily kept in this condition 
l)y cultivating, say, once a month, with a mini- 
mum of labor; but an adobe or clay soil is very 
difficult to work; it breaks up in clods, giving 
nore surface for wind and sun to act upon and 
Iry; and, if broken up by beating the clods, 
makes an almost endless task, for the first rain 
to pack together again. Cultivation should be 
:ontinued during the entire summer. The 
ground may be entirely without moisture on the 
mrface; it may be dry to such a depth that 
sveeds do not sprout any more; and every object 
apparently wanting for stirring the ground, yet 
yrou will find that your grapevines will show by 
their renewed, vigor and growth after cultiva- 
tion that it has not been labor lost. Of course 
this continued cultivation is only possible in 
vineyards the first and second years of their 
growth. When older, they early in the season 
:over the ground so that no horse can get 
through them, and, by shading the ground, 
they prevent much of the evaporation and stop 
weed growth; but, even with old vines, culti- 
vation should be kept up as long as possible. 

Cultivation should, too, be thorough and 
continued as long as any weeds make their ap- 
pearance, for all growth is at the expense of 
water. Grass or weeds, while making an ear- 
lier growth, take up the water in your soil by 
their roots and evaporate it by their leaves 
more rapidly than your vines, for they run 
through to their maturity earlier and many of 
them evaporate and use more water. At any 
rate, whatever you allow them to appropriate 
from your soil is lost to the grape. 

How to Plant Cuttings. 
For some reasons it is more satisfactory to 
root grapes in nursery the first year, for there, 
even in a dry season, they can be taken care of 
and made to grow by watering them; and, 
when once rooted, they can be planted out in 
vineyard form with a very small per cent, of 
loss, even in a dry season, without irrigation. 
On the other'haud, if planted at once °in the 
jand which they are to occupy, there is a gain 
in size. As between vines planted in nursery 
»nd those replanted the second year in vine- 
yard, and cuttings planted at once in vineyard, 
the last will have perhaps six mouths the best 
of size at the end of the two years. The ex- 
penses for the two years are perhaps less to 
those planting in nursery. When there is suffi- 



cient time to get the ground in good order then 
it will probably be better to plant at once in 
vineyard. My mode of planting is with the 
crowbar, sinking them, say 15 inches deep. 
Perhaps 12 inches would be even better. Many 
persons plant much deeper, but I think it is a 
mistaken idea. Their theory is the deeper the 
more moisture; but I think it will be found 
that, when your soil is dry 12 inches, it is dry 
altogether, and with proper cultivation it will 
not be dry, no matter how little water you may 
have had. The most natural way for a cutting 
to throw out roots is at the bottom, especially 
if it has been cut smooth just below a bud. 
To enable it to throw out roots, however, at 
the bottom, it must not be planted so deep as 
to be out of the influence of the air and warmth. 
This is why 12 or 15 inches is better than a 
greater depth. 

Some plaut with a spade, but it is attended 
with more labor, and I can see no advantage. 
The important point to see to is, however, that 
the soil presses around every part of the cut- 
ting which is under ground and especially at 
the bottom. This can be easily done with the 
crowbar. There is another point, namely, to 
soak your cuttings either in very wet ground or 
in water a few days before planting. The most 
important point in starting a vineyard is to get 
them started to grow. When this is once ac- 
complished the most difficult problem is solved, 
for after that, with such cultivation as I have 
indicated, your vineyard will be a fact accom- 
plished, and make a l-me growth even in a dry 
season without irrigation. Of course, it must 
have protection from rabbits, gophers, squir- 
rels, or anything else that will destroy its 
leaves, for if these are eaten off it will surely 
die. 

Six feet each way I think a good distance 
apart to plant vines for wine making; whereas, 
for raisin culture, vines are now planted farther 
apart. After having planted the cuttings, I 
cut them all back, say, to six inches above the 
ground; for the less above ground the more 
readily will they grow, there being less evap- 
oration from the cutting. 

The ground is prepared by breaking it up, 
say, 10 inches deep, the deeper the better, after 
which it is harrowed, when it is ready for plant- 
ing. When the planting is done, then it is 
again plowed, beginning in the center between 
two rows with a back furrow, which throws the 
soil away from the vine, and plowing as close to 
the cutting as possible without disturbing it. 
After this, for that year, if the ground is kind 
to work, all after work can be done with an 
ordinary one-horse cultivator. 
Can Grapes be Grown Without Irrigation ? 

This can be answered with certainty, yes. 
Some soils are more favorable than others, but 
every soil that with rain will grow anything, 
will grow the grapevines without irrigation and 
produce grapes. The grape is one of those 
plauts that does not require an excess of water; 
>r, rather, it can exist and grow with a small 
water supply and can be cultivated profitably 
for a time, how long will depend on the kind of 
soil, whether a soil is rich in such plant food as 
the grape requires. I have a vineyard of 20 
acres which is on a side hill, southern exposure, 
and very gravelly, dry soil. There is no local- 
ity on all of my lands drier and sooner dried 
out. It formerly, when in a wild state, grew 
sparingly pin grass of a very stunted growth. 
All this land is above my irrigating ditch, so 
that even if I had a desire toirrigateit it would 
be impossible to do so. This vineyard is now 
about ten years old and since the second year 
has produced a fair crop of grapes, and even 
two years ago, when we had only three inches 
of rain, it yet produced more than a half crop 
for that land. This hillside is planted in the 
Blaue, Elba, Zinfandel and Berger varieties of 
grape. Now 1 cannot conceive of a more severe 
test, and it is worth all the theorizing that 
could be done in a month. Maoy persons say 
to me that for young vines, especially for the 
first year, water is necessary. Now the reverse 
is true. When once a grape cutting begins to 
put forth its leaves, when roots have formed, 
and both processes simultaneously, then a very- 
small quantity of water is necessary to main- 
tain its growth. The root of the vine elongates 
very rapidly, and if water were scarce at 12 
inches in depth it would soon reach out 24 
inches more if the water were there for its 
wants. Plants require water in proportion to 
their size and the amount of fruit (seed) to ma- 
ture; or rather, more exactly in proportion to 
the size and quantity of their leaves, for these 
are its surfaces to gather plant food in the form 
of gases from the atmosphere and 'to evaporate 
water. All this water which is evaporated in 
warm days is brought into the leaves from the 
soil by its roots. It is easily understood from 
t lis that a plaut that has many leaves has much 
surface for evaporation. A small plant, there- 
fore, requires a little water; a large one in pro- 
portion to its size; whereas, in a vineyard, a 
small vine occupies the same space (six feet 
square) as a larger one, and the soil can only 
give up what it has received and has been kept 
there by keeping the soil in a favorable condi- 
tion to retain its water, namely, cultivation. 

Is Irrigation Beneficial? 
It must be answered in the affirmative, for we 
have now and then such dry seasons that the 
vine produces only small crops, although it will 
live. By irrigation we can add every necessary 
to an abundant crop, for water, too, adds fer- 
tility, and we have the evidence here in our 
county of the grapevine 100 years old, yet a* 
vigorous and prolific a bearer as can be found at 
any younger age. It is contended by many 



that water adds to the fertility of the soil (for 
irrigable soils demand no addiog of manure) by 
reason of the sediment which it carries. This 
is undoubtedly true in some localities, like the 
Nile, where floods run over fertile bottoms, 
gathering richness from the rich soils that they 
pass over. So, too, of the Mississippi, and 
other streams of fertile surroundings, but here 
our washes come from the sterile mountains and 
beds of dry sand, and they cannot add fertil- 
izers by. depositing that which has no fertility. 

Soil is a mechanical necessity to a plant, to 
hold it in a fixed, upright condition. It is also 
a storehouse for its ash and salt ingredients. 
Spring and well water can supply all deficien- 
cies, if any are in the soil, by what it has in 
solution; and, too, by its solvent power. Irri- 
gation can be excessive. It can make the grape 
watery, insipid and inferior for wine. U inter 
irrigation will probably give us every benefit 
that water can give, and there are very few 
places but what could have winter irrigation. 
As my neighbor, Gen. Stoneman, says, "Use 
your land for your reservoir." It will cost 
nothing in the making. It is your bank, which 
will honor the draft of the vine, when summer 
comes, as it is needed. 

I have shown, from ten years' experience, 
that my vineyard, which has never been irri- 
gated, has yielded grapes all that time in pay- 
ing quantities. It is yet healthy and produc- 
tive. It is equally sure, to my mind, that, with 
winter irrigation, it would have yielded larger 
crops; and who can say when the time may 
come that, by reason of some element of the 
grapevine being exhausted, it will not go into a 
decline, and how long that time may be. 

That for the first few years of the growth of a 
vineyard irrigation is of no utility, only being 
additional labor, I feel sure; but that, when 
producing large crops, irrigation is a great ad- 
vantage, is also equally certain. There are 
some compensations and uncertainties about 
this whole subject, however. Irrigation makes 
much work, and a smaller crop may pay better 
than a larger one. The quality of the grapes 
may also be better in the case of vines not irri- 
gated. 




Comb Foundation in California. 

Editors Press: — Finding it best to modify 
many of my opinions here in regard to using 
comb foundation, perhaps a note or two on the 
subject may help some of your many readers. 
Foundation has been so little used here that its 
merits are but little known. Sagging is the 
bugbear with Eastern apiarists, and in my 
apiary in the South there was a great deal of 
trouble on warm sultry nights — for the damage 
seems to be done at night, when so many more 
bees are in the hive, making the wax softer by 
reason of a higher temperature and increasing 
the weight on the sheets; but here the nights are 
so cold, that it is to this I attribute the fact that 
even with comparatively thin sheets little or 
no sagging occurs. Hence there is no necessity 
of the expense of wiring the sheets, which prac- 
tice has been discarded entirely by me as being 
useless; and it is my opinion that in places or 
in hands where wiring is necessary, its results 
will be totally inadequate to benefits gained. 

The best results are obtained in my apiary by 
having frame not more than half filled with 
foundation, for I find that practically it is as 
good as frames well tilled, the only objection 
being that the lower portion may be filled with 
drone comb; but experience shows this to be a 
groundless one, as theie is not nearly as much 
disposition on the part of the bees to build drone 
comb here as at the East, Then the economy 
in cost of material is also quite an item, as it re- 
quires just that much less material. 

Level your hives; a slant to either side insures 
crooked combs, and a slant from front to rear 
will cause more or less of a wave. 

Have the sheets cut at top, the size of the in- 
ner dimensions of the frame, and taper until at 
the bottom of the sheet the sides lack about 
in eighth of an inch of touching. Fasten it in 
frames with a little resin, mixed with melted 
wax. See that the top corners are especially 
secure, as if a sheet gives way at that point it 
generally breaks down all the way, no matter 
how well the other parts may be fastened. 

For swarms I would especially recommend 
my plan of not filling the frame more than half 
ML 

Don't put more than a strip one-fourth inch 
wide in section boxes, or you will have the 
"bone," so distasteful to epicures. Used in 
moderation in surplus honey receptacles, it is 
much more economical and satisfactory than 
natural comb-starters. 

Dark yellow wax seems to give much better 
results than white; the bees take to it more 
kindly and sooner. The. white seems to require 
more heat for its work and is more brittle. 

In conclusion I may sum up the advantages: 
Having all worker comb, and it infallibly 
straight; when the lower story i3 filled with it, 
a swarm will begin work above in full force 
much sooner; the ability to fill two or more 
stories in a very short time with full frames of 
comb, for the extractor, where ordinarily it 
would take three or four times as long, and 
every apiarist knows what a few days in the 
bight of the honey season is worth. These are 



a few of the advantages, and the only drawback 
I know of is its cost. Concerning the outlook 
for the coming season, I must say our bees are 
in poor trim, and loss has been heavy, not less 
than 50% among my neighbors. But as winter 
is early there is ample time to strengthen colo- 
nies for the honey harvest. 

Rufus Morgan. 
Glen Oak Apiary, San Diego Co. , Cal. 



Tt|E PUBLIC L^fiDS. 



Alleged Mineral Character of Agricult- 
ural Lands. 

Editors Press: — There is always a little 
cloud to darken the horizon. The rich finds on 
patented lands is having a tendency to make 
miners disrespect the owner's right; and a word 
they call "fraud" ia entered to upset the set- 
tler's right to his possession. Pre-emptions and 
homesteads are procured, in most cases, by a 
great expense and trouble. Five years' resi- 
dence for a homestead, proving off mineral and 
proving up, is no small job. The six weeks' 
notice and all the vexatious twistings necessary 
to make your title good, ought to secure 
security when the hard-earned patent does ar- 
rive. But many say that it amounts to nothing 
if minerals are found on your place in paying 
quantities. Here oomes in the only open "se- 
same" to open up the question of title — "fraud." 
Now, fraud is criminal. If I am in possession 
of 160 acres of land (patented) with millions of 
hidden wealth under my feet, where is the fraud 
if I am ignorant of its presence? To make it 
fraud the proof must be forthcoming that I 
knew of its existence before proving up, there- 
fore swearing falsely, etc. But it is not an easy 
matter to prove such a fact. 

Another view of the case will make the pros- 
pector an intruder, and subject to arrest, at 
Uncle Sam's expense. A prospector has no 
right to invade my domain. If forbidden be- 
fore a witness he is liable to arrest and damages. 
If such is the case, who is to lay bare the great 
wealth supposed to exist in patented posses- 
sions in the mineral belt? 

I write thus, because I overheard farmers say 
that they would allow prospectors to intrude, 
for if the matter was brought into the courts 
they might lose their lands altogether. Such 
reasoning seemed absurd. If Uncle Sam has 
yielded possession, you are the possessor. No 
power in existence has the right in equity to 
dispossess the honest settler. The time to 
question the settler's right has gone by when 
the patent is in his pocket, except fraud can be 
positively proved. And even that charge should 
be dealt with the same as if the malicious chal- 
lenger was the greatest fraud, making it a State 
orison offense to be unable to substantiate 
charges preferred. Such charges are generally 
made by irresponsible parties for self-aggrandize- 
ment, not knowing or caring who may be the 
sufferers. I have not seen this question 
brought forward to public notice as much as it 
ought to be, for conflicts are bound to come be- 
tween those who hunt for gold and those who 
make the soil produce a yearly dividend. Many 
of the old placer diggings would be far more 
valuable to-day than ever they were if the soil 
was back into its original condition. But it is 
gone forever — to fill up the rivers and the bay. 

John Taylor. 

Chinese Camp, Tuolumne Co., Cal. 



Another Style of Wrong Doing. 

The Mining atul Scientific Press of last 
week contains the following account of another 
style of evil doing by gold hunters: 

Soma time last August a petition was sent 
from Auburn, Placer county, in this State, 
signed by a number of miners, to the Secretary 
of the Interior, reciting that it had been and is 
the practice of a certain class, to claim land as 
agricultural, and conceal from the land officers 
its mineral character, obtain title, and then sell 
and bond the same to be worked for minerals. 
It also referred to the Central Pacific Railroad 
Company as being in the practice of issuing cita- 
tions for hearings to disprove the prima facia 
mineral character of odd Sections within its 
grant, and, at the hearing abandoning such por- 
tions as are claimed by miners as minerals, and 
after a few months again citing the miners to 
another hearing concerning the same land. The 
petition asked that when land is once deter- 
mined or conceded to be mineral, it shall for- 
ever be deemed and held as such. 

The Acting Commissioner of the General Land 
Office has sent the following answer, which is 
published in Copp's Land Oivner: 

"In the matter of fraudulent; proceedings un- 
der agricultural claims, to obtain title to min- 
eral lands, it is obvious that no broad and un- 
qualified rule can arbitrarily be enforced which 
will be effective under the present laws. Land 
which is in fact non-mineral is subject to agri- 
cultural entry, and if a party seeks under'such 
entry to obtain title to a mineral tract, it is the 
duty of miners and others who may know its 
true character to appear at the district Land 
Office and submit proof thereof. The knowledge 
of the character of any certain tract is local, 
and this Office must necessarily depend upon 
"Continued on Pack 26. 



20 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 10, 1880 




Correspoudenc* cordially in?ited from all Patrons for this 

departmeot. 



The National Grange. 

Slxtb Day. 

The sixth Jay, according to the report in the 
Orange Bulletin, was spent in considering the 
various amendments to Constitution and by- 
laws submitted by the report of the committee 
having these matters in charge. Several prop- 
ositions were recommitted, and the only defi- 
nite change made was in the passage of an 
amendment permitting subordinate Granges to 
confer the fifth degree, the county Granges the 
sixth and the State Granges the seventh. This 
like other constitutional changes requires a rat- 
ification of three-fourths of the State Granges 
before it becomes law. 

The afternoon session was varied by an ad- 
dress by Prof. Collier, Chemist of the Agricult- 
ural Department at Washington, who attended 
the National ({range through the instructions 
of the Commissioner, Hon. Win. G. LeDuc, 
who is using all efforts to bring this depart- 
ment to its proper point of usefulness to the 
agriculturists of the country. Prof. Collier's 
subject was "Sugar Production on American 
Soil." He claimed, and by charts and figures 
quite plainly proved, that 3100,000,000 worth 
of sugar can easily be produced in this country 
annually. He had specimens of sugar from 
cornstalks, after the corn had been ripened and 
gathered, also from sorghum and pearl millet. 

A very large number of visitors were present 
from New York State, Michigan, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware and New Jersey, and the evening was 
spent in conferring the fifth and sixth degrees 
upon all entitled to receive them. 

Seventh Day 

The paper of greatest interest presented and 
adopted on the seventh day was the report of 
the Committee on Education, received through 
Bro. T. B. Harwell, of Tennessee, an earnest 
advocate of education, his specialty being the 
introduction of agricultural text-books into all 
the common schools of the country. The re- 
port was as follows: 

Worthy Master: — The Committee on Educa- 
tion, to which was referred so much of the ad- 
dress of the Worthy Master and AVorthy Lect- 
urer as related to the subject of education, have 
had the same under consideration, and instruct 
me to make the following report: 

From the information ,we gather from the 
address and report, we are glad to sec that the 
subject of Grange education is one of growing 
interest among the Patrons of the several 
States, anil that much earnest thought is being 
directed towards the perfection of methods 
which promise the advancement of this impor- 
tant end. 

The plans of the Order for the practical edu- 
cation of every observing Patron is, that in 
those G ranges in which these plans have been 
put in practical operation, their members have 
made the greatest progress in intelligence, pros- 
perity and usefulness. This is justly regarded as 
one of the most important interests in the < ! range 
and is the basis of its purpose to elevate the 
farmer and to improve his condition by in- 
creasing the intelligence which directs him in 
the pursuit of his vocation, and in the discharge 
of the duties of good citizenship. In accord- 
ance with the demands of the age, it recognizes 
the necessity for a more specific education for 
those who are engaged in the various forms of 
agriculture, such education as will quicken the 
intelligence of the farmer, fertilize his fields, 
diversify his products, and qualify him for en- 
lightened action in all questions of industrial or 
political interest, which affect his welfare. ' 

Whilst then the demand for industrial and 
technical education, is organized by every in- 
dustry, in no department is the necessity for it 
greater than in the agricultural, and to the 
Orange belongs the proud distinction of being 
the pioneer organization in America, in supply- 
ing and popularizing a method by which ele- 
mentary instruction in agricultural science may 
be brought within the reach of every farmer and 
citizen in the land, through the Grange and the 
public schools. 

Thus while the Order is seeking through 
clearly defined methods to promote the growth 
of the farmer in practical knowledge, it recog- 
nizes in the public schools of the country valu- 
able instrumentalities for advancing this interest 
upon which alone the Grder predicates its hopes 
of ultimate success, in the grand and progres- 
sive purposes which it has declared to the 
world. 

The rapid crystallization of popular sentiment 
among the members of the Order, everywhere, 
in favor of the only practical mothod by which 
this work may be accomplished, is full of en- 
couragement, and is an earnest of the proper 
appreciation of this valuable auxiliary to the 
wisely ordered educational plans of the Order. 
It is one of the most hopeful signs of its future 
growth and prosperity, that those to whom its 
educational interests are entrusted, are giving 
more thought to this means of meeting the 
great want of the age, a system that will reach 
the masses. 

Agricultural colleges, everywhere established 
to meet the demand for a higher education for 
the farm, may afford the highest facilities for 



education in this direction, but do not supply 
this growing want, for the masses cannot avail 
themselves of their benefits, and they are in too 
many instances languishing, because the inter- 
est in agricultural education is at so low an 
ebb in our rural communities. The plan for 
popularizing such education as is herein pro- 
posed, will tend, however, to counteract this 
indifference and give an impetus to the growth 
of such colleges as they are not likely other- 
wise to receive. 

In these Bchools may be imparted an ele- 
mentary knowledge of the success of agricul- 
ture, which will not only increase the intelli- 
gence that directs our farm management, but 
will prepare the coming farmer to enter the 
higher sohool of the Grange, with a better 
knowledge of improved methods, a keener zest 
for the pursuit of practical information, a juster 
idea of the dignity of labor, and a higher con- 
ception of the true aims of life. I am further 
instructed to offer the following resolution to 
the Grange and ask its adoption: 

lienolved, That the National Grange recommend to the 
Patrons of the several Slates that they demand the intro- 
duction of the "study of the elementary principles of 
agriculture," by legislation, into the public schools of their 
respective States, and that It further enjoins upon the 
representatives of this body this especial charge, that 
they promote by every proper means the furtherance of 
this end. 

Reference being made to the care that should 
be exercised by the farmers in selecting their 
teachers, and the necessity of avoiding those 
who are cruel and undeserving of their confi- 
dence, the following tribute was paid to the 
profession by the member from Tennessee: 

"There is no class in our country more inde- 
fatigable than the educators, in their efforts to 
qualify'themselves for the highest discharge of 
their important duties, and in the true support 
of progress. By the aid of normal schools and 
teachers' institutes, they are rapidly elevating 
their vocation into a distinct and noble pro- 
fession. And there is no profession in our land 
that is worthier our confidence and support, or 
readier to aid us in the promotion of the educa- 
tional interests of our children. " 



The Morgan's Sons Cases. 

Judge Evans, of the 4th District Court, for 
San Francisco county, rendered a decision for 
the plaintiffs last week, in the case of J. H. 
Dodge, Thomas Upton and J. G. McMahon vs. 
Daniel Meyer. The plaintiffs were farmers who 
shipped grain to Europe, through the firm of 
Morgan's Sons in 1874; who, as will be remem- 
bered, received advances from Daniel Meyer, 
and assigned their bills of lading to him. The 
suit was brought to recover from Meyer the 
value of the wheat less the advances made to 
the shippers by Morgan Sons. The judgment 
for the plaintiffs in this case is presumed to be 
based upon the same law doctrines that were 
applied in the previous like cases brought by 
shippers against this same defendant; and the 
Court says in rendering the judgment: 

"The value of the wheat at the time has been agreed 
upon at 91. aa per hundred pounds. Morgan Sous were 
acting as factors. They were to charter ships, receive the 
wheat on board, transport it to Europe, and receive a 
commission therefor. The farmers were to receivo the 
expenses of bringing the grain here und a further advance 
of about $20 per ton. The defendant argues that he did 
not receivo the wheat, and that there was no pledge nor 
any conversion. Morgan Sons had obtained letters of 
credit on Europe. These letters contemplated consign- 
ments of wheat by Morgan Sons, and provided that the 
latter draw bills of exchange which would be accepted on 
receipt of bills of exchange, bills of lading, insurance poli- 
cies, etc. The theory of the defense iB that the receiving 
of the shipping documents by Meyer was not for the pur- 
pose of looking to the cargoes as security, but to hold the 
makers of the letters responsible; that the only purifose 
of receiving the shipping documents was to transmit them 
as security for the letters. I do not so understand it. 1 
understand that Mcver took the wheat for his protection. 
From time to time as the wheat was received, Meyer ad 
vancod money thereon to Morgan Sons, who delivered to 
him the mates' receipts for grain put on board the vessels. 
Those receipts were nothing except to givo Meyor control 
of the wheat. There is no question, then, that Meyer 
looked to the wheat as security. When the wheat was 
sent forward the receipts were exchanged for bills of 
lading." 

Election of Officers/ 

Enterprise Grang?, No. 129, Sacramento 
Co. — Election, Dec. fithy G. Wilson, M.; G. 
Beckley, O. ; A. M. Plummer. L. ; H. Fay, S. ; 
C. Patton. A. S. ; J. Hanlon, C. ; J. Fraley, T. ; 

F. Tibbits, Sec'y; J. Patton, G. K. ; Miss M. 
Plummer, Ceres; Mrs. T. Beckley, Pomona; 
Miss A. Shaler, Flora; Miss M. Shaver, L. A. 
S. Installation Jan. 3, 18S0. 

Santa Clara Grange, No. 71. — A. B. 
Hunter, M.; A. R. Woodhams, O. ; Mrs. A. 
Knowles, L. ; C. H. Brandenberg, S. ; J. G. 
(ilindinning, A. S.; Mrs. N. Lillick, C; P. G. 
Heith, T.; A. B. Garwood, Sec'y; H. Lillick, 

G. K.; Mrs. S. J. Heith, Ceres; Mrs. S. Brand- 
enberg, Pomona; Miss J. Farwell, Flora; Mrs. 
M. E. Campbill, L. A. S. 

Social Grange, No. 271, Sacramento Co. — 
Election, Dec. 27th : William Atkinson, M. : 
M. L. Massey, 0. ; Fernando Prothero, L. ; Mrs. 

H. E. Putnam, C. ; J. 0. Sherwood, S. ; Thomas 
Pollock, A. S. ; George Atkinson, T. ; Miss 
(iuBsie Sherwood, Sec'y; Miss Nellie Nichols, 
L. A. S. ; Sim. Prothero, G. K. ; Mrs. 8. G. 
Maybee, Ceres; Miss Mary Sumpter, Pomona; 
Mrs. B. E. Massey, Flora. 

Sotter Creek Grange, No. 277, Amador 
Co.— S. J. Shealor, M.; J. Millikan, O.; Ed- 
mond Andrews, L. ; E. Wise, S.; M. Reisch- 
man, A. S. ; Wm. Strickland, C. ; Georgia 

•Secretaries of Subordinate Granges are invited to send, 
for publication, lists of officers as soon as they are 
elected ; also dates of installation. 



Port, Sec'y; J. McKindley, T. ; John Richards, 
G. K.; Ellen Styles, Ceres; S. A. McKindley, 
Pomona; M. J. McKindley, Flora; Bessie Mc- 
Kindley, L. A. S. 

Sutter Mill Grange, No. 179, Coloma, Cal. : 
W. H. Valentine, M.; Albert Mosely, 0.; G. W. 
Ramsev, L. ; Daniel Haggart, S. ; Wm. Stearns, 
A. S. ; Chas. E. Markham, C. ; E. M. Smith, 
T.; H. Mahler, Sec'y; A. S. Mosely, G. K.; 
Mrs. J. S. Norris, Ceres; Miss Edith Vernon, 
Pomona; Miss Sarah McKay, Flora; Mrs. Robt. 
Chalmers, L. A. S. ; Wm. Nicholls, Trustee. 

Walnut Creek Grange, No. 119, Contra 
Costa Co. — John Larkey, W. M. ; John W. 
Jones, 0. ; A. W. Hammitt, L. ; G. W. Boss, 
8.; Wollie Jones, A. S.; C. S. Whitcomb, G; 
John Baker, T.; Wm. K. Daley, Sec'y; Wm. 
Clark, G. K. ; Mrs. C. S. Whitcomb, Ceres; 
Mrs. John Larkey, Pomona; Mrs. Jennie 
Hodges, Flora; Miss Lizzie Hodges, L. A. S. 

Washington Grange, No. 228, Calaveras 
Co. — Election, Jan. 3, 1880. Installation to 
take place on Jan. 17th : Samuel C. Waters, 
M.; S. W. Sollars, 0.; R. D. Wilson, L.; M. 
L. Cook, C. ; Nelson Dill, S. ; Chas. Blyther, T. ; 
Chas. Bamert, Sec'y; Miss Josie Stamper, G. 
K.; Mrs. Minerva Holman, Ceres; Miss May 
Parrott, Pomona; Miss Gertie Holman, Flora; 
Miss Rosa Stamper, L. A. S. ; W. B. Stamper, 
Trustee. 

Grangers' Bank. — We call attention to the 
official statement of thj affairs of the Grangers' 
Bank, which appears in our advertising columns 
this week. 

Resolutions of Respect. 

NATIONAL RANCH GRANGE, No. 235, San Diego 
county, at the meeting, December 24th, adopted resolu- 
tions of sympathy with an esteemed and honored Brother, 
Lyman Kobt£gp. as he has been called upon to mourn the 
los9 of his faithful and devoted wife. The resolutions 
say: 

" By her vacant chair we shall continually be reminded 
of the missing link in the chain that binds lis, and in the 
offerings brought by other hands will long call to mind 
our Worthy Flora's self-sacrificing spirit and ready assist- 
ance in the work."— Committee, Sarah E. Kimball, Louise 
E. Boyd, Josephine A. Walker. 



CALIFORNIA. 

BUTTE. 

Shekp Notes. - Oroville Mercury: Coyotes 
and wild cats are quite plentiful along the edges 
of the foothills, probably driven from the mount- 
ains by the severe cold snap, and in search of 
food; They have committed depredations upon 
sheep owners, but, as yet, have not done much 
harm. Prominent sheep men of this vicinity 
state that they suffered but trifling losses by 
the recent storm, feed having been so good for 
several months that the animals were in excel- 
lent condition to stand a siege of stormy weather. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Late Plums. — Gazette, Jan. 3 : We found 
on our table New Year's day, a bag of sound, 
well-fleshed, purple plums, of superior flavor, 
picked the same morning from the tree, by Mr. 
William Dick, who lives about four miles south 
of Martinez, on the Walnut creek and Lafayette 
road. What variety this remarkably hardy and 
excellent plum belongs to, neither Mr. Dick, 
nor any one else that has seen it here, is able to 
determine, but it is probably a seedling, and we 
think while it has no rival in hardiness, there 
are few that can equal it in excellence of flavor. 
KERN. 

The Wheat Product. — Courier, Jan. 3 : 
We learn at the Kern River Mills that at least 
three acres of wheat will be planted this year 
to one of last on the island. In addition will 
be the 25,000 acres now being put in on the 
desert lands on the north side. This is the most 
encouraging feature in the farming interest in 
this county. The result of the present season 
showB that the wheat crop is the money resource 
of the farm outside of the stock. Feed grains 
cannot be sent to the San Francisco market at 
a profit. They must be put into stock, making 
in this way an extensive home market. The 
last storm will insure the crop of wheat on all 
the lower island lands without a particle of irri- 
gation, and the immense amount of snow in the 
mountains will make the irrigation of the high 
lands inexpensive. Every farmer should put in 
all the land he can in wheat, and save enough 
for home feed only, to be planted in barley and 
corn. The wheat will bring cash, and it is very 
probable, with the certainty of a crop, the 
farmer can get ample advance on his wheat to 
pay cost of harvest. 

The Advance in Sheep.— Courier: After 
three years of downright misery, the sheepman 
comes to the front. For a long time it has been 
almost a disgrace to have any sheep, in many- 
parts of the State. A man would nearly starve 
to death herding them himself and living on 
mutton alone. A good many flocks were aban- 
doned in the hills and left to roam where they 
would, and on the plains flocks have been turned 
loose, the owners taking their pack animals and 
leaving the country. A sheep-owner from near 
Delano said, the other day, he had tried for a 
long time to sell his flock for three bits per 
head, and failed, and so was obliged to keep 
them. He sees his way clear now. It is 
thought parties could now contract for their 
next spring's clip at 30 cents per pound. Mutton 
is up to four cents per pound in San Francisco, 
and scarce. Sheep-buyers are going over the 
country looking for opportunities to begin again. 
In Los Angeles over $100,000 have been paid 



for sheep within the past two months. Thei 
seems little doubt that they will go to the ol 
price of three dollars per head before the seaso 
is much further advanced. 
LAKE. 

Agricultural Society. — Democrat: ThJ 
Lake County Agricultural Society met at Kell 
seyville last Saturday. Articles of incorporaJ 
tion were submitted, signed, and turned over 
to J. S. Mendenhall to file with the Count! 
Clerk, and be forwarded to the Secretary of 
State, as provided by law. On motion the in- 
corporators were elected a Board of Directors 
for the first year, as follows: R. K. Nicholal 
L. H. (iruell,*J. T. Boone, Peter Burtnett, Wl 

G. Young, J. S. Mendenhall, J. H. Renfro, AJ 
D. 'Greene, Wm. Harris, Lewis Henderson and 
J. A. Kelly. P. Burtnett was elected PresiJ 
dent; L. H. Gruel), 1st Vice-President, and Jl 

H. Renfro, 2nd Vice-President; W. G. Young] 
Treasurer, and H. Winchester, Secretary. II. 
K. Nichols, Chairman of the Committee, a p. 
pointed to draft rules for tha government of the 
society, read and submitted the same to the 
Directors, which on motion was referred to 
Gruell, Renfro and Nichols as a committee to 
examine and report same at next meeting, to be 
held at Kelseyville, January 3, 1880. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Frost Effects.— Express, Jan. 3: Thegen-1 
eral opinion among nurserymen seems to ba 
that, while our late cold spell was more severf 
than the one which visited us last winter, it 
did not do so much damage. Some lime hedgo| 
are badly frosted on top, but none that we have 
seen have been frozen to the ground. Limes in 
some localities have escaped altogether. The 
lime is the most susceptible to injury from 
frost of any of the citrus family, and henoe 
may be taken as a criterion in adjudging the 
general damage. Some of the nursery stock of 
orange trees is considerably withered at top, 
and much of the new growth of leaves on old 
trees presents a decidedly curled and sickly 
appearanco, but this injury is only transient 
Since the above was written we have inform** 
tion from Mr. Thos. A. Garey, that of 100,001 
young budded trees growing on the grounds of 
the Co-operative Nursery Company, fully 95»* 
000 are killed down to within a few inches of 
the ground. Mr. Garey thinks that the damage 
throughout the county is much more serioof 
than at first estimated. 

Beet Planting. — E. T. Gennert in HeralM 
Jan. 3: Beet planting commenced on the 2GtM 
day of December, and if the rain had not inter*; 
fered at least 100 acres would have been plaut 
ed before the old year closed; as it is, only half 
that number is in the ground. Any farmer 
who wishes to see how beet planting is done on 
a large scale, should visit the ranch of Mr. H 
Nadeau, where a seed-drill attended by two 
men, plants from 18 to 20 acres daily, and will 
continue to do so during the month of January 
weather permitting. The seed on hand, 60 
centals, is sufficient to plant all high early land 
and more will soon arrive to supply all those 
who wish to give it a trial, in order to ascertain 
what will be best to do next year. 

Citrus Trees Not Injured at Anaheim! 
Gazette, Jan. 3: Diligent inrjuiay has failed to 
bring to light one single instance of damage to 
even the tender lime trees in this immediate 
vicinity. A coffee tree in Mr. Korn's garden, 
and a sweet lemon tree in Mr. Ilartnng's orch 
ard, are the only things which we have heard 
sustained any damage. Mr. Richard Gilmanf 
large nursery escaped unscathed. Not ev< 
the tender shoots of the trees were nipped by 
the frost. But it was undeniably cold, and ice 
formed to an unprecedented thickness. The 
white frost glistened on the shaded ground un- 
til the morniug was far spent. 
MARIN. 

Value of Shelter and Food. — Journal 
Jan. 3 : The severe weather of the past three 
weeks has been hard on cattle. We hear of bat 
very few losses, but if the dairymen had had noth 
ing to feed, none but the strongest would hart 
survived. Such a season a few years back, be. 
fore the present prudent system of raising 
winter feed became general, would have 
decimated many herds. It is clear that we can 
not do without shelter and hay for cattle IB 
winter. 

MONTEREY. 

Agricultural Society. — Democrat, Jan. 3 
The annual meeting of the M. A. F. A. waf 
held at City Hall, Tuesday, at 2 p. m. Then 
were present more than a quorum of member*, 
the President being in the chair. The electioi 
of officers resulted in the unanimous choice 41 
J. D. Carr, as President; J. R, Hebbron 111 
Vice-President and Eugene Sherwood, 2d Vio» 
President; S. J. Westlake, Secretary and Wa 
Yanderhurst, Treasurer. For Directors, wen 
put in nomination Messrs. J. T. Porter, B. V; 
Sargent, H. S. Ball, N. L. Allen, J. B. Iversom 
W. V. McGarvey, Z. Hebert, John Mark ley 
J. B. Castro and S. W. Conklin. Ballottis} 
being had the first six named received a major 
ity of the votes cast and were accordingly dt 
clared duly elected. The meeting then ad 
journed sine die and the Board of Director* 
went into session. 
NAPA. 

Prospective Cost of Vineyards. — St. Helent 
Star; It was estimated by the President am 
others of the Yinicultural Society of St. Helens 
and vicinity, at their meeting Saturday, l.'itl 
instant, that not less than 2,000 acres of vine 
would be set next spring, in that part of th" 
valley from Yonntville up. This is not th 
I whole field by any means, in which new vine 



January 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



21 



yards will be put out in this county next spring, 
but suppose the aggregate to amount to no more 
than that, does anybody understand the signifi- 
cance of that improvement? Do they realize 
the amount of capital necessary to be invested 
—the length of time for which it will be locked 
up before any return can be expected ? Let us 
consider the cost: In the first place, the land 
is worth not less than $75 an acre, may be more. 
At that ligure the whole amount is $150,000. 
The cost of preparing it, at $8 an acre, $16,- 
000. The number of cuttings required is, in 
round numbers, 2,000,000. The mere cost of 
making these, supposing the material can be 
had for nothing, is about $1 a thousand, or al- 
together, $2,000. Cost of settiog, at $5 an acre, 
$10,000. Cost of cultivating for four years, un- 
til a crop may be expected, $10 an acre a year, 
or $40 for the four years; the total, $80,000. 
Grand total, aside from any consideration of 
fencing, taxes, interest, etc. , -for getting 2,000 
acres of vineyard to a productive age, $258,000. 
Some vintners make the estimate higher; for 
instance, $80 an acre for the land, $3 a thousand 
for the cuttings, $16 an acre for putting in, and 
a total of about $46 an acre for cultivating the 
first four years; altogether, a total of $290,000. 
But then, once arrived at that productive age, 
the tide turns. A vineyard is produced worth 
probably $300 an acre, and paying interest, at 
1% a month, on from two to five times that 
amount. 

Napa County Lands. — Register, Jan. 3: 
The County Assessor has classified the lands of 
Napa county into the following four different 
grades: The first, containing 69,051 acres, is 
of the best; valley farming and vineyard, and is 
assessed at from $20 to $100 per acre. The av- 
erage cash value per acre of this grade is $39.25; 
total of first grade $2,710,515. The second 
grade comprises the best hill land and poorest 
valley land, containing 38,287 acres; is assessed 
at from $10 to $20 per acre. The average cash 
value of land in this grade is $13. 45; total valu- 
ation, $515,160. Hill land adjacent to the val- 
ley and hill grazing land, at a distance from the 
valley, constitutes the third grade, embracing 
45,891 acres; assessed at from $5 to $10; aver- 
age cash value, $6.96; total valuation, $319,475. 
The fourth grade comprises the poorest hill 
lands and possessory and homestead claims; is 
assessed at from $1 to $5 per acre, and contains 
31,711 acres; the average cash value per*cre 
being $2.34; total valuation, $433,820. Total 
number of acres in all grades, 184,940; total 
valuation of land in the county, $3,978,970. 

The Underground Cellar. — St. Helena 
Star, Jan. 1 : Messrs. Beringer Bros, have now 
nearly completed the excavation for the under- 
ground cellar, or wine vaults, in the rear of 
their main cellar. The excavation penetrates 
the hill at right angles from the cellar, and be- 
gins at the end of an arched passageway 12 feet 
long, connecting the cellar with it. It is now 
in 94 feet from the inner end of the arch, and is 
18 feet wide, by 12 feet high. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Riverside Raisin Results. — Press, Jan. 3: 
Mr. It. H. Henderson submits the following as 
the result obtained by him from two acres of 
vineyard (all he had). The vines were rooted 
one-year-old slips planted in the spring of 1877. 
The crop of raisins made in 1878 was 140 boxes. 
The crop of raisins made in 1879 was 475 boxes, 
of which 

400 were London Layers sold at $2 $800.00 

76 Layers at 31.50 112.50 

$012.50 

KXPENSES. 

Boxes and paper : $03.25 

Pruning and watering 18.00 

Cultivation 15.00 

Picking 35.00 

Packing ill boxes 40.00 

171.25 



Net profit $741.25 

Or $370.82 per acre. 

A correct statement of the raisins made by A 
P. Combs from the grapes off of Shugart & 
Waite's vineyard of 890 vines: 
276 boxes London Layers at $2 $550.00 

4 boves do. at $2.50 10.00 

60 boxes do., in half, at $2.15 107.50 

5 boxes do., in half, at $3 9.00 

60 boxes do., in quarter, at $2.35 117.50 

$794.00 

CASH TAID OUT. 

Grapes $211.25 

Teaming 10.00 

Picking 28.00 

Boxes 52.00 

Paper 12.10 

Inspector's fees 5.77 



IfCO 

ib 



Net profit $474.88 

This is the showing of H. A. Westbrook's 600 
vines, half five and half six years' old. He has 

97 whole boxes, London Layers $194.00 

66 half boxes 70.95 

99 quarters 58.10 

60 whole boxes, Layers 75.00 

Total $39S 11 

EXPENSES. 

Cultivation and irrigation $10.00 

Picking 15.00 

Curing and packing 33.00 

Cost of boxes 40.00 

Cost of paper 4.85 

Total $102.85 

8AN DIEGO. 

Frost Effects. — Union: Mr. Mumford re- 
ports that at one of his potato fields, near the 
court-house, the ground was frozen more than 
an inch in depth, and ice was formed in some 
instances a half inch in thickness, and we also 
hear of several water faucets frozen, It was 
feared by all that the damage resulting to our 
semi-tropical fruit trees from such intense cold 
would amount to a positive calamity. Diligent 



inquiries made yesterday, however, lead to the 
belief that but little damage has been sus- 
tained beyond the considerable loss of potatoes. 
Mr. Easton, above the Cajon road at Chollas 
valley, reports that his trees are uninjured, 
and that only here and there a few tender tips 
of the fall top growth are even touched. At 
Mr. Mumford's place, on the creek this side, 
the trees fared worse, and the bark on some of 
the larger limbs has burst open. Yet even here 
the damage is but slight, as the main portion 
of the new growth, which was nearly all frost- 
bitten, would have been cut off for the purpose 
of securing the more healthy and vigorous 
spring growth of the coming season. On Mr. 
Francisco's place, adjoining, the result is the 
same, and but very few trees will be perma- 
nently injured. From the Phipps place we 
learn the damage will not exceed in value more 
than $20. So, too, from the Cajon, where it 
was feared the heaviest calamity had fallen, we 
hear of but comparatively slight injury being 
done — much less than was sustained last winter. 
This singular fact is explained, however, by the 
prevailing low humidity of Wednesday and 
Wednesday night. The air was very dry; 
had it been otherwise, the loss of orange, lemon, 
and other similar trees, would have been at 
most, if not quite, total. Mr. R. G. Clark kept 
piles of straw burning on his place all night, 
and by this means, we are glad to hear, escaped 
injury. At Major Chase's place, however, we 
hear that the damage sustained is estimated at 
$500, which, in view of the immensely great 
damage expected to result, Mr. Chase will no 
doubt consider as equivalent to a clear gain of 
more than as many thousands of dollars. From 
Mr. Asher's, and other places on the Cajon, we 
have been unable to learn what has been the 
result, but we think it but fair to conclude that 
nothing like a permanent injury has been sus- 
tained by the orchardists generally. 

Orange vs. Fig. — R. K. P., in Union: Peo- 
ple are always fearful lest the oranges and 
lemons should suffer from the frost, you know, 
but say nothing about other fruit trees. Now, 
I noticed in the valley west of my house, a year- 
old fig tree and a yearling orange, side by side. 
The latter is not touched, while the fig tree was 
frozen "dead as a door-nail." 

Bee Feed. — Mr. J. S. Harbison says that the 
grass and bee feed, as well as the grain crops, 
are growing finely, and that the prospect could 
not be better. The cold snap of last week did 
not injure the sage growth in the least. 
SANTA BARBARA 

Lompoc Temperance Colony. — Editors 
Press: We have had the finest rains possible, 
gentle and copious, no beating or flooding. 
Three nights the frosts were very severe, but 
good rains have succeeded and are still falling at 
intervals. There will be a very large area of 
wheat, barley, Chevalier barley, English mus- 
tard and flax put in on land rented by Lompoc 
farmers from the adjoining ranchos. This will 
leave all the valley for hay, beans, potatoes, beets, 
corn and other crops. Considerable dairying 
will be carried on, as this is nature's own place 
for it. Hog raising will not be neglected, al- 
though they paid so poorly last year many have 
gone out of the business. We have a fine pros- 
pect of a new wharf at a well-sheltered place — 
not more than 12 miles from town over a gcod 
grade. With our good schools, fine society, 
churches (M. E. just building), and lodges, etc., 
we have a very enviable place. — J. W. W. 

Chevalier Barley. — Press, Jan. 3 : The 
majority of the farmers are putting in all the 
wheat they can, and there will be a larger area 
planted with this grain, by at least 20%, than 
last year. Most of the farmers are planting 
Sonora and Australian, while all the Odessa 
wheat that could be secured has been planted. 
The quotations of Chevalier barley have drawn 
the attention of farmers to that grain, and a 
large amount of it will be planted this year. 
The Ingalls brothers will plant about four tons, 
and Mr. Edwards has received a ton of fine 
seed, which he will put in. From seven to 
eight tons of this kind of barley will be seeded 
in the Conejo this year. On ground which is 
overgrown with wild mustard or other rank 
weeds, from 60 to 80 pounds of seed is neces 
sary, but on land free from pests of this char 
acter only 40 pounds to the acre is required. A 
fair average would be 50 pounds, which would 
make the area in that section planted with 
Chevalier about 3,000 acres. 
SONOMA. 

Large Sales.— Democrat, Jan. 3: The prop- 
erty of the Buena Vista Vinicultural Society 
was sold at public sale in front of the court 
house on Tuesday, to Robert C. Johnson, of 
San Francisco, for $46,501, by a "Master in 
Chancery" appointed by the U. S. Circuit Court. 
Lindsay Carson sold his ranch of 513 acres in 
Big valley, Lake county, to a gentleman named 
Levi, of Lakeport, for $18,000, on Friday last. 
By the terms of the sale, Mr. Carson lives on 
the ranch for the coming year. 

Agricultural Society. — Index, Jan. 3: At 
a regular meeting of the Sonoma County Agri 
cultural Association, held on Wednesday, the 
following directors were elected for the year 
J. Adams, H. W. Byington, Geo. P. Noonan, 
John S. Taylor, T. J. Ludwig, Jo. Wright and 
James P. Clark. 
YUBA. 

Ciirus Trees not Damaged. — Appeal, Jan. 
3: So far as our observation has extended it 
appears that orange trees, young as well as old, 
have suffered no damage by the late cold 
weather. Even the new leaves, which drooped 
from frost, have resumed their upright posi 
tion. 



NEVADA. 

State Agricultural Society Meeting. — 
Gazette: The annual meeting of the stockhold- 
ers of the Nevada State Agricultural, Mining 
and Mechanical Society was held at the court- 
house yesterday afternoon, President Steven- 
son presiding. Upon opening the meeting and 
stating its objects, President Stevenson an- 
nounced the drawbacks under which the Soci- 
ety had labored during the past year; the zeal- 
ous work of the Trustees; the hope of continuing 
the annual fairs until the State might come to 
the rescue, as it ought. The election of Trus- 
tees for the ensuing year resulted in the selec- 
tion of M. C. Lake, J. C. Smith, Charles Knust, 
J. L. McFarlin, C. C. Powning. The report of 
the Board of Trustees was read and filed. 
Amendments to the by-laws were adopted mak- 
ing the annual meeting on the last Monday in 
December of each year, and declaring that the 
stock might be assessed not to exceed $2 per 
share. Resolutions thanking the Board, and 
especially President Stevenson, were unani- 
mously adopted. 



The Solar Eclipse. 

The Path of Totality— Future Total Solar 
Eclipses. 

The annual meeting of the Academy of Sci- 
ences was held last Monday evening in the 
Academy building, southwest corner of Califor- 
nia and Dupont streets. The President, Prof. 
George Davidson, . being absent in Monterey 
county, locating the observatory for noting the 
total solar eclipse of the 11th inst., Vice-Presi- 
dent Moore occupied the chair. Charles G. 
Yale, the Secretary, read the following paper 
on the eclipse, prepared by Prof. Davidson: 
Total Solar Eclipse, January 11, 1880. 
The path of tbe penumbra of the total eclipse 
of January 11, 1880, passes from west to east 
over the Pacific ocean, its northernmost limit 
being at Behring strait and its southern in the 
South Pacific, in latitude 27° south. 

The central line of the total phase passes 
across the Pacific from latitude 10° north, longi- 
tude 207° west of Greenwich, through latitude 
north and 177° west ; thence northeasterly 
until it strikes the California coast in latitude 
36° 4', longitude 121° 35', at 3.55 37 p. m. 

When it reaches this position the sun will be 
only about 11 degrees of a quarter above tbe 
horizon ; thenoe the path of the central line cf 
totality passes across the Continent at points 
located as follows: 



Latitude. 



09'. 
29 . 
50 . 
12. 
36 . 



Longitude. 
..121* 23' 



.120 
.120 
.119 
.118 



Latitude. 
38" 03'.., 



Longitude. 
..117* 42' 



35 miles southeastwardly of Point Pinos, and 
Prof. Frisby of the U. S. Naval Observatory 
has also determined to occupy the same locality 
with his instrument. 

Of course, where the whole available time of 
totality is only about half a minute, it is a mira- 
cle if any other work is done than obtaining the 
epochs of the first three contacts. Yet the Coast 
Survey party is prepared to determine the posi- 
tion of any intra-Mercurial planet, should one 
fortunately be discovered. It is safe to say that 
there are a million of chances to one against 
catching such an object, and yet the millionth 
chance may be the first one that turns up. There 
will be five instruments and five pairs of eyes 
accustomed to observing; the station will prob- 
ably be over 5,000 feet above the sea. If the 
day is propitious, the observers may expect an 
atmosphere so steady that stars of the fourth 
and perhaps of the four-and-a-half magnitude 
will be visible to the naked eye. It happens 
that no star of the fourth magnitude lies within 
10° of the sun ; but to familiarize the observers 
with the heavens in the vicinity of the sun, a 
map has been prepared, to embrace 16° on each 
side of the sun, in the line of the elliptic, and 
8° above and below this line. This chart ex- 
hibits stars down to the seventh magnitude, 
although it is doubtful if stars of less than the 
fifth magnitude can be seen by the sharpest eyes 
or even with an opera glass. Nevertheless they 
would be visible in the telescopes and might 
prove serviceable objects for comparison. 

The letters of Peters, Watson and Swift in 
the Astronomisclic Nachrichten, upon the sub- 
ject of the Vulcanites supposed to have been 
seen by the two latter observers, indicate the 
great doubt which exists upon the subject of 
the intra-Mercurial planets, a doubt which is 
shared largely in Europe. Whilst the observa- 
tions of such experienced men as Watson and 
Swift may not be doubted under all ordinary 
circumstances, yet under the extraordinary con- 
ditions attending their measures in July, 1878, 
a reasonable doubt may fairly be entertained as 
to whether they saw two new inferior planets 
or two stars. And this subject must remain 
obscure until observations are secured admit- 
ting of no doubt. 

According to Hind wa may reasonably expect 
to increase our knowledge of the physics of the 
sun, and of the existence of vulcanites at the 
following important total eclipses among others, 
which occur in the next twenty years: 



Year. 



Month. 



Most Favorable Locality 
for Observation. 



38 
39 
39 
41 



.116 
.115 
.113 
.109 



1882 
1883 
1885 
1880 
1887 
18»9 
1893 



May 17 

Mav 6 

Sept. 9 

Aug. 29.... 
Aug. 19.... 
Dec. 22.... 
April 10... 



Arabia 

Marquesas Islands. . . , 

New Zealand 

West Africa 

Russia 

Angola, West Africa. 
Brazil 



Duration of 
Totality. 



2' 00" 
6' 15" 
2' 00" 
6' 21" 
:V 40" 
■X 34" 
4' 44" 



And at the last place it leaves the earth at 
sunset. 

If the above co-ordinates are plotted on a 
map, it will be seen that the path of the central 
eclipse passes over the Salinas valley about 14 
miles southeast of Soledad; over the Southern 
Pacific railroad near Fresno; directly over Mill- 
erton; over Eberhart, in the White Pine dis- 
trict; three miles south of Salt Lake City; and 
strikes the Central Pacific railroad at Aspen and 
at Bryan, near which place it leaves the earth 
at sunset. AH the stations of the Central Pa- 
cific railroad from Webber to Bryan will be in 
or remarkably close to the path of totality; but 
of course the sun will then be in the horizon. 

The width of the path of totality will be little 
over 30 miles, and the duration of totality about 
35 seconds. 

The time of totality where it crosses the 
Southern Pacific railroad will be nearly 40 
second's later than when it strikes the coast, 
and the sun will be about 10 degrees high ; and 
under ordinary circumstances of atmospheric 
disturbance from irregular refraction the limbs 
of the sun and of the moon will not be sharp 
and steady. It is most likely that both bodies 
will exhibit "spurious disks," and the limbs of 
both be blurred and confused. Under such cir- 
cumstances the phenomenon of "Baily's Beads" 
will be exhibited just as the last line of the 
sun's edge disappears behind the moon. This 
bright line will then be broken into a wavy 
line of bright spots. The phenomenon will re- 
cur upon the re-appearance of the sun's bright 
limb. Should the atmosphere be remarkably 
steady, then this phenomenon will not be pres- 
ent, but the fine line of the sun's disappearing 
edge will be continuous and disappear as a line; 
it will aho re-appear as a line at the third con- 
tact. ' 

The report of the eclipse of 1869, as observed 
in Alaska, fully established the last named con- 
dition; and then, as on previous occasions, it 
was shown to the California Academy that the 
phenomenon of Baily's Beads, the "black drop" 
in transits of Mercury and Venus, and similar 
phenomena, were the results of atmospheric 
disturbances. This view has been strongly con- 
troverted, but now leading astronomers are sat- 
isfied of its soundness. No other explanation, 
such as the diffraction of light, the existence of 
lunar mountains, peculiarities of the telescope, 
etc., explain all the phenomena observed, and 
especially fail to account for the phenomenon 
exhibited when the Baily Beads, etc., are not 
present. 

It is to avoid this atmospheric disturbance 
that the Coast Survey party has chosen to 
reach the more difficult station on the path of 



It will be noticed that the length of totality 
in several of these eclipses is remarkably pro- 
longed, affording unusual opportunity for sys- 
tematic, calm and deliberate observation. 

In the meantime we may expect that new 
instrumental means and methods will be devised 
for the solution of questions of solar physics yet 
in doubt; and it is not beyond the bounds of 
probability that the instrumental means may be 
utilized even without eclipses, as has been the 
case in the spectroscopic observations upon the 
sun flames at any time. 

Recent eclipses have set at rest the question 
of the corona being a solar appendage not self- 
luminous, but shining by reflected sunlight; 
and yet much remains to be done, and even 
new questions arise as older ones are explained 
and satisfied. 

The next total solar eclipse visible near the 
United States will be that of May 28, 1900, at 
3 o'clock in the afternoon; wherein the central 
line of totality passes through Mexico, the 
Azores and Egypt. 

In the latitude of San Francisco the eclipse on 
the 11th instant will not be total, but eleven 
and four-tenths digits, or ninety-five hundredths 
of the sun's diameter will be obscured, so that 
decrease of light will be very sensibly felt. 

The first contact will occur at a point on the 
sun's limb 30° to the right from the lowest point 
of the disk, 2h. 42m. 3s., mean time for San 
Francisco. 

The disk of the moon will rise nearly verti- 
cally over the disk of the sun, and at the alti- 
tude of San Francisco above the sea, the sun 
will set with the moon's lower limb still four 
minutes upon the sun's upper limb. Were an 
observer at a great elevation above the sea, he 
would see the moon leaving the sun at a point 
twenty degrees to the loft of the highest point 
of the sun's disk. 

The time of greatest obscuration will be about 
three hours and forty-nine minutes, when a 
bright, narrow segment of the sun will bo visible 
on the right side. 

To most persons it will be a novel sight to 
witness the progress of the eclipse as the sun 
approaches the horizon, and finally to see the 
sun set with the small segment of the moon's 
disk yet upon it. 

A Kind Word at Parting.— An old sub- 
scriber to the Rural Press, who is now no 
longer engaged in agriculture, asks the discon- 
tinuance of the paper, and adds : "Should I 
ever engage in agricultural pursuits again, I 
will renew it, as I consider it invaluable, and 
every farmer should take it." We part with 
regret from any one of our circle of readers, but 
if any must go, such a kind word at parting as 



totality in the Santa Lusia rr.ountains, about | the above gives us much cheer. 



22 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 10, 1880. 




The Coming Era. 

Thev tell us that tlie Muse is soon to fly hence 
Leaving the bowers of gong that were once dear, 

Her robes bequeathing to her sister, Science, 
The groves of Piuilus for the ax to clear. 

Optics will claim the wandering eye of fancy, 
Physics will grasp imagination's wings, 

Plain fact exorcise fiction's necromancy. 
The workshop hammer where the minstrel sings. 

No more with laughter at Thalia's frolics 
Our eyes shall twinkle till the tears run down. 

But in her place the lecturer on hydraulics 
Spout forth his watery science to the town. 

No more our foolish passions and affections 
The tragic Muse with mimic grief shall try, 

But, nobler far, a course of vivisections 
Teach what it costs a tortured brute to die. 

The unearthed monad, long in buried rocks hid, 
Shall tell the secret whence our being came; 

The chemist shows us death in life's black oxide. 
Left when the breath no longer fans its flame. 

Instead of cracked-brained poets in their attics 
Filling thin volumes with their flowery talk, 

There shall be books of wholesome mathematics; 
The tutor w ith his blackboard and his chalk. 

No longer bards with madrigal and sonnet 

Shall woo to moonlight walks the ribboned sex, 

But side by side the beaver and the bonnet 
Stroll, calmly pondering on some problem's x. 

The sober bliss of serious calculation 
Shall mock the trivial joys that fancy drew, 

And, oh, th« rapture of a solved equation,— 
One Belf-same answer on the lips of two! 

So sp*ak in solemn tones our youthful sages, 
Patient, severe, laborious, slow, exact, 

As o'er creation's protoplasmic | ages 
They browse and munch the thistle crops of fact. 

And yet we've sometimes found it rather pleasant 
To dream again the scenes that Shakspeare drew,- 

To walk the hillside with the Scottish peasant 
Among the daisies wet with morning's dew; 

To leave awhile the daylight of the real. 
Led by the guidance of the master's hand, 

For the strange radiance of the far ideal, — 
"The light that never was OB sea or laud." 

Well, time alone can lift the future's curtain,— 
Science may teach our children all she knows, 

But lorc will kindle fresh young hearts, 'tis certain, 
And June will not forget her blushing rose. 

And so, in Fpite of all that time is bringing,— 
Treasures of truth and miracles of art, 

Beauty and Love will keep the i>oet singing. 
And song still live,— the science of the heart. 

—Oliver Wendell Uolmei. 



Life Thoughts. 

iWritten for the Press by Mrs. Maria B. Laxdf.r] 
Uuto that wee helpless babe just awakened 
to earth-life through the agency of that ever 
wonderful birth-mystery, such mystical, yet 
terrible possibilities lie securely folded in the 
days to come, as neither tongue of prophet or 
eye of wizard hath power to sift; only the veil- 
ing years can forestall the mysteries to be un- 
raveled by this bursting embryo life-seed thus 
cast into this world-garden. Though now lying 
dormant aud most potent in the masterful in- 
activity of babyhood, even now is unconsciously 
ruling the little home kingdom with incipient 
kinghness, sitting supreme in the frail tenure of 
this slight fragile frame so magically woven 
with atoms of earth-dust, threaded by resplend- 
ent beams from the ever-living light of heaven. 
No stature of life so favored as to divine unto 
itself the hidden mysteries of the future; quickly 
passing periods of time being the only satisfac- 
tory and fulfilling prophecies of those unwritten 
volumes enveloped iu the completeness of this 
miniature life. Speeding minutes and (lying 
hours play upon the artless chords of this grow- 
ing life, rounding their responsive tones into 
notes whose freightings are harmony or discord, 
making the music of home-life one long ecstatic 
thrill of melody, or mayhap its rhythm be for- 
ever lost among those stray wandering threads 
of humanity who lie down in the darkness of 
those far off unknown graves, whose very still- 
ness is a sealed record of a lust note in the har- 
mony of a Godly ordained home. 

II. 

But few years have waved their wand of lights 
and shades o'er this innocent cradle sleeper e'er 
'tis transformed iuto happy boy and joyous girl 
life, and gayly they trudge hand in hand to the 
school-house upon the hillside. With their 
merry childish prattle is wakened the feathered 
songsters that start from leafy covert, while the 
more friendly meadow lark flits along their 
radiant sunny pathway, almost splitting his 
little throat in the curious warblings of mellow 
liquid notes. Silently, and with thankless inno- 
cence and unquestionable security of this life 
happiness, the brimming cup of happy child- 
hood is daily partaken, and its eventime is 
hightened by that certainty that to-morrow's 
cup will be not less full for the drain of to-day. 
Little specks or visionary troubles may darken 
these sparkling frothings, but such fleeting dim- 
ness only maketh brighter the light that chaseth 
away these spectral shadowy forms. Such are 



the records gracing the halls of memory as to 
the completeness of earlier girl and boy-life, e'er 
the serpent of full-Hedged worldliness has cre- 
ated those first feelings of unrest and unsatis- 
fied longings, those first symptoms of the pois- 
oned venom of his forked tongue. 

III. 

Later, and the conventional, staid forms of 
that patched framework of society has caught 
our little boy and girl in meshes so ingeniously 
and cunningly woven, that the frankness and 
innocence 80 beautifully and firmly marking 
nature's own is either lost or long drawn out in 
such simulation of itself, that this nearly at- 
tained feigned semblance of naturalness so strong 
in likeness, yet so weak in detail, is ofttimes 
but a grotesque figure-head, neither true to 
child-life, nor yet reaching even the hem of the 
horizon bounding that higher plane touching a 
fanciful and almost unreal world, one sacred 
only to the realizing hights of the maiden and 
the youth. 

That long-ago life of boy and girl, made so 
happy aud free by untrammeled freedom of 
thought and association, is a fanciful myth ; 
even its memory is sadly jarred, till the olden 
music seems almost a strain from dreamland, so 
unlike is it to the harmony of child-life in the 
division of life-labor, now so complete that even 
a separate school-day work is ordained by the 
powers that be; blindly for the best, we think, 
when the great aim of living is to lit these young 
minds for a harmonious companion-like walk in 
the parallel grooves of man and woman-life, to 
which end an undisputed heirship ia written in 
the Will of our Master, wherein is sanctioned 
and ordained the high, beneficent dowry of 
marriage. Custom, in her arbitrary manner, 
prescribes set rules and regulations for all alike, 
forgetting what is health to one is death to 
another, thus causing the bold and timid to 
tremble and shrink from her austere commands; 
the one to openly defy, the other to secretly 
connive with aud strengthen the boldness and 
disobedience of the former, thus making of 
shrinking timidity a most powerful aud cunning 
adept in the work of the defiant aud rebellious. 
In this separation of school-life there naturally 
talis to each pleasures and organizations most 
befitting the peculiar tendencies of the lads and 
lassies thus represented, and each, of course, 
held in force by such lawful restrictions as aim 
to stretch and mark more plainly, if possible, 
the widening gap between the world of the 
dreaming maiden and that of the bold, ambi- 
tious, scheming youth. Clubs, oyster and picnic- 
parties, boating, riding, driving, running and 
swimming, in fact, just such physical pursuits as 
tend to gracefully and evenly balance the mental 
and physical organism, tainted perhaps with 
a few offshoots of vice, U the mapped life of the 
rollickiug, good, healthful, stronger boy frame, 
while to the timid, shrinking girl is given, as 
the battle weapon of her life, a cambric, crochet, 
and tatting needle in the one hand, with which 
to prick aud bruise the roses of her cheek, and 
with broom in the other hand, to sweep still 
farther away the rose- bloom of health and viva- 
city, not waiting till the sere leaves of experi- 
ence, painted by the frosts of age, should gently 
fall iuto the eventime of life as quiet remindets 
of the nearness of the coffin-bed. Healthful 
sports, many times, even in moderate doses, are 
tabooed as boyish and unbecoming the delicacy 
of the maiden, and, if by some stray independ- 
ent freak of nature, one is found overstepping 
these boundaries, aud by chance should become 
wise in base-ball lore or quite prolicieut in the 
jaunty sayings of a jolly boat-club's nautical 
phraseology, then perforce is ascribed to her all 
the opprobrium of the strong-minded, without 
the shadow of a redemptional merit that these 
germs are simply growing into their God-given 
likeness. Thus is fostered in the mind of the 
youth many of those thoughts inimical to the 
real power and moral strength of the sister as 
adverse to the gloried physical prowess of the 
brother, as well as to lay too great stress upon 
that delicacy which is woman a crown, yet may 
b* her bane ; and in the Bame.ratio is the over- 
zealous girl for the early honors of so-called 
perfect womanhood, often driven to those artful, 
clinging, aud even feigned delicacies, as to make 
of her crowning weakness a puerile power so 
enthralling upon the maiden as to make of her 
woman's measure a mimicry or caricature upon 
the high-minded, noble and independent woman, 
who not only graces, but serves and adorns the 
household of sturdy brotherhood. Why should 
not these fragile flowers of girlhood stand side 
by side with the sturdy stems of boyhood, 
chanting in unison merry roundelays, or softly 
crooning a lullaby of rest in the twilight of 
trouble, as they together buffet the wavea of a 
troubloua life and jointly seek such meada of 
honor as fall to the brave and pure, preaiding 
ever in all the purity and pride of that sister- 
love, which ia already Bhaded with that inward 
holiueaa of yet unborn mother-love; then would 
the rough and hidden tenderness of the boy 
who is ashamed of a tear, grow nearer in sym- 
pathy aud more in harmony with purer typeB of 
womanhood, who, though failing in boasted 
physical powers, still stand more than an equal 
upon the high pedeatal of moral strength, de- 
spite the fact that teardrops are so near the 
surface as to overflow the softly drooping eyelid 
in the mere conception of sorrow and trouble. 

IV. 

Following the joint footsteps of this natural 
true maiden and proud, resolute youth in the 
enjoyment of confidence and like pursuits each 
with the other, we' see spread suoh a plane of 
thought and mutual sympathy between man and 
woman, as will pave their life- walk with respect 



for each others' weaknesses aa well as brighten 
its darkest paths with courteous dropa of vener- 
ation. Hence will there be a true and harmonioua 
basia for that marriage covenant, which is sig- 
nificant of a doubleness so cloaely blending, 
that 'tis yet purely single and perfect in oneness; 
each trained not only to respect, but to partici- 
pate in the pleasures of the other, so that the 
glamor of love's first wakening fades not into 
the coolness of indifference in the absence of 
those minor qualities, so fondly given and over- 
drawn by "love's young dream;" then will 
each walk grandly and proudly in their own 
defined lines of life, always parallel, yet the one 
apart of the other, though never inimical in 
aims and purposes, or jealously guarded, lest 
the glory of one overshadow the other, for that 
harmony crowning the perfect whole ia aa the 
joint life of the raindrop and the sunbeam, 
which — 

" Working together while they may, 
And the bow of Heaven's own promise shall 
Smile upon their way." 

Martinez, Dec. 28, 1879. 

Bide Your Time. 

Every man must patiently bide hia time. He 
must wait. More particularly in lands like my 
native land, where the pulse of life beats with 
feverish and impatient throbs, is the lesson 
needful. Our national character wanta the dig- 
nity of repoae. We seem to live in the midst of 
a battle, there ia auch a din, such a hurrying 
to and fro. Iu the streets of a crowded city it 
is difficult to walk slowly; you feel the rushing 
of the crowd, and rush with it onward. In the 
presa of our life it is difficult to be calm. In 
this stress of wind and tide all profeaaiona seem 
to drag their anchors, and are swept out into 
the main. The voices of the present say — 
Come! But the voices of the paet say — Wait ! 
With calm and solemn footsteps the rising tide 
bears against the rushing torrent up stream, 
and pushes back the hurrying waters. With no 
less ca m and solemn footsteps, nor less cer- 
tainty, does a great mind bear up against pub- 
lic opinion, and push back the hurrying stream 
Therefore, should every man wait — should bide 
his time. Not in listlesa idleness, not in useless 
pastime, not in querulous dejection; but in con- 
stant, steady, cheerful endeavors, always will- 
ing and fulfilling, and accomplishing his task, 
that, when the occasion comes he may be equal 
to the occasion. Aud if it never cornea, what 
mattera it to the world whether I or you, or 
another man, did such a deed, or wrote such a 
Ix ok. so be it the deed and the book were well 
done. It is the part of an indiscreet and trou- 
blesome ambition to care too much about fame 
— about what the world says of ue; to be always 
auxious for .the effect of what we do and say; 
to be always shouting, to hear the echo of your 
own voices! If you look about you, you will 
see men who are wearing life away in feverish 
anxiety of fame, and the last we shall hear of 
them will be the funeral bell that tolla them tn 
their early graves. Unhappy men, and unsuc- 
cessful, because their purpose is not to accom- 
plish well their task, but to clutch the "trick 
and fantasy of fame," and they go to their 
graves with purposes unaccomplished and wishes 
unfulfilled. Better for them, and for the world 
in their example, had they known how to wait. 
Believe me, the talent of success is nothing 
more than doing what you can do well, and 
doing well whatever you do — without a thought 
of fame. If it come at all, it will come because 
it is deserved, not because it is sought after. 
And. moreover, there will be no misgivings, 
no disappointment, no hasty, feverish, exhaust- 
ing excitement. — LomjfMou: 



Too Many Girls. — "Them girls '11 be the 
death of me," sighed Mr. Plug this morning, as 
he came up atreet, "Why, I thought they were 
very nice girls," said a sympathizing friend. 
"So they are nice enough, but there's too many 
on 'em an' they are too attractive," said the dis- 
consolate patriarch, "'lhem three daughters 
of mine were enough in all conscience, but now 
my niece is up here from Boston, and it seems 
as if the old scratch had got into 'em. I don't 
object to young people havin' a good time, and 
girls havin' beaux and all that, but when^ it 
comes to havin' sparkin' goin' on all over the 
place, damme it's too bad," said Mr. Plug, un- 
consciously quoting from Pinafore. "Last night 
Sue had a feller courtiu' her at the front gate, 
aud Julia had her chap in the parlor, and when 
I got ready to go to bed, bless me if Andro- 
manche (that's my niece from Boston), didn't 
have a young start spooning on the front stairs. 
She says that's Newport style. Cuss sich non- 
sense ! I couldn't get up staira to go to bed 
without climbin' over 'em. I thought I'd go 
out to the barn and aleep on the hay, but durn 
my pictur if I didn't fall over Milly and some 
young snoozer 'nuther settin' in the barn door. 
This things got to atop before the cold weather, 
for I can't afford wood and carrysene for any 
aich nonaense when it'a too cold for out-door 
aparkin'." 

0>'E of the returned warriors from Zulu land 
was at Rorke'8 Drift and was witne88 of the 
following incident: A clergyman in clerical 
attire was hard at work handing out cartridges 
to the men, and he did it with a will. A private 
near was taking shots at the Zulus and cursing 
the while in the moat ingenious manner. ' 'Don't 
swear, man!" shouted the clergyman. "Don't 
swear at them ! Shoot them I" 



The Devastating Pie. 

The origin of the pie is involved in some ob- 
scurity. Its inventor ia unknown to fame, but 
nasmuch aa he did not get out a patent on it, 
there are not wanting cynical aufferers from its 
baneful effects to asaert that it was originated 
by the devil. He never takes out a patent on 
any of hia devices. Others are inclined to be- 
lieve that the pie is the result of evolution — 
that differentiation caused it. We have seen, 
indeed, with the naked eye, in the species called 
mince pie, certain minute particles which re- 
semble molecules, and if they do not constitute 
a protoplasm, we have never seen one. But the 
origin of the pie is a subject about which one 
can have no well grounded opinion. 

The value of the pie is not much more easily 
determined. There is a certain class of Christ- 
iana who maintain that a dyspepsia ia a disci- 
plinary means of grace. That it i8 a raging pur- 
gatory, no one who has encompassed a real 
corroding indigestion will be prepared to deny. 
But the pie problem is beset with difficulties, 
and about the question of the religious use of 
dyspepsia, there may well be two opinions. 
We incline to the belief that if there is anything 
in this world that has power to topple a man 
over into spiritual ruin, dyspepsia is that thing. 
It is a dry delirium tremens, solid horror, so to 
apeak. 

The ability of the pie to create dyspepsia no 
one will dispute. Here at last wc can find ag- 
greement. The pie which has descended to us 
from Puritian ancestry of great gastric force, 
was adopted by them as a penance — to make 
the situation as uncomfortable as possible; but 
we, like the Irishman who boiled the peas that 
he was ordered by his confessor to wear in his 
boots, have epicurized the pie just as we have 
refined the Puritan Sabbath, and have made a 
pleasure out of an instrument of discipline. 

The pie is an alluring spectacle. When well 
baked, it is hard to resiat. Its odor is enough 
to knock over the good resolutions of the most 
confirmed d\ speptic. He sees, he smells, he 
falls. We arc convinced that at the bottom of 
most church aud family quarrels there will be 
found pie; that the pie is the natural adjunct 
of ultra Calvinism; that the Sunday pie causes 
more blue Mondays than Sunday over-woik or 
nervous expenditure; that the sky would bo 
brighter, life more alluring, and death less ter- 
rible, were the digestion-devastating pie evicted 
from the daily bill of fare; but neverthelss, we 
heartily sympathize with the lady who declared 
that she hated wholesome food, and with all its 
terrible results — here, waiter, a piece of hot 
mince pie, if you please. — Tit* Alliance. 

Sermon from a Pair of Boots. 

There lived, forty years ago, in Berlin, a shoe- 
maker who had a habit of speaking harshly of 
all his neighbors who did not feel exactly as he 
did about religion. The old paator of the par- 
iah in which the ahocmaker lived, heard of this 
and felt ihat he must give him a lestou 

He did it in this way. He sent for the shoe- 
maker one inorniug, and when he came in, said 
to him: 

"Master, take my measure for a pair of boots." 

"With pleasure, your reverence, " answired 
the shoi maker; "ph ase take off yi ur boot." 

The clergyman did so, and the sh.K maker 
measured his foot from toe to heel, and over the 
instep, noted all down in his pocket-book, aud 
then prepared to leave the room. 

But, as he was putting up the measure, the 
pastor said to him: 

"Master, my son also requires a pair of boots." 

"1 will make them with pleasure, your rev- 
erence. Can I take the young man 'a measure?" 

"It ia not necessary," said the pastor; "the 
lad is fourteen, but you can make hia boot8 anel 
mine from the same la«t." 

"Your reverence, that will never do," said 
the shoemaker with a smile of surprise. 

"I tell you, air, to make my sou's on the 
same last." 

"No, your reverence, I cannot do it." 

"It muat be— ou the aame laat." 

"But, your reverence, it is not possible, if 
the boots are to fit," said the shoemaker, think- 
ing to himself that the old pastor's wits were 
leaving him. 

"Ah, then, master shoemaker," said the pas- 
tor, "every pair of boots must be made on their 
own last, if they are to fit; and yet you think 
that God is to form all Christians exactly ac- 
cording to your own last, — of the same measure 
and growth in religion as yourself. That will 
not do, either." 

The shoemaker was abashed. Then he said: 

"I thank your reverence for this sermon, and 
I will try to remember it, and judge my neigh- 
bors less harshly in the future." 

The Arabs Churning. — One of the speakers 
at the recent dairy fair in New York related 
the following : I once saw two Arab women 
swinging goat's milk in a hog skin until it 
turned to what they supposed to be butter. 
The old chief asked me if we ever made it that 
way in America. When I replied, very em- 
phatically, "never," he s*id, patronizingly, 
" Oh ! yours is a very new country yet." Pos- 
sibly a sight of all the multiform aud wondrous 
dairy machinery I have eeen to-day might con- 
vince the old chief that we are "getting on' 
even in this new country. The Arab, teio, was 
well fixed for the dairy business. It took only 
one-third of his wives to run that churning. 



January 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



23 



Nobility of Labor. 

It has long been a disgrace to the intelligence 
of the age, that a stigma should be attached to 
labor. It is the source of national and individ- 
ual wealth. It is the primary cause of social 
comfort and convenience. It has raised man 
from the lower grade of an animal prowling for 
his food to the higher plane of an intellectual 
being, possessed of reason, thoughtfulness, ford 
sight and inventive faculties. It has given man 
a clear insight into the laws of nature, and has 
brought him into close companionship with the 
Creator. It has made him a creator, not of 
matter, but of new forms of its adjustment. He 
has made the iron and the wood his docile 
slaves, and caused them to perform work which, 
without their aid, he could never have accom- 
plished. By labor he has sunk his mines deep 
into the earth and extracted therefrom earth's 
most valuable treasures. By labor he has made 
the fields to yield abundant harvests, and 
gathered from them the world's supply of food. 
By labor he has built his ships, whose sails bear 
them to all portions of the world and sustain 
the mighty operations of commerce. By labor 
he has constructed railroads which traverse con- 
tinents, and transport in their trains, not only 
multitudes of human beings but also the prod- 
ucts of the mines, the fields, the factories and 
the workshops. By labor he has run his tunnels 
through mountains and under rivers, and ren- 
dered quickly accessible sections of country 
which else could only be reached by long and 
tedious journeys. By labor he has stretched 
around the world the wires of the telegraph, and 
has given thereby to himself the God-like attri- 
bute of omnipresence. By labor he has pro- 
duced the telescope which has shown to him the 
vastness of the Creator's designs and works, in 
the millions of worlds that are placed through- 
out the realms of space. By labor he has anal- 
yzed the compound forms of matter, and has 
found the constituent elements of their compo- 
sition. By labor he has closely emulated Deity, 
for God worked in the creation of all worlds, 
and in the production of all the living forms 
that are found upon them. 

With such a record labor should stand in the 
highest niche of honor and of fame, and the 
man who is the most prominent in works of 
utility should reach the highest standard of 
nobility, and should be the most honored among 
his fellow-men. It is a false and ignoble pride 
that has engendered this prejudice against 
labor. It is the direct action of evil against 
positive good. 

For all these benefits which it has conferred 
upon mankind, it should receive the gratitude 
of all. The pride that from its mole-hill emi- 
nence endeavors to look down with contempt 
upon labor, could never have attained its ephem- 
eral existence or its insignificant elevation, had 
it not been for the labor performed by others. 
The most utile nobility among men is the self- 
sustaining nobility of labor. 

Chaff. ' 

Light literature: a bank-book with no bal- 
ance. 

"Hoors are coming round again." It would 
be inconvenient if they came square. 

An Ute-opian idea : He that by the plow 
would thrive himself must hold a gun and drive. 

C/ESAR was a fool. He thrice refused a crown, 
losing exactly fifteen shillings by the operation. 

" I wish you would pay a little attention to 
what I am saying, sir," roared a lawyer to an 
exasperating witness. " I am paying as little 
attention as I can," was the calm reply. 

" Money does everything for a man," said an 
old gentleman, pompously. " Yes," replied the 
other one; "but money won't do as much for a 
man as some men will do for money." 

Two ladies presented themselves at the door 
of a fancy ball; and, on being asked by the 
usher what characters they personated, t'.iey 
replied that they were not in special costume. 
Whereupon he bawled out: "Two ladies with- 
out any character ! " 

On a certain American railroad a young man 
put his head out of the car-window to kiss his 
girl good-bye, when the train went ahead so 
rapidly that he kissed an aged African female 
at the next station. This is supposed to be the 
fastest time ever made on a railway train. 

They were out driving. Said Theodore: 
"What tree, Angelina, bears the most precious 
fruit? Angelina: "Oh! Dory, I can't tell, un- 
less it's a cherry tree." Theodore looked un- 
utterable sweetness as he gazed into Angelina's 
eyes, and said : "The axle-tree, darling." 



There is a great deal said and written abou 
a "higher education for women." Heaven 
knows we need it sorely, but not exactly in the 
sense in which the term is used. We want a 
higher education of conscience to give us a truer 
knowledge of our duty to the young of both 
sexes; we need to be taught that lie or she who 
works skillfully with a pair of hands, may be 
as highly educated as those who work only with 
the head; we need to learn common sense with 
regard to the occupation by means of which wo 
men geek to earn an honest livlihood; that 
when two girls graduate from our high schools, 
she who has talent for dressmaking, takes rank 
equally with her who teaches Greek or Sanscrit; 
that she who can be a tasteful milliner is as 
truly an artist as she who seeks fame as painter 
or sculptor, though they travel by different 
roads. — Boston Transcript. 




Our Puzzle Box. 

Cross-Word Enigma. 
My first is in force, also in corps; 
My second is in sail, but not in oar; 
My third is in swim, but not in wade; 
My fourth is in chain, but not in spade; 
My fifth is in find, but not in lose; 
My sixth is in flint, but not in fuse; 
My seventh is in cat, but not in dog; 
My eighth is in board, but not in log; 
My ninth is in tame, but not in wild; 
My tenth is in girl, but not in child; 
My eleventh is in old, but not in new; 
My twelfth is in green, but not in blue. 
My whole is the process of changing to bone. Ida J. 

Decapitations. 

1. Behead a short gown and leave a hard. 

2. Behead a heifer and leave the name of an individual 
of a certain race. 

3. Behead a drain and leave a small vessel. 

4. Behead a crime and leave a spindle. 

6. Behead a helmet and leave a constellation. Jerry. 

Degrees of Comparison. 



POSITrVE. 

1. A condiment. 

2. A plant. 

3. Upon. 

4. An animxl. 

5. A stamp. 
C. A gem. 



Comparative. Superlative. 



A dish. 
A column. 
Character. 
A grinder. 
Silence. 



A magician. 

A noble lady. 

Truthful. 

To disturb. 

A feminine name. 



Aheathengod. A worshiper. 

A. B. C. 



Buried Word Square. 

1. Sappho, O don't commit such a deed, it is not well! 

2. Pooh! I ought to know whether or not it is well 
for me. 

3. O, Sap, don't! my blood boils with indignation when 
I think of the injustice you will do. 

4. Do see that you mind your own affairs ! 

Concealed in the above sentences are four words, form- 
ing together a word square, their signification being as 
follows: 

1. A garment for the head. 

2. A western State. 

3. Heavy liquids. 

4. Quantity taken at a single time. Uncle Claude 

Fraction Puzzle. 
One-tenth of Washington, two-fifths of Adams, three- 
eighths of Harrison, two fifths of Grant, two-ninths of 
Jefferson equal what President? Henry B. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 
Numerical Enigma— Daniel Deronda. 
Blanks— 1. Sham, shame. 2. Hear, heart. 3. Born, 
borne. 4. Bid, bide. 5. Far, fare. 
Dropped Letters — 

Sheen and shadow intermingle, 

And the hours, so sweet and fair, 
Change full oft to weary ages, 

Through the weight of woe they bear. 
Yet the cup of cruel bitter 

May he to us for healing given, 
And our funeral lamps be watch-fires 
On the outer walls of Heaven. 

Happy hours! oh, words can never 

Half their depth of meaning give; 
How their benediction brightens 

All the world in which we live! 
Golden hours! like shining headlands, 

Jutting o'er the tide of time; 
Rising o'er the wrecks of sorrow, 

Crowned with majesty sublime. 
Problem — Seven and one-third. 
Transpositions— Late, tale, teal. 



Dolls of Dried Fruit. 

If a genial papa or doting auntie wants to 
amuse the little ones immensely any evening 
after tea, this cannot more successfully be ac- 
complished than by making them some dolls of 
dried fruit, for they can at first "wonder and 
admire" while the evolution of the grotesque 
figures is going on, and afterwards have the 
delicious pleasure of eating the manikins up. 
The materials to be employed are a few each of 
shelled almonds, figs, prunes and raisins, also 
four apples, three of which must be graduated, 
two loose pieces of wire, and two pieces of board 
measuring two inches square, in each of which 
must previously have been fixed firmly two wire 
pins about four inches high. 

Having got all the things together, begin 
with the man. Put an almond on each wire 
for his feet, turning the toes or narrow end 
out. (The wires must be near enough together 
to have the heels just touch.) Above these, 
string on each wire three large raisins for the 
legs. Then comes a large prune on each for 
the knickerbockers. Above these, three figs 
strung on both wires make the body. Through 
the upper fig pass a wire horizontally for the 
arms. String three smaller raisins on each 
arm, and continue the figure by putting two 
largest-sized raisins over both wires, one above 
the other, for the neck. The head is made of 
one large prune, with pieces of almond for the 
eyes, nose and mouth, and the hat is half an 
apple, with a raisin for a tuft. The little 
woman is made in the same way, except that 
she only has one raisin leg above each almond 
foot, and then come three graduated apples to 
form her skirts, and over them the three figs 
with the raisin-strung arms for her body. 

The Girl Who Never Toi.d a Lie. — A little 
girl once came into the house and told her 
mother something which was very improbable. 
Those who were sitting in the room with her 
mother did not believe her, for they did not 
know the character of the little girl. But the 
mother replied at once: "I have no doubt that 
is true, for I never knew my daughter to tell a 
lie." Is there not something noble in having 
such a character as this ? Must not the little 
girl have felt happy in the consciousness of pos- 
sessing her mother's entire confidence ? O, how 
different must have been her feelings from those 
of the child whose word cannot be believed, 
and who is regarded by everyone with suspi- 
cion ! Shame, shame upon the child that has 
not magnanimity enough to tell the truth. 



Why Gold in Jewelry Changes CoV,or.— 
It is well known that the human body contains 
humors and acids, similar in action to, and 
having a like tendency towards baser metals, as 
nitric and sulphuric acid have, namely, to tar- 
nish or dissolve them, varying in quantity to 
different persons. Thousands wear continually, 
without any ill effect, the cheaper class of jew- 
elry with brass ear wires, while if others wore 
the same article for a few days they would be 
troubled with sore ears, or, in other words, the 
acids contained in the system would so act on 
the brass as to produce ill results. Instances 
have occurred in which articles of jewelry of 
any grade below 18 carat have been tarnished in 
a few days, merely from the above-named cause. 
True, these instances are not very frequent ; 
nevertheless it is as well to know them ; every 
case is not the fault of the goods not wearing 
well, as it is generally called, but the result of 
the particular constitution by which they are 



Zymotic Contagion. — Prof. Tyndall asserts 
that diseases are propagated not by effluvia or 
sewer gas, but by solid particles discharged 
into the atmosphere by currents of air or gas. 
This he proved by the followingiexperiment: 
He cut up a piece of steak, steeped in water, 
heated it at a little above the temperature of 
the blood, then strained off the liquid; in a 
short time this fluid became turbid, and when 
examined through a microscope was found to 
be swarming with living organisms; by the ap- 
plication of heat these were killed, and when 
the solution was filtered he obtained a perfect- 
ly pure liquid, which, if kept free from par- 
ticles of dust, would remain pure for an un- 
limited period; but if a fly were to dip its leg 
in fluid containing living organisms and then 
into the pure liquid, the whole would be swarm- 
ing with animalcula in 48 hours. 



The Use of Nitrite of Amyl. — A few drops 
of nitrite of amyl have a powerful influence in 
restoring the functions of the heart in cases of 
drowning, hanging or fainting. It is suggested, 
therefore, that it should always be used when- 
ever attempts are being made to restore to life 
an individual apparently dead, or when it is de- 
sirable to settle the question whether a person 
is really dead or not. Dr. Brunton says that in 
ascertaining death the nitrite of amyl might be 
used only with the test of tying a cord round the 
finger. If the circulation has entirely stopped, 
the part beyond the cord never becomes any 
thicker, but if the circulation continues, how- 
ever slowly, the finger-tip beyond the ligature 
will sooner or later begin to swell. 



Extracting Fragments of Metal from the 
Flesh. — A simple and usually successful mode 
of extracting a needle, or any piece of steel or 
iron broken off in the flesh, is accomplished by 
the application of a simple pocket magnet. Iron 
filings have a way of imbedding themselves in 
the eye which defies almost every ordinary 
means for their extraction. For their removal, 
a small, blunt, pointed bar of steel, well mag- 
netized, will be found excellent, and we should 
recommend that workmen liable to such injuries 
keep such an instrument about them. It would 
be a good plan to insert such a bar in a pen 
knife, in a manner similar to a blade. 



Borax and Nitrate of Potash for Hoarse- 
ness. — These two salts have been employed 
with advantage in cases of hoarseness and 
aphonia occurring suddenly from the action of 
cold. The remedy is recommended to singers 
and orators whose voices suddenly become lost, 
but which by these means can be recovered al- 
most instantly. A little piece of borax, the 
size of a pea, is to be dissolved in the mouth 
ten minutes before singing or speaking; the 
remedy provokes an abundant secretion of 
saliva, which moistens the mouth and throat. 
The local action of the borax should be aided 
by an equal dose of nitrate of potassium, taken 
in warm solution before going to bed. — La 
France Medicale. 



Household Perils. 

Under this head the Boston Journal oj Chem- 
istry names several dangerous substances which 
find their way into households. There are two 
or three volatile liquids used in families which 
are particularly dangerous, and must be em- 
ployed, if at all, with special care. Benzine, 
ether and strong ammonia constitute this class 
of agents. The two first named liquids are em- 
ployed in cleansing gloves and other wearing 
apparel, and in removing oil stains from carpets, 
curtains, etc. The liquids are highly volatile, 
and flash into vapor so soon as the cork of the 
vial containing them is removed. Their vapors 
are very combustible, and will inflame at long 
distances from ignited candles or gas flames, 
and consequently they should never be used in 
the evening when the house is lighted. Ex- 
plosions of a very dangerous nature will occur if 
the vapor of these liquids is permitted to escape 
into the room in considerable quantity. In 
view of the great hazard of handling these 
liquids, cautious housekeepers will not allow 
them to be brought into their dwellings, and 
this course is commendable. 

As rewards ammonia, or water of ammonia, it 
is a very powerful agent, especially the stronger 
kinds sold by druggists. An accident in its use 
has receutly come under our notice, in which a 
young lady lost her life from taking a few drops 
through mistake. Breathing the gas under cer- 
tain circumstances causes serious harm to the 
lungs and membranes of the mouth and nose. 
It is an agent much used at the present time for 
cleansing purposes, and it is unobjectionable if 
proper care is used in its employment. The 
vials holding it should be kept apart from others 
containing medicines, etc., and rubber stoppers 
to the vials should be used. 

Oxalic acid is considerably employed in fami- 
lies for cleaning brass and copper utensils. 
This substance is highly poisonous, and must be 
kept and used with great caution. In crystal- 
line structure it closely resembles sulphate of 
magnesia or epsom salts, and therefore frequent 
mistakes are made and lives lost. Every agent 
which goes into families among inexperienced 
persons should be kept in a safe place and 
labeled properly and used with care. 



Solvent for Salicylic Acid. — The difficult 
solubility of salicylic acid prevents its ready 
use in medicine. Kohlmann recommends ace- 
tate of ammonia as a solvent for it, and the fol- 
lowing as the simplest plan for preparing a 20% 
solution for medicinal purposes: Cover 10 
parts of salicylic acid with 24 parts of ammr- 
nia, shake frequently until it is dissolved, and 
then add 16 parts of dilute acetic acid, or just 
enough to produce a slightly acid reaction. The 
solution has a saline taste, which, however, is 
not at all disagreeable. 



A New Surgical Conquest.— Surgery can 
justly boast of a new conquest; when an eye is 
severely wounded, the healthy one is in danger 
of being impaired by "sympathy;" to preserve 
the good eye, it was hitherto the practice to re- 
move the injured one. Dr. Boucheron has dis- 
covered, that by cutting the ciliary nerves, the 
"sympathy" is stopped, and thus dispenses with 
the necessity of removing the injured organ. 
Forty surgeons have thus operated successfully. 

To Destroy Buos and Fleas. — This mix- 
ture, which has been patented in France, con- 
sists of 80 parts of bisulphide of carbon and 20 
parts of essence of petroleum. 



Marbled Goose. — Take a fine mellow ox- 
tongue out of pickle, cut off the root and grisly 
part at the tip, wipe it dry, and boil it till it is 
quite tender; then peel it nicely, cut a deep slit 
in it the whole length, and lay a' fair proportion 
of the following mixture within it; mace, finely 
beaten, half an ounce; nutmeg, ditto, half an 
ounce; cloves, ditto, half an ounce; two table- 
spoonfuls of salt; 12 Spanish olives, well 
pounded, without stones. Then take a barn- 
door fowl and a fine large goose; take from them 
all the bones. Lay the tongue inside the fowl; 
rub the latter outside with seasoning, and hav- 
ing ready some slices of ham divested of the 
rind, wrap them lightly round the fowl; put 
these again inside the goose with the remainder 
of the seasoning, and sew it up; then make all 
very secure with a piece of new linen and tape, 
and put it into an earthen pan that will just 
contain it, with plenty of clarified butter, and 
bake it two hours and a half in a slow oven; 
then take it out, and when cold, take out tho 
goose, and set it in a sieve to drain; takeoff the 
butter and hard fat, which put again by the tire 
to melt, adding, if requisite, some more clarified 
butter. Wash and wipe out the jar or pan, put 
the bird again into it, and take care that it is 
well covered with the warm butter; then tie the 
jar down with bladder and leather. When 
wanted for table, it must be treated as the ven- 
ison to extricate it from the butter, and sent to 
table cold when it has been taken out of the 
cloth. ____ 

Compote. — Pare and core half a dozen large, 
fair apples, throwing each as it is pared into 
cold water to keep it from turning brown. Put 
a half pound of loaf sugar into an enameled 
stew pan with three pints of water; as soon as 
it is melted and boils put in the apples with the 
juice of two lemons, stew gently until the ap- 
ples are sufficiently cooked, but not broken. 
Then take them out carefully and lay them in 
the dish in which they are to go to the table. 
Cut the rinds of the lemon into the thinnest 
possible strips and put them into the syrup; 
boil till tender, by which time the syrup will be 
much reduced. When cold pour the syrup 
about the apples, and also dispose the trans- 
parent strips of lemon about them. This dish 
looks prettily with a bit of quince jelly placed 
in the hollow of each apple; or with a candied 
cherry iu the hollow, and angelica cut into 
lozenges and inserted around tho top of each 
apple. 

Where Rats May Tit had.— A writer in the 
Scientific American tells how ho cleans his 
premises of rats by making whitewash yellow 
with copperas and covering the stones and raft- 
ers with a thick coat of it. Ho says: In every 
crevice where a rat might tread we put the 
crystals of the copperas and scatter the same in 
the corners of the floor. The result was a per- 
fect stampede of rats and mice. Since that 
time not i. footfall of either rats or mice has 
been about the house. Every spring a coat of 
yellow wash is given to the cellar, as a purifier 
as well as a rat exterminator, and no typhoid, 
dysentery or fever attacks the family. 



24 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 10, 1880. 




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Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 10, 1880 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS —New Orange House at Washington; 
A Service to Producers; Squirrel Poison, 17- 1 he 
Week; A Word witli a Young Man, 24. Letters from 
Southern California— No. 11; Some New or Little 
Known Pears — No. 3, 25. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.- New Orange House of the l T . 
S. Department of Agriculture, 17. Two Varieties of 
Japanese Pears, as Grown in Eurojic, 25. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES. -Medlars, Chestnuts 
and Filberts That Wonderful Oram; Almost a Three- 
Pound Apple; Drill Culture of Wheat, 24 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. — Fuller's Rose Beetle in San 
Diego County; The Bm Jose Scale Insects, 24. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Cucamonga Colony; Agri- 
culture in Amador Countv, 18. 

HORTICULTURE.— Points for Small Planters; 
Fruits for the San Joaquin Vallev, 18- 

POULTRY YARD —Random Pullets, 18. 

THIS VINEYARD. -Vine Planting and Culture, 19. 

THE APIARY.— Comb foundation in California, 19. 

THE PUBL.IC LANDS —Alleged -Mineral Character 
oi Agricultural Lauds; Another Style of Wrong Doing, 
1920. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -The National 
Grange; The Morgan's Sons Cases; Election of Officers; 
Grangers' Bank: Resolutions of R.-spect, 20. 

MISCELLANEOUS — The Solar fccliuse, 21. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California and Nevada, 20 21. 

HOME CIRCLiS — The Coming Era (poetry); Life 
Thoughts; Bide Your Time; Too Many Girls; The De- 
vastating Pie; Sermon from a Pair of Boots; The Arabs 
Churning, 22. Nobility of Labor; Chaff, 23- 

YOUNO FOLKS' COL.UMN-— Our Puzzle Box; 
Dolls of OrieJ Fruit; The Girl Wno Never Told a Lie, 23 

GJOD HEALTH. —Why Gold iu Jewelry Changes 
Color; Zy initio Contagion; The Use of Nitrate of Amy); 
Extracting Fragments of Metal from the Flesh; Borax 
and Nitraie of Potash for Hoarseness; solvent for Sali- 
cylic Acid; A New Surgical Conquest; To Destroy Bugs 
and Fleas, 23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Household Perils: Mar- 
bled Goose; Compote; Where Hats May Troad, 23. 

NEWS IN BK1EF on page 28 and'other pages. 

Business Announcements. 

Special Offering of Trees, Seeds, Etc., R J.Trumbull k Co. 
8e ui Annual Miat-.-mani of the Grangers' Bank of Cal. 
Horses, cattle, Sheep, Hogs, Etc., P. Saxe Ji Son, S. F. 

M 'i'ii View Nursery, uakiand, Cal. 

Prescott House, O. F. Becker, Prop'r, 8. F. 
Strawberries and Raspberries, C. M. Silva & Son. 
Knob Hill Poultry Yards, Sonoma, Sonoma Co , CaL 
The Royal Top Spinning Pistol, E T. Aden, 8. F. 
bteam Engines, Cooper Man'fg Co., Mt. Varnon, Ohio. 



The Week. 



The crowning event of the week in public 
circles has been the assembling of the Legisla- 
ture at Sacramento and the quiet and orderly 
organization of bath houses. One visitor at 
Sacramento, who has talked generally with the 
incoming legislators, reports that they nearly 
all express their appreciation of the importance 
of the present juncture in affairs, and that they 
must work wisely and speedily if they meet the 
requirements of the position in which they are 
placed. We trust that they will all remember 
this truth, and that the coming sessions will 
show a straightforward and public-spirited ac- 
complishment of legislative work which will 
surprise us all. As wo write, on Wednesday 
the new State officers have generally taken up 
their trusts, and the inauguration of Governor 
Perkins will doubtless have occurred when this 
sheot reaches the reader. 

The continuance of cold weather has put a 
damper upon most held work in the central and 
northern portions of the State, and it seems 
now as though another heavy downpour would 
be required to break the back of wiuter. In the 
lower parts of the State they have also had 
dashes of cold, but rain has fallen freely after- 
wards. Although a few weeks of idleness has 
been forced upon men and teams by the uukind- 
ness of the elements, there is assured a pros- 
perous year to all productive enterprises, which 
is a warming and cheeriDg thought. , 

And now the solar eclipse next Sunday after- 
noon, with its track across the centar of our 
State. Let all read the announcement of it on 
page 21 of this issue, and then smoke the 
glasses, 



A Word with a Young Man. 

Editors Press:— Will you be so kind as to give a poor 
farmer boAa little advice. I am ly years old. Last year 
1 had a little money, went in partnership with a man and 
rented a piece of land; raised a crop which sold for one 
half the cost of rent. Now I have neither money nor de- 
cent clothing, yet I am in debt. 1 have tried four weeks 
to get work— can't find none whatever. The people who 
hire help prefer theChinese. Now what am I to do? Do 
you think 1 could find work easy in some new country, 
sav eastern Oregon or Washington Territory ?—M. S. J., 
Watson villo, Dec. 23d. 

First of all read Longfellow's "Bide your 
Time," which is printed in our " Home Circle" 
this week. You will not find in it any special 
adaptations to your case, except that after read- 
ing it carefully and honestly you will be im- 
pressed with several things which, in your con- 
dition, will serve you well. First, banish dis- 
couragement; cling to honest purpose and manly 
perseverance. Failure need not crush men ; in 
fact, history has shown that in the lives of many 
of the world's most successful men failures have 
but aroused dormant energies, and lighted the 
way to most gratifying successes. Second, dis- 
miss a thirst for opportunities which are ex- 
pected to open the way to some peculiar and 
easily attained success. Such opportunities but 
rarely come, and in most cases they are a curse 
to the oue who embraces them. They often be- 
get in the mind an exaggerated estimate of its 
own abilities ^ they often inculcate an idea that 
euergy consists in starts and bounds, and not in 
steady, unceasing and persevering effort. They 
impart to life and thought a restless longing, 
expectancy and auticipation, which are weak- 
ening, and consequently destructive of manly 
resolve and endeavor. Third, as Longfellow 
counsels, think less of the world than of the 
manner of your own thought and action. Be 
sure that you are realizing the fullest value of 
your own powers. Above all, do not think that 
your misfortunes are the world's or society's 
fault, or that some disposition of the public 
mind lies between you and success. There are 
obstacles, it is true, which the young man must 
overcome. There always have been, and prob- 
ably there always will be, obstacles. There is 
a millenium promised, it is true, but no phase 
of it is recorded which would lead us to expect 
that the world will ever take off its hat, stand 
to one side, and cheer a young man along a 
smooth avenue to success and gratified ambition. 

These are generalizations, it is true, and our 
young friend might starve with volumes of them. 
But it is no less true that the reason why so 
many young men fail, is because they are wrong 
iu their idea of life's true purposes and best 
methods. A young man must therefore first 
look within, and if he finds there strength, 
resolution, self-trust, self-denial, perseverance, 
he may begin his solution of the life problem 
with confidence, for these are the arms with 
which to conquer. 

Our young correspondent has not many things 
to learn, for according to his own statement, he 
has more good points than bad ones. He had 
money and he lost it because a crop in which he 
invested was unprofitable. We take it for 
granted that he earned the money which he 
had, therefore we may credit him with the will 
and ability to labor, also the power to save 
earnings. With these qualifications, what does 
a loss of a little money matter to a youth not 
yet of age ? It is a disappointment doubtless ; 
perhaps a very keen one; but it should have no 
power to thwart the purpose which should nerve 
so young a heart. 

Our correspondent's greatest danger lies in his 
losing heart through a wrong idea of his sur- 
roundings. We never yet knew a community 
in this country where a young man of good 
working power could not get work enough to 
support himself, if he had the proper disposi- 
tion. We should be very much surprised to 
riud that the vicinity of Watsonville was such a 
place. We do not believe one farmer in a hun- 
dred would prefer Chinamen if he could get 
white men to work as well for his interests and 
at prices which he can afford. Has our young 
friend ever tried to convince a farmer that he 
can do better work than a Chinaman; that he 
will be more faithful; that he will take 
better care of the things intrusted to 
him ? If he has no record of this kind, and if he 
haa not tried to make one, he certainly does 
not know what the Watsonville farmers prefer. 
They know what Chinamen are; they can form 
no judgment of what an untried hand can do 
and how far he will prove faithful. 

Now if our young friend is indeed in the 
midst of a community which prefers to build 
up estates in China rather than help a deserving 
young man to a livelihood, he has a mission to 
perform. Let him find a man .who will give 
him a trial for his board, and then let him 
attack the problem of how to show himself the 
best laborer in the neighborhood. Does anyone 
think that it would take many months of such 
life and work to give a young man a name in 
the community ? The trouble with most of our 
young men is that they do not work with any 
such an idea. They too often labor as though 
it was their highest duty to see that their em- 
ployer did not get more than the wages worth 
out of them. The result is that they figure it 
down so closely that the employer does not 
realize what belongs to him, and he soon sees 
it. The idea is a wrong one on the part of the 
young man. Rather work so faithfully and 
zealously that your employer will be convinced 
that you earn more than your pay. 

We know no place in which a young man can 
better begin than where he is. The task is easv 
nowhere. Everywhere there are chances for 
honest work, and everywhere there is some 
measure of success to him who merits it. 



New Subscription Rates for 1880. 

The publishers have determined to reduce the price of 
subscription for the Pacific Rural Press to $3 per an 
num, when paid strictly in advance. Wo do this in the 
hope of largely increasing the number of our patrons, 
and shall not reduce the standard value of our Journal, 
but will endeavor, with time and experience, to improve 
its issue in eacli and every department. 

Considering its location on this coast, tho editorial labor 
devoted to its columns, its exclusion of questionable read- 
ing and advertising matter, the quality of tho paper upon 
which it is printed, the manner in which the sheet is 
stitched, trimmed and mailed post-paid to subscribers, 
certainly stamps the Riral as one of the most reasonable 
of all agricultural newspapers. 

Our present subscribers arc requested in this connec- 
tion to do us the favor of notifying their neighbors o' 
this reduction in price, and to speak a good word in favor 
of increasing our subscription list whenever they can. 

While we prefer that all subscribers should pay S3 in 
advance and prevent the possibility of any loss of sub- 
scriptions, we have to say that for delinquent subscrip. 
tions our rates will remain as heretofore— H a year— 
although we much prefer that subscribers Bhould pay in 
advance and thereby lessen the chances of loss of money, 
as well as the extra expense for collecting. 



QJef\ies \hd Replies. 



Medlars, Chestnuts and Filberts. 

Editors Press:— By this mail I send you a few medlars, 
chestnuts and filberts, the whole raised without a drop of 
water; not that I have any objection to give them any, 
but alas! I have as vet none to give. The medlars are 
large enough, though with a little irrigation they would 
be even larger, and so would the Alberts and chestnuts. 
The filberts I send you are the Red Aveline, of Spain, a 
precocious and abundant bearer. Ab to the chestnuts 
they are samples which I send you merely to show the 
difference between the grafted kind and seedlings. I 
wrapped the nuts separately— one Combale and four seed- 
lings. Eat one-half of tho Combale first, without even 
minding the inner skin; then try the seedling, but be 
careful to take off every bit of the inner skin, which with 
the seedlings is thick and bitter; then try again the Com- 
bale. In France, Italy and Spain we make a big difference 
between nuts from seedlings (which we commonly call 
•tatafotM*) and those from the best grafted sorts (which 
we call marrons). To tell you the truth. I am almost 
proud to have introduced and propagated through our fair 
State those two beautiful varieties of chestnuts, the Mar- 
ron de Lyon and Marron Combalr. The Marronde Lyon 
is the largest of all. but the Comhsle is more precocious 
and more productive. The nut I send you is rather small 
for a matron. I expect, however, that it is the average 
size of the Combale. — Felix Gillet, Nevada City, Cal. 

The medlars were very good specimens. We 
think it not unlikely that they gain in flavor, 
although they were smaller, because of the 
lack of irrigation. We never had the difference 
between the seedling and the improved chest- 
nuts so clearly demonstrated to us as by the 
test proposed by Mr. Gillet, and which we fol- 
lowed carefully. The improved or "marron" 
was the more shapely nut, finer and handsomer 
in texture and color of shell. It was about an 
inch in diameter. The seedlings were a little 
larger, more irregular in shape, and with the 
shell lighter colored, somewhat corrugated, and 
in one case split open widely. The difference in 
flavor of the kernels was marked; the seedliug 
being first acrid, then tasteless; the "'marron" 
was first sweet, and then there lingered on the 
palate a delicate nutty flavor, which was exceed- 
ingly agreeable. The filbert, red "aveline," 
has all the marks of a high-bred fruit. The 
shell is quite thin, and can be crushed by a 
average tooth. The kernel is invested with 
very thin skin of a beautiful dark wine color, 
and the flavor of the kernel is sweet and nutty, 
rich and wholly devoid of anything crude or 
acrid. The size is a good average, but the 
qualities of the kernel are beyond anything we 
have seen before. 



become foul with weeds from manuring the 
land. He has imported seed wheat, called 
"blue stem," from Australia. Who will give 
us notes of experience with drill culture of 
wheat ? 



That Wonderful Grain. 

Editors Press:— I see accounts of a wonderful African 
grain for dry climates, said to have been largely planted 
in Colorado or Kansas last summer, by a Mr. Hollister, of 
Chicago. Do you know where the seed can be obtained? 
B., Merced, Cal. 

Yes, wc have read the accounts, glowing, 
grand, and what is best of all, they are quite 
true. The best part of the whole matter is, 
that Borne Eastern writer has dressed up our 
Egyptian corn (dhoura) in such fine clothes that 
many California editors and readers do not re 
cognize it. Mr. Hollister, of- Chicago, has 
merely secured a lot of Egyptian corn; that is 
all. 

Almost a Three-Pound Apple. 
Editors Press : — Looking over your paper I 
see an account of Mr. Brier s Swaar apple. It 
is very large for a Swaar. Mr. N. Ford raised 
a " Gloria Mundi," at the Diamond Fruit farm, 
on the Walla Walla river, weighing 4b' ounces 
and measuring 16J inches in circumference; this 
is said to be the largest apple ever raised in this 
or any other country. The largest apple at the 
Centennial weighed 42 ounces. Such is our 
country and climate for fruit, yet many refuse 
to believe it because it looks big, but still it's 
true nevertheless. — Hite Stephenson, Walla 
Walla City, Washington Territory. 

Drill Culture of Wheat. 
C. Bagge, Oakland, has determined to sow 
his wheat in drills on his San Leandro ranch. 
He asks for information from farmers who have 
practiced drill sowing, as to the best width for 
drills in good valley land, etc. His land has 



Fuller's Rose Beetle in San Diego County. 

Editors Press:— I send you specimens of a small brown 
beetle which is very destructive to dracsenas, (and palms 
lightly), oranges, Ca|>e jessamine and achyranthus, in 
the order named, although he will take breakfast on al- 
most anything that comes handy. What is the insect, 
and how can he be overcome ?— J. M. Akiikr, San Diego, 
Cal. 

Editors Press: —In reply to yours of Dec. 6th I will say: 
The two beetles which you send us belong to the species 
Aramigus Fulltri, Fuller's rose beetle. This pest has 
done much damage in greenhouses, but this is the first 
time that I have heard of its doing harm to orchards and 
gardens. You will find upon page 265 of the report of 
this department for 1878, an account of the insect and all 
that is known concerning it. — J. Henry Comstock, En- 
tomologist, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

The above note from Prof. Comstock shows 
that this new pest to this State is a wretch 
already known at the East. The allusion to 
the Agricultural Report for 1878 (the volume 
issued last month) will introduce the reader to 
a study of the insect by Prof. C. V. Riley. As 
this issue of the report is now in all probability 
to be found in all parts of the State, we need 
not make extended quotation from its contents. 
Suffice it to say that the insect is what is known 
as a "snout beetle," thus bearing the general 
marks of the weevils. It is, however, much 
larger than the grain weevils, being nearly half 
an inch in length. Prof. Kiley characterizes it 
as a purely American insect, and he has had 
specimens of it from as far west as Montana. 
This being the case, it has subsisted on wild 
growths until it found it to its interest to in- 
vade plantations. At the East it has been 
found most destructive in greenhouses, and has 
been so injurious to house-grown roses that 
rose growers have had to right it most dili- 
gently. The chief injury seems to have been 
done by the larva, which is a maggot and bores 
into the roots of the plants. In this State, in 
stead of turning to the greenhouses it finds 
abundant material growing out of doors. We 
believe Mr. Asher has as yet observed only the 
perfect beetle occurring in great numbers on 
the leaves of his plants. He should examine 
the roots of the same plants to discover the 
larva, if it is there, for it is the larva that does 
the greater injury. 

The only way as yet announced for meeting 
this pest is the persistent killing of the beetles, 
which of course arrestB the deposition of eggs 
and the increase of the species. The beetles 
are nocturnal in their habits, and during the 
daytime lodge themselves under the leaves or 
in the forks of the branches. When they are 
shaken off to the ground they "play possum." 
The way which most naturally suggests itself 
for capturing them when they are on trees or 
shrubs is to spread sheets underneath and .shake 
or jar off the beetles. They can then be easily 
gathered and burned. When they occur on 
small plants, hand picking would have to be 
resorted to, as practiced by the growers of pot- 
ted roses at the East. They have overcome the 
insect in this way. 

The San Jose Scale Insects. 
Editors Press:— Your specimens of scale insects on 
apple trees at San Jose are received. In addition to the 
common Atpidiotut conchiformi*. anoiber scale insect 
was found upon the apple, which belongs to the genus 
Chryeomplialut, and the species of which is also new to 
me. Inasmuch as there is no entomologist in this coun- 
try who has paid sufficient attentiou to this group to war- 
rant him in describing new species, I will forward these 
specimens to M. Siguoret, of Paris, the authority upon 
Coccidm — J. Henry Comstock, Entomologist, Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. Comttock thus fixes the genns of the 
scale insect which we described as new to ns in 
the Press of November 2'2, 1879. The speci- 
mens were sent at our request by Mr. Tarlton, 
of San Jose, and were representatives of the 
visitor which is now afflicting bearing trees and 
nursery stock. One of the insects is the com- 
mon oyster shell bark louse. Another is new 
and belongs to the same genus as the "red 
scale" of Los Angeles county. It is, however, 
quite differeut from the Los Angeles ms. .-t so 
tar as the outward appearance of the scale is 
concerned, for it is of a dark color, nearly the 
hue of the bark, while the Los Angeles scale is 
of a reddish yellow color. 

As we said in our issue of November 22d, 
there is nothing about these San Jose scale in- 
sects which would cause especial alarm, except 
that they have been left alone to multiply 
themselves, whereas they should have been 
fought as soon as the first individuals appeared. 
Now if the orchardists go at them with scrub- 
bing brush and soap, or kerosene and water, as 
recommended last week, and then drench the 
trees as soon as the insects begin to move in 
the spring, there will be the first stand made in 
lefense of the trees. The trees should also be 
well pruned and the prunings burned. They 
should also be given some stimulating manures, 
so as to prepare for an active growth next sea- 
son. . With such treatment begun and persisted 
in young trees will recover themselves. If the 
trees are very old and well nigh destroyed by 
the insect, it would be cheaper to get a new 
tree into bearing than to revive the old one. 
All such old trees should be put through the 
cook-stove as soon as possible. 



It is officially announced that the French 
vintage is 30,000,000 hectolitres under the aver- 
age of the last ten years. 



January 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



25 



Letters from Southern California— No. 11. 

A two -hours' ride, by rail — 27 miles — in a 
southeasterly direction from Los Angeles, brings 
you to the oldest and one of the most noted 
colony enterprises in Calif6rnia, that of 
Anaheim. 

The story of the settlement and growth of 
this colony furnishes a most interesting and in- 
structive record of a pioneer, but successful 
struggle against adverse and discouraging cir- 
cumstances, but we have space for only a brief 
reference to it. 

The colony was established with a special 
reference to the cultivation of the grape, with 
the view to the manufacture of wine. The tract 
upon which the colony was founded consisted of 
1,165 acres. It was purchased, in 1857, by a 
number of German residents of this city, and 
divided into 50 20 acre lots and 50 house or 
town lots, 140 by 180 feet in size. Each member 
had one 50-acre lot and a town lot. A superin- 
tendent was placed upon the ground, under 
whose direction eight acres on each paid share 
were planted in vines and cultivated for two or 
three years, or until the purchaser was ready to 
take personal charge. In this way no time was 
lost in waitiDg for vines to come into bearing, 
for the owner could realize the first year of pos- 
session from eight acres, and employ his leisure 
time in setting out the balance of the 50 acres, 
and in building or fixing up his house and sur- 
roundings. The settlement was not fairly in- 
augurated, however, until 1859 ; and in 1872, 
13 years afterward, 
its wine product 
was 800,000 gal- 
lons. We have no 
reliable statistics 
at hand of the more 
recent products of 
the colony. It is 
said that some of 
the vineyards have 
produced as high 
as 1,000 gallons to 
the acre, although 
500 is considered a 
fair average. Ana- 
heim wine has long 
been favorably 
known both here 
and at the East, 
and under the pres- 
ent stimulus of an 
increased demand 
for California 
wines, the area 
devoted to the cul- 
ture of the vine is 
being steadily in- 
creased. 

Anaheim is an 
incorporated town, 
and has already 
become quite a 
business center. 
There are numerous 
substantial brick 
buildings along the 
principal business 
street, two large 
hotels, a flouring 
and grist mill, a 
tannery and two 
banks. The rail- 
road depot is one 
of the best in the 
county, although 
quite a little dis- 

auce from the town, but passengers are taken 
to the hotels by stage free of charge. The 
streets are very generally bordered with wil- 
lows, pepper or sycamore trees, and, accord- 
ing to a recent English visitor, they present 
"green lanes that cannot be excelled even in 
Merrie England for picturesque and rural 
beauty." 

The Character of the Soil 
In and about Anaheim is about all that could 
be desired, and is well- calculated for either 
fruit or grain. On much of the land grain can 
be grown independent of irrigation. But the 
Cajon ditch, recently completed at a cost of 
some $50,000, can distribute the waters of the 
Santa Ana river over fully 10,000 acres, while 
artesian water can also be obtained at a very 
small cost. All kinds of deciduous and semi- 
tropical fruit can be profitably grown here, and 
to some extent is produced; but the principal 
product is that of the vine, which is cultivated 
almost exclusively for wine. The price of good 
farming land in this vicinity varies according to 
quality and location from §25 to §100 per acre. 

The Climate of the Entire Valley 
Is quite uniform. The little difference that 
does exist consists chiefly in the different de- 
grees of dryness or moisture — the atmosphere 
near the ocean, and especially about and below 
what is known as "Gospel Swamp," being much 
more moist than that in the vicinity of Anaheim 
and Orange. We give herewith the average 
temperature of Anaheim for 1877 and 1878, as 
recorded by a self-regulating thermometer: 



ence between the highest and lowest monthly 
average for two years was only 22°, while the 
winter is remarkable for its mildness, and would 
seem to render the locality very desirable as a 
place of residence or resort for those whose state 
of health suffers from a harsh climate. A sani- 
tarium has been established at Anaheim, which 
is well spoken of, and which is said to be under 
very excellent and competent management. 
A Hunter's Paradise. 
One of the great inducements of this place as 
a winter resort is said to be its fine hunting 
grounds. By those fond of such sport it is pro- 
nounced a veritable hunter's paradise, and it is 
said that practiced sportsmen who have roamed 
the fields of both Europe and America, gun in 
hand, say that tbey have never met with a 
locality where those fond of the excitement can 
more profitably or pleasantly expend time and 
ammunition. To the invalid who is lacking in 
strength, the plains abound in hares, rabbits 
and quail, while the stronger and more hardy 
can easily reach the neighboring mountains, 
where deer abound; and the still more ambitious 
may, by going a little farther, secure encounters 
with the "grizzlies," which abound there in all 
their native ferocity. Those fond of aquatic 
sports may readily reach the ocean beach, where 
ducks, geese, snipe and curlew swarm in great 
numbers. 

A Bide Through the Country. 

Having but a limited time to spend in this 
vicinity, and being desirous of seeing and learn- 
ing as much as possible of its capacity for culti- 
vation and the progress which has thus far 
been made in that direction, we accepted a 
kind invitation from Mr. W. R. Olden, to take 



not help taking a brief look into what must be 
the early future of this and all the other locali- 
ties which we had visited during the previous 
two weeks. 

It will not be many years before numbers of 
wealthy men, like Mr. Saxon and many others 
whom we had met in the San Gabriel valley 
and at Riverside, will emulate the example of 
these gentlemen in retiring from city life — from 
the noise and bustle of commercial traffic and 
stock jobbing, to build for themselves and fam- 
ilies comfortable and elegant resorts like this 
in which to pass the evening of life, amid the 
beautiful and the health-giving surroundings of 
semi-tropical California. 

Centralia. 

Leaving Mr. Saxon's place wo rode on to 
Centralia, a town yet in embryo, and located 
upon the line of the railroad some five or six 
miles from Anaheim, toward Los Angeles. 
This town is laid off in six-acre blocks, and is 
waiting for settlers. An effort is being made, 
we believe, to secure for it a temperance colony. 

When a number of settlers locate together as 
a colony, it is certainly very desirable to secure, 
as nearly as possible, unanimity of opinion and 
sympathy in regard to everything which may 
tend to produce unpleasant differences in muni- 
cipal or community matters. Anaheim was 
settled with the view of making the production 
of wine a specialty; hence the temperance, or 
more properly the "tee-total," element is 
somewhat weak there; but the community is 
satisfied with its present status in that respect, 
and it is certainly a very quiet, industrious and 
temperate community — one that will compare 
favorably with almost any other in the State. 
Santa Ana is very much like Anaheim in that 



which has been brought down from the mount 
ains above. The river has brought down such 
an immense amount of this sediment that by 
the overflow of its banks it has built up a ridge 
along its original channel 40 or 50 feet or more 
above the general level of the plain, until it was 
eventually compelled to shift its course, which 
it has evidently done many times, each time 
finding a channel lower down, until it has now 
receded southward, at its widest point of 
divergence, fully the distance above named. 

The same thing is in store for the Sacramento. 
That river, by its annual overflow, is gradually 
raising the land upon either side as the channel 
fills up, and the time will come when it must 
leave its present banks and take a new course, 
either to the north or south, unless bv some 
engineering devices the sediment that "is now 
coming down that stream is directed into the 
lower lands at a distance and out of the way of 
its direct course. W. B. E. 




TWO VARIETIES OP JAPANESE PEARS, AS GROWN IN EUROPE. 



1877. 

January 51J 

February 56 

March 68 

April 67i 

May, 61} 

June 70 



1878. 
618 
63j 
54 
66 
60J 



1877. 

July 72J 

Auirust 704, 

September 69 

October 62 

November 59J 



64 I December . . . . 54 J 



187S- 
67* 
69 
66J 
611 
66 
50} 



It will be seen from the above that the differ 



a ride through the country which surrounds 
Anaheim. In doing so we swung completely 
round the circle. Leaving Anaheim in a north- 
erly direction, and going out several miles, we 
gradually turned to the west, crossing the rail- 
road at Centralia, and leaving Artesia upon our 
right, we kept on in a southerly direction to the 
Westminster Colony, where we made a brief 
halt. An easterly direction from that point 
took us into the region known as "Gospel 
Swamp," through which the Santa Ana river 
finds its way to the sea. Crossing that river, 
and taking Santa Ana and Tustin City in our 
way, we again turned our horses' heads to the 
northward, and passing on through the pretty 
town of Orange, we reached Anaheim on our 
return soon after dark, where a fine repast 
awaited us at the hospitable residence of Mr. 
Olden, to which full justice was done, as might 
well have been expected after a ride of 50 miles. 
It is our purpose in the balance of this and in 
our next letter to tell what we saw and learned 
during this ride. 

A Neat and Cosy Home. 
The first object which especially attracted 
our attention after leaving Anaheim, and some 
two miles distant, was a neat little villa, em- 
bowered in Mowers and tropical shrubbery, and 
surrounded by tastefuly arranged parks filled 
with evergreens; and the orange, the lemon, 
the fig, the pomegranate, etc., were also con- 
spicuous both in numbers and luxuriance. Its 
owner and occupant is Mr. Saxon, a gentle- 
man of means and formerly a New York Wall- 
street operator. It was almost impossible to 
realize that all this beautiful display of shrub- 
bery, trees and flowers could have been brought 
into existence in less than a decade. Yet such, 
we were assured, was the fact; and as we en- 
tered and drove around the beautiful avenues 
and along the flower-fringed lawns we could 



respect; but Westminster and Orange were set- 
tled by strictly temperance communities, and 
a saloon-keeper, even if he should get a foot- 
hold in either place, would find his business of 
but very little account. The land about Cen- 
tralia, and, indeed, throughout the whole 
country over which we rode in reaching that 
place, appears to be everything that could be 
desired by the settler. 

Changing of River Beds. 
Soon after leaving Centralia we noticed that 
at frequent intervals the road passed over nu- 
merous strips of coarse, sandy and pebbly soils, 
quite distinct from the iutervening and wider 
reaches of fine alluvial land. So marked and 
sudden was the transfer from one to the other 
that the grating of the wheels over the pebbles 
could be instantly perceived by the ear, without 
any aid from the eyes. On inquiring into the 
nature of these sudden changes in the character 
of the soil, we were informed that these sandy 
strips were undoubtedly the old heds over which, 
in former times, the Santa Ana river must have 
flowed. They are all nearly parallel to the 
present course of that river and extend for many 
miles, in fact almost the entire distance from 
the opening of the canyon by which that river 
finds its way through the foothills fourteen 
miles to the sea — gradually spreading out from 
the mouth of the can3 r on like the ribs of a fan in 
their oceanward courses. In all probability the 
mouth of the Santa Ana was at one time some 
eight or ten miles northeasterly from where it 
now is. A reference to any large map of this 
district will reveal a sharp bend in the river to 
the southward as it leaves the mountains, from 
the course it would naturally take over a level 
country like that through which it passes in 
this portion of its course. These changes have 
nndoubtedly been effected by the filling 
up of the several channels from the sediment 



Some New or Little Known Pears— No. 3, 

We conclude in this issue the series of illus- 
trations of rare pears, kindly furnished us by 
Mr. Case, of the Botanical Index. Readers will 
remember that the fruit shown is rather peculiar 
than intrinsically valuable, except that it holds 
out quince qualities in places where quinces do 
not flourish. 

On this page we give outline engravings of 
two Japanese pears as they are grown in France. 
They ari described by Trauson Hrothers, cf 
Orleans, France as follows: By what we know 
or have heard of the Japanese sorts of pears, 
which have been introduced in Europe, we 
think that their 
right place is in 
the ornamental 
garden more than 
in the orchard, as 
not one can be 
ranked among the 
(jood fruits. Their 
fine, erect growth, 
their large, ser- 
rated, shining 
leaves — larger than 
any other sort, 
their white flow- 
era, somewhat tint- 
ed with rose, as in 
Mikado, with their 
largely divided, 
round petals, give 
them an appear- 
ance which isdiffer- 
ent from all other 
sorts of pears. The 
two varieties we 
possess, are the 
"Mikado" and the 
"Von Siebold." 

The fruit of the 
Mikado is some- 
thing like the 
"Crassanne," skin 
green, of a fine yel- 
low color when it 
is ripe, never col- 
ored; slightly spot- 
ted with rough rus- 
set dots; stalk 
about two or three 
inches long, knob- 
bed at apex; flesh 
coarse, yellowish, 
mixed with large 
proportions of 
sandy concretions, 
very watery, ■with 
a peculiar flavor 
which has something of the quince taste. The 
fruit of the Mikado ripens from October to 
December. When ripe the fruit does not keep 
long, and is never good. 

The " Von Siebold " bears its fruit in clusters 
from two to five together. The fruit is globu- 
lar, about two inches in diameter; stalk about 
two inches long; skin brown like Jieurre capiau- 
mont, spotted with white freckles; flesh coarse, 
gritty, sandy, yellowish, moderately sugared, 
with very little perfume; ripens in autumn, and 
soon decays. 

These sort3 cannot be recommended as good 
fruit, and can be grown only as curiosities, as 
they are very ornamental with their large and 
numerous flowers sometimes tinted with rose, 
and their leaves which are the largest of all the 
other sorts of pears. The Japanese pears live 
on the quince stock, but they prefer to be 
budded on the pear stock. 

Concerning the growth of the tree in New 
York, the Rural New Yorker says : " It is 
now frequently met with both in nurseries and 
private grounds all over the country. The tree 
is a very vigorous grower with long chocolate- 
colored branches, and bearing large whito 
flowerB, and very large, deep green, shining 
loaves. It is handsome, and its conspicuous 
flowers, rich foliage and symmetrical fruit — of 
which it annually bears an abundant crop — 
oombino to make it one of our most beautiful 
ornamental trees. It is also very hardy, and is 
never affected in the least by blight, for which 
reasons it has sometimes been recommended as 
a stock on which to graft more tender and sickly 
varieties; but it is not suited for this purpose; 
the wood seldom or never unites with the graft, 
though the bark does, and the graft is there- 
fore easily broken off and the growth impeded." 

On the island of Mauritius 20,000 cattle have 
died of the plague, 



26 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 10, 1880. 



Continued from Page 19. 
parties in the vicinity to prevent fraud in said 
respect. Published notice of 30 days is uni 
formily required of parties who seek agricul 
tural entry on lands withdrawn as mineral, and 
thereby all parties are advised and furnished 
opportunity to defeat any fraudulent entry. 

" In regard to the alleged proceedings of said 
railroad company, you are advised that when a 
hearing is had to determine the character of 
certain lands, those alleging them to be valuable 
for mineral should submit their proof a! the hear, 
iny, and thereafter this Office would be in a 
position to conclude the respective claims of all 
parties. But if you neglect to submit your 
proof, and the said company presents none, it is 
plain that this Office can render no final decision, 
nor can I anticipate any particular excuse which 
may be urged for the neglect. 

" In short, if under the present laws those 
interested in preventing fraudulent entries of 
mineral lands will avail themselves of the 
means now furnished them by existing regula 
tions, and appear and insist upon the right to 
submit their testimony at the hearings re- 
ferred to above, and notify this Office forth 
with of any refusal to receive their testi 
mony, or irregularity of proceedings, a just 
conclusion can be usually reached; but without 
the co-operation of those interested in an honest 
disposition of the public lands, it is apparent 
that this Office labors under great embarrass 
ment8. 

" You are assured that it is the desire of this 
Office and Department to be advised by affidavit 
of attempted fraud in any case; but it is clearly 
impracticable to act upon general allegations re- 
ferring to no particular claim and tract." 



A Medicinal Tree. 

A writer from Paris says, there is a palm tree in 
South America, Papaya car ica, which possesses 
very remarkable properties. Its sap is a very 
powerful digestive agent. Digestion is a very 
complex act. Meat is digested in the stomach; 
feculas, already modified by the saliva, achieve 
their transformation in the intestines, while 
fatty matters are only digested in the intestine. 
Hence, the explanation why some persons can 
digest meats and eggs without difficulty, while 
their stomachs are rebellious to feculent and 
fatty substances. Individuals on the other 
hand, who cannot eat veal, can partake of fatty 
preparations and pastry without inconvenience. 
Thus each organ has its role, and on their state 
of health depends the iutegrity of digestion. 
Inhabitants of cities suffer most from dyspepsia, 
that is, from an alteration of the digestive fer- 
ment. It is to this latter class of sufferers that 
Messrs. Wurtz & Bouchut have investigated 
the action of the Papaya. The latter gentle- 
man has experimented with the preparation 
■ince two years, and with success, in the hospi- 
tal for sick children. The papaya is more 
generally known in America as the "melon 
tree;" the fruit is rose-colored, sweet, and is 
eaten like an ordinary melon; the trunk and the 
veins of the leaves contain a bitter, milky sap 
or juice, which, after a short exposure to the 
air, emits an odor resembling rotten cabbage. 
The sap exudes when an incision is made in the 
trunk; it immediately coagulates, and separates 
into two parts, a more or less soluble pulp, and 
a limpid colorless serum. Now if this juice in 
its natural state be placed in contact with raw 
meat, fibrine, the white of eggs or gluten, it 
will soften these substances in a few minutes, 
and in some hours dissolve them at a tempera- 
ture of 40 degrees centigrade. Milk is rapidly 
coagulated by the juice, and its caseine precipi- 
tated and dissolved. False membranes from 
croup, and intestinal parasites, as tape worms, 
etc., are similarly disposed of in a few hours. 
If a beefsteak be cut up in morsels, placed in a 
saucer containing some papaya juice, they will 
be seen to gradually disappear, to melt away as 
if they were lumps of sugar. Clearly the 
papaya contains a ferment resembling that pe- 
culiar to carnivorous plants, as the drosera, ne- 
perthes, etc. Vegetable pepsine is not exactly 
a novelty, but that in the sap of the papaya is 
stronger than what is secreted by the stomach, 
and possesses this superiority, that it can dis- 
solve nitrogenous matters not only in the pres- 
ence of a mii ill quantity of acid, but even in a 
neutral .medium, or one slightly alkaline. 
While weak digestions have reason to rejoice, 
it is not less important to bear in mind the effi- 
cacy of the preparation in the treatment of 
croup and of tape worm. 

Where the Cold Waves Come From. — 
Meteorological observations have now become 
bo extended that evidence is rapidly accumu- 
lating to enable us to determine positively the 
source of the cold aerial waves which sweep 
across our country duriug the winter season. 
The indications are that we owe them to the 
great area of high barometer in northeastern 
Siberia, where the pressure sometimes exceeds 
31.50 inches, and the temperature falls as low as 
76° below zero. The pole of greatest cold is in 
the neighborhood of Yokutsk, on the Lena, 
where the average thermometric reading in 
January of 41° below zero, and where the sever- 
est cold exceeds by 10° that experienced by ex- 
plorers in high arctic regions. This is also the 
region of the highest barometric pressure known 
in winter; and from it, doubtless, proceed the 
waves of intense cold which play so large a part 
in oar winter experiences. 



Purchasers of Stock wili, find in this Directory tub 
Names op some of the Most Reliable Urreuers. 

Otr Kates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



ETER SAXE & SON, 520 Bush St. 9. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, anil Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 

pedigreed. 



M. B. STURGES. Centervillc, Alameda County, Call 
fornia. Breeder of Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle 
Young Bulls and Heifers for sale. Correspondence 
solicited. 



Seedsmen. 



J. Hutchison's Nurseries, 



PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 

(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 



L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Iiniwrter 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California, 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Dora, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



BEES. 



JOS. E EN AS, Sunnyaide, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN 1. t:\Vl :I.I.IN<1 Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPKLLEEB Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

a W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWEI.Ll.Sc;, Vice-President Napa Co 

"" V. WEBSTER Alameda Co 

JRIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J ( ' M K KY FIELD Solauo Co 

HUM AS MuCONNELL Sacramento Co 

C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON .IEWETT Kern Co 

J. CRESSEY Stanislaus Co 

SEN El A EWER Napa Co 

". D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1674. for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way. 

HOLD and SILVER deposits received. 

CERTIFICATES "f DEPOSIT issued for Gold and Silver. 
TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
Hows: C „ per annum if left for 3 months; 7 : e per annum it 
left for months. -i t per annum if left for 12 months. 
EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States bought and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco. Oct. 15th. 1879. 



OAKLAND, CAL, 

Established in 1852. 

An immense stock of NEW and RARE PLANTS, Ever- 
green Trees and Ornamental Shrubbery. 

CYPRESS FOR HEDGES, 

One to three years old. 

Roses. Fuchias. Pinks, Magnolias. 
Camelias, Daphnes. Etc., Etc., 

In endless variety, at 

BEDROCK PRICES!! 

SEEDS and BULBS of all kinds. Send for Catalogue 




J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 

SEED WAREHOUSE, 

409 & 411 Davis St., San Francisco. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1853. 

Keep constantly on hand the largest stock of FIELD, 
GARDEN, CONIFER, or 

CALIFORNIA TREE SEEDS, 

On the Pacific Coast. Seeds all FRESH and GENUINE 
Our Stock is large, especially of the following varieties: 

ALFALFA, BLUE GRASS, 

Red and White Clover, Red Top, Timothy, 
Australian Rye Orass, Mesquit Grass, 
Lawn Grass and Millet Seeds 

OI different varieties. Field Seeds, Mangel Wurzel and 
Sugar Beets, Rutabagas, Carrot Seeds of all varieties, 
Petes, Beans, etc. Our assortment of GARDEN and 
FLOWER SEEDS are full and complete. Also, FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES at Nursery Prices. 

Trees For Sale at Lowest Market Rates. 

For Catalogue, Price Lists, etc., apply as abova 



Thomas A. Cos: A Co., 

Importers and Dealers in 

Vegetable, Flower, Field, Grass 
and Tree Seeds. 



We wish to announce to country merchants and the 
trade generally that we are ready to supply all descrip- 
tions of Seeds of the New Crop of 1S79. 

Special prices on application. 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds put up in small packets for 
the retail trade. 

FRESH AND TRUE TO NAME. 

We will send the following Seeds, postpaid, on receipt 
f price. Remit by P. O. Order or postage stamps: 

Beets, per oz 



10c 


Parsnips, per oz. . . 


10c 


10c 


Radish, per oz 


10c 


25c 




10c 


16c 




10c 


15c 




...26c 



Wc will mail to any address a collection of 20 packets of 
choice Flower or Garden Seeds for 81. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees at Nursery Prices. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 

4O0 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

bnporten, growers of, w holesale and retail dealers in 



PmnoS 

LARGEST MUSIC HOUSE 

On the Pacific Coast. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

o west Prices and Best Goods. 

tS' Write for information concerning any Musical In- 
strument, and tenna of sale. It will be given with plea- 
sure. 



ESTABLISHED IN I860. 



KOHLER & CHASE, 

137 and 139 Post Street, San Francisco 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds for 1880, rich in engravings from 
photographs of the originals, will be sent FREE to .11 who 

apply. My old customers need not write for it. I offer 
one of the largest collections of Vegetable Seed ever sent 
out by any Seed House in America, a large portion of 
which were grown on my six Seed Farms. Full direction* 
.for Cultivation on each ]iaekage. All seed warranted to 
be. both fresh and true to name; so far, that should it 
prove otherwise, 1 will refill the order gratis. The origin.: 
introducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's Melon, 
Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores of other 
Vegetables, I invite the patronage of all who are anxious 
to hare their Seed direetly from tlic grower, fresh, <ru«, 
and o/ the tery bent strain. 

New Vegetables a Specialty. 

JAMES J. H, GREGORY, Marblehead. Mass. 



BUY DIRECT! SEEDS, TREES. Etc. 



5 Cents per lb.— Egyptian Corn (white and brown); 
Broom Corn; Extra Early Vermont, Snowflake and Bres- 
see's Prolific Potatoes; Pop-Corn. 10 CtS. per lb— Pearl 
Millet in heads; Sorghum; Evergreen lmpb.ee (for feed); 
Evergreen or Golden and Dwarf Broom-Corn; Oolden 
Millet 20 CtS. per lb — Liberian, Kenny's, Amher, 
Oomseana and Neeazana Sugar Canes; Best Spanish Chufas; 
Pearl Millet in hulls. 40 CtS. per lb —Beet; Mangold 
Wurtael; Turnip; Chinese Imphee, largest and richest in 
sugar, I See page 250 Report of Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture for 1877). TREES at 5 to lO Cts. each- 
chestnut, Walnut, Maples (sugar, red and silver); Ctalpas, 
Ailanthus, Fir, Pine, etc. 25 Cta. per lOO— Straw- 
berry Plants, Poplar, Osier and Hop Root Cuttings. 
At 1 Ct each— Arbor Vita; trees (1 foot high); Prickley 
Comfrey; Early Blackberry', and Panicum Spectabile Root- 
cuttings; Pomegranate, Fig and Black Mulberry Cuttings. 

Semi-tropical and other Fruit Trees, CHEAP. 

iSTTrecs, Seeds, etc., packed and delivered on cars 
without extra charge, or sent by mail for 16 cts. per lb. 
additional. Send for illustrated catalogue free. Address 

W. A. Sanders, 

SANDERS P. O.. 

Fresno County, Cal. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRE8H KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZQUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITS 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, . Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washington Street. - San Francisco. 



A NEW VARIETY! 

Examined and endorsed by Agricultural Departme nt a 

Washington. 

A Large and Luscious 

HYBRID TOMATO. 

Superior to all other Species, taste and flavor assimila- 
ting orchard fruit. 

This species of Tomato, the Yellow Large and Red 
Medium, eanh equally delicious in flavor, may be pro- 
cured in packages of about 50 seeds, and will be sent to 
any address on receipt of 25 cents. 

Address SEVERIN MILLER, 

P. O. Box 394, Davenport, Iowa. 



HEALD 3 



BUSINESS 

COLLEGE, 
24 Pott Street. 

Wear ■ ■ y . 
■ftin Fr n m* v a>. Cat. 



Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 
BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

Wc call the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. stsTTradc price 
list on application. 
We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables. Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc , with full instructions 
as to their Culture; mailed freo on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT &. CO., 

607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



50 



Pertumea, Snowflake, Chromo, MottoCards, name in 
'gold and jet 10s. G. A. Sraisa, E. Wallingford.Ct. 



PRINGLE'S 

New Hybrid Wheats, 

Champlain and Defiance, 

Heads 6 in. long— 128 bushels to the acre. 

Illustrated circulars showing different methods of cul- 
tivation by which this and other wonderful yields were 
produced, mailed to all applicants. Price of each variety, 
82.00 per peek, 87.00 per bushel. Bags containing two 
bushels. 813 00. Prices for larger quantities on applica- 
tion. Trial packages by mail, 1 lb., 40 cts. ; S lbs., (1.00. 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

P. Box 4129. 34 Barclay St., N. Y. 



The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It make. 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but give, 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structioni? given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modern Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, ana ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Ditaktmiht.— Ladies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Tblkoraphic Pki-aktmknt. — In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



ASSESSMENT NOTICE- 

The California Fruit Growing Association. 

Location of principal place of business. San Francisco. 
Location of works, LI Dorado county, California. 

Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Directors, 
held on the 24th day of November, 1879, an assessment (No. 
10), of $4.00 per share was levied upon the capital stock of 
the Corporation, payable immediately In United States gold 
coin, to the Secretary, at the office of the Company, 641 Sac- 
ramento street, Sau Francisco. 

Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain unpaid 
on the 8th day of January, 1880, will be delinquent, ana ad- 
vertised for sale at public auction; and unless payment is 
made before, will be sold on Monday, the 2d day of Febru- 
ary, 1880, to pay the delinquent assessment, together with 
costs of advertising and expenses of sale. 

D, A BROWN, Secretary. 

Office— 641 Sacramento Street 

POSTPONEMENT — The day of delinquency of the above 
assessment is postponed to Thursday. February 5th, 1880. and 
the day of sale to Monday, March 8th, 1880. By order of the 
Board of Directors. D. A BROWN, Secretary. 



TOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford.fConn. 

Chromo, perfumed. Snowflake k Laos cards, name on all 
10c. Game Authors, 15c Lyman It Co., OUntouvUla, Ot 



60 



January 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



27 



Nurserymen. 



ROOK'S NURSERIES. 
TREES! TREES! 

The attention is called to my large and superior stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, 

Grapevines and Small Fruits, 

Of the most desirable varieties for general cultivation. 
Also many new and rare varieties of 

Japanese Plants, 

Semi-Tropical Plants, 

Greenhouse Plants, 

Bedding- Plants. 

New Varieties op 

ORANGES AND LEMONS. 

Italian Olives, Etc. 

The new Catalogue of 1880 is now ready and will be 
mailed to all applicants. 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



LOS ANGELES NURSERY. 

The undersigned will furnish Fruit Trees of all kinds 
at low rates. We offer an unusually large stock of 

Apple, Peach and Apricot Trees, 

— ALSO — 

Orange and Other Fruit Trees, 

Our Trees are free from Disease or Blight of any kind 



We have 

WOOD'S EARLY APRICOT, 

That bears four weeks earlier than any known variety 
We also have new Apples and Peaches of much promise 
42T Send for catalogue at once. 

MILTON THOMAS, 

Los Angeles, Cal 



New! The Very Beat! 

TRUE TO NAME I 





Nevada City, Cal. 

SPECIALTIES : 

XTuts of all Kinds 

— AND - 

STRAWBERRIES. 



Prceparturiens Walnut. 

[Introduced in California in 1871, by Felix Gii.let. 




* 1879-80. 

W. R. STRONG & CO.. 

Field, Garden, Lawn and Tree 

SEEDS. 



Our stock is FULL, FRESH and RELIABLE. In these 
essential particulars wc claim to be unsurpassed. We 
have largely increased our list of varieties by importations 
from the best growers in the East and Europe. We make 
pecialties of 

ALFALFA, RED CLOVER, 

Timothy, Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass, 

HUNGARIAN GRASS, MILLET, 

Mesquit Grass, Lawn Grasses, Etc. 

Also, DUTCH FLOWERING BULBS of every descrip- 
tion. Catalogue mailed free on application. Wc also do a 

Wholesale Commission Business, 

Handling all kinds of California and Tropical, Green and 
Dried Fruits, Nuts, Honey and General Merchandise. 
All orders promptly attended to. Address 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 
6, 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



THOS. MEHERIN, 

516 Battery St., San Franci3co. 

Seeds, Trees and Plants 

We offer for sale the present season the largest and best 
collection of Fruit and Ornamental Trees ever offered on the 
Pacific Coast, at REDUCED PRICES. Also, 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 

KENTUCKY, AUSTRALIAN and ITALIAN RYE 
GRASS, RED and WHITE CLOVER, Etc. 

Agent for the 

Nurseries of B. S. Fox. 

43TSond for Price Li6t. 516 Battery Street, San Francisco 



Prceparturiens Walnut. 

The most precocious oi au soii-sheli vnrittiesof Walnut, 
bearing even when three years old; hardy; a late bloomer; 
very productive. First bearing trees in California, at 
Felix Gillet's Nursery, fifth crop, 1879. (Full description 
in Descriptive Catalogue.) 

ONE-YEAR-OLD TREES 

Of that new and valuable variety sent to any part of Call 
forniaand the United States, bv mail, FREE of CHARGES, 
in packages of two feet; packed in damp moss and oiled 
paper, and guaranteed to arrive in as FRESH a condition 
as when leaving our Nurseries, at the following prices: 
$1 per tree for less than half a dozen; $3 per dozen, 

$50 Per Hundred. 
Also, One-Year-Old Late or Serotina, 

— AND — 

JEWELER'S WALNUTS, 

At the above Prices. 
Marron de Lyon and Marron Combale 

CHESTNUTS. 
Italian and Spanish Filberts. 

MEDLAR (Monstrueuse.) 
BLACK MULBERRY (NOIR OF SPAIN.) 

23 Varieties of English Gooseberries. 
FRENCH, ENGLISH and DUTCH STRAWBERRIES. 

French Ever-Bearing Raspberry. 

FORTY VARIETIES OF GRAPES, Etc., Etc 
[itSrSend for Descriptive Catalogue and Price List"EJ 

FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 



Santa Clara Valley Nursery, 

B. S. FOX, Proprietor. 

I offer for sale this season a large general assortment of 
Nursery stock, 

FRUIT TREES, SMALL FRUITS, 
Shade and Ornamental Trees 

— AND — 

PLANTS, ROSES, ETC. 

Apple and Pear Seedlings 

AT REDUCED PRICES. 

Also the MYR0B0LAN PLUM STOCK, which does 
not sucker. 

To parties buying largely I offer Special Inducements. 
Address B. S. FOX, San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 

516 Battery St . San Francisco. 

A MAGNIFICENT FRUIT 



THE JAPANESE PERSIMMON 



1,000,000' 



Strawberry, Raspberry. Blackberry and 
Cranberry Plants. 

Strawberry Plants.— The Essex Beauty, Crescent, 
Cinderella, Forest Rose, Glendale, Jucunda. Monarch of 
West. Langforch Prolific, Triouuibe d' Garni, Wilson Al- 
bany. 

Raspberry Plants — Cuthbcrt Early, Early Prolific, Re- 
liance, Pride of the Hudson, Brandywiue, Herstine, Phila- 
delphia Red, Clark, Henrietta, Hornet, Belle de Pouteuay, 
Delaware Biistol. 

Blackberry Plants.— Deering Seedling. Early and 
the most productive of all. I will give satisfactory proof 
that these Berries have realized §750 per acre. It paid more 
than twice as much as the old varieties; also the Early Clus- 
ter, the Vina Seedling, Kittatiuuy, the Mammoth Cluster, 
Missouri Mammoth, Dorchester and Lawton. 

Cranberry Plants.— The Cherry Cranberry Vines at 
$10 perl.OoO, by mad 64 cents more. 

I will sell to responsible parties on time, part cash, 10-acre 
field of Cranberry vines under cultivation. Can be seen at 
the place. Send fur Catalogue. 

H, NYLAND, 
Boulden Island, San Joaquin River. 



Phylloxera-Resisting Vines. 

Vineyard proprietors desiring to plant American Grape 
Vines, which resist the attacks of the Phylloxera, 
either as Grafting Stock, or for direct production, which 
proves to be the only salvation and means of reconstruct- 
ing the destroyed Vineyards of France, will do well to 
address BUSH & SON & MEISSNER, 

Buehberg; Jeflterson Co., Mo. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

(Established 1868.) 
For sale at reduced prices, a general assortment of 
Fruit Trees and Small Fruits; also choice Ornamental 
Shrubs, Roses, etc. A limited supply'of Cook's Seedling 
Apple, one and two years old. Catalogue and list of prices 
furnished on application. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



100,000 

AUSTRALIANGUM TREES. 

First-Class Plants. 

Six to 12 iiv lies high, transplanted into boxes, in good 
condition for transportation. Price, §fl to $12 per 1,000. 

JAS. T. STRATTON, Agent, 

Corner 12th Street and 9th Avenue, 

Brooklyn, Alameda Co., Cal 



JAMES HANNAY'S NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 
I offer for sale at low prices a well assorted stock of 
one-year-old 

Apple, Pear and Cherry Trees. 

Also, a large stock of Apricot, Peach, Pear, Cherry and 
Plum, in the dormant bud, for #00 per 1,000. Address 

JAMES HANNAY, San Jose, Cal. 



B. KOHLER, 
Florist and Nurseryman, 

St. Helena, Napa Co., Cal., 

Will send Grape Cuttings of the principal varieties grown 
n St. Helena District, Napa Valley, to any part of the 
United States at Moderate Charges. 
£3"Correspondence 011 Viniculture invited. 



TAKE NOTICE ! 

To those contemplating planting ORANGE and LEMON 
Trees, I would recommend only the Best Varieties of 

THORNLESS TREES. 

Catalogue containing full particulars furnished free on 
application. Addre«» THOS. A. GAREY, 

P. 0. Box 188, Log Angeles, Cal . 




SEVEN BEST VARIETIES — Alt, Grafted 



Fruit grown at San Rafael, Cal., 10 inches in 
circumference. 
1, 2 and 3 year old trees for sale. 
AGENTS WANTED. 



HENRY LOOMIS, 

320 Sansome St. San, Francisco. 



River Bank Nursery. 

The undersigned offers for sale the present season a 

fine stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 
EVERGREENS, SHRUBBERY, 

Green-House Plants, Palms, 

ORANGE TREES, TUBEROSE BULBS, ETC. 
Also, a large and fine assortment of Roses. 

A large stock of "MONARCH OF THE WEST" Straw- 
berry Plants, one of the best market Berries, especially 
for light, sandy soils. 



L F. SANDERSON, 



San Jose, Cal. 



Corner of Twelfth street and Berryessa road -one block 
from terminus o: north side horse railroad. 



THE DINGEE & CONARD CO'S 

BEAUTIFUL EVER-BLOOMING 




We deliver STRONG POT ROSES for Winter 
Bloom and Fall Planting, safely by mail, at all 
post-offices. Five Splend id Varieties, your choice, 
all labeled, for $1 t. 13 for Q'Z ; 19 for $3; 26 for 
$1? 35 for S3 j 75 for $10; IOO for $13. Send 
for our New Guide to Rose Culture, and 
Choose from over 500 Finest Sorts. Our Great 
Specialty is growing and distributing Roses. 
THE DINGEE &, CONARD CO., 
Rose-Groivcrs,WEST Grove, Chester Co.,Pa. 



HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

San Jose, Cal. 

I offer for sale this 6eason, a large and well assorted 
stock of 

Fruit, (Shade and Ornamental Trees. 
My trees are WELL GROWN and HEALTHY, and of the 

Best Known Varieties. 

JOHN HANNAY. 
Succcessor to Hannay Bros,, 
San Jose, Cal. 




Will be mulled pnm to all applicants, and toemtnmen without 
ordering It. It contains four colored plolas, 600 engravings, 
■bout 200 psjres, and full descriptions, prices and direction, for 
planting 1600 varieties of Vegetable and Flower Sccdi, Plants, 
itoiti, (lie, Invaluable to all. Srndforlt. Address, 

D. M. FERJ.Y & 00., Detroit, Mich. 



Fisher. Richardson & Co.'s 

SEMI-TROPICAL NURSERIES, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

FIRST PRF.MITJM received for three successive years for 
Best Budded Orange Trees We have all the varieties, both 
native anil foreign. We have the GENOA LEMON. thorn- 
Ices, an early and lit avy bearer. 

We grow and furnish all kinds of deciduous fruit trees at 
the low, st rates. £4TCatalogues sent promptly on application. 



Pajaro Valley Nurseries, 

WATSONV1LLE, CAL., 
Hps for sale this season a general assortment of all kinds 
f FRUIT TREES, SHADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
FLOWERING SHRUBS, ROSES, etc. 

Thirteen varieties of STRAWBERRIES and nine varie- 
ties of RASPBERRIES— all to be sold at the lowest mar- 
ket rates. For catalogue and price list address 

JAMES WATERS, Prop'r, 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 



Los Gatos Nurseries. 

I offer the trade this season a Larof. and Gexbrac 

Assortment of 

Fruit Trees and Small Fruits. 

My trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Prices 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal. 



A FITTINO GIFT FOR THE 

Holidays ! 

ONE HUNDRED CHOICE ROSES, 

Distinct varieties, of vigorous growth, correctly named, will 

be furnished from our large collection for 820. 

Also a large geueral collection of Nursery Stock at corres- 
ponding figures. Address 

hi. GILL, Nurseryman, 

23th Street (near) San Pablo Avenue. Oakland Cal. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



Rare Opportunity 

— FOR A — 

COLOISrirT 

— OR — 

Farming Enterprise ! 

A tract of land, comprising 20,000 acres, lying in Town- 
ship 16, south, range 19 and '20 cast, in 

FRESNO COUNTY, 

la offered in whole or In part, as a very desirable location 
for a Colony or extensive farming enterprise 

This land' is in the immediate vicinity of several Colo- 
nics, which are already In successful progress 

Work for bringing water upon the land has already 
been commenced, and tbo 1 anil is so situated that it can 
he irrigated at very little outlay. It is also convenient for 
Railroad transportation. 

Terms Reasonable. 

For further particulars inquire of FRANKLIN D. 
COTTLE, No. 032 Howard Street, San Francisco, or of 
COTTLE & LUCE on the premises, or at Fresno 
City, Cal. 



FARMING LAND 



For Sale in largo or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAFEE BROTHERS, 
202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Good land that will raise a crop every 
year. Over 14,000 acres for sale in lots te 
suit. Climate healthy. No drouths, bad 
. r. « - • r floods, uor malaria. Wood and water 
mvenient. U. S. Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
trated circular, to EDWARD FRISBIE, Proprietor of 
Reading Ranch, Anderson. Shasta County, Cal. 



LAND 



60 



Elegant Perfumed Cards, Chromo, Motto. Lily. Etc., 
15c. Gift with sacblpaok. H. M. Smith. OUntonviUe, Ct. 



28 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 10, 1880. 



News in Brief. 

The composer, Wagner, is seriously ill. 
A terrible famine prevails in Armenia. 
The famine in Northern Persia is increasing 
daily. 

Ex- Empress Eugenie will visit Zululand in 
February. 

Great damage is being done in France by in- 
undations. 

The public deb,, was reduced in December 
£4,251,217. 

The Socialistic Congress adjourned sine die at 
Pittsburg Jan. 1st. 

Last year was the most prosperous iu the 
history of Colorado. 

The death of Jonathan Reed, an old Oregon 
pioneer, is announced. 

Gen. Grant left Savannah, Ga., Saturday 
last for Fernandina, Fla. 

Over 100 Nihilists have been recently arrested 
in Warsaw, Russia. 

De Lessep.s was received with great warmth 
on his arrival at Panama. 

The new California Supreme Court organized 
at San Francisco on Monday. 

Charles L. Bit.bey, the well-known archi- 
tect, died at Oakland recently. 

Parnell arrived at New York Jan. 2d, and 
was appropriately received. 

The country between the Volga and Don, in 
Russia, is famine-stricken. 

Compulsory education is henceforth to be a 
feature of the government of Cuba. 

Several survivors from the lost steamer 
Borussia have arrived at Baltimore. 

The navigation of Fraser river is being im- 
proved by the removal of rocks. 

Charles P. Leland, "Hans Breitman," will 
visit California in the spring. 

Bishop Gilbert Haven, of the M. E. Church, 
died at Maiden, Mass., Jan. 3d. 

Serious disturbances have occurred in Brazil 
on account of the levy of n;w taxes. 

During 1ST9 specie wa3 imported into New 
York to the amount of §S4,260,405. 

During the last fortnight the Afghans have 
lost 3,000 men iu killed aud wounded. 

In New York during 1879, 4G0 failures were 
reported, with liabilities of $16,383,932. 

Count Johannes, a well known character on 
the New York stage, died a few days since. 

Charles Morgan, who recently died in New 
York, left property valued at $12,000,000. 

Drift ice in the Seine has caused much dam- 
age at Paris, and the river is full of wreckage. 

A woman attempted to murder a son of 
Senator Morgan, of Alabama, iu Washington 
Jau. 1st. 

A b liter fight is progressing at Washington 
against the reappointment of Governor Emery, 
of Utah. 

About 200,000 pounds of alfalfa seed have 
been shipped from San Bernardino county this 
year. 

Four persons perished in a fire on Friday 
last at J»ew York, and live others were badly 
injured. 

It is denied from St. Petersburg that the 
establishment of a Regency in Russia is con- 
templated. 

One man was killed and two others severely 
injured on Thursday Jan. 1st, near Napa, by a 
railroad train. 

TnE famine in the province of Upper Silesia 
is so severe that people are selling their chil- 
dren for food. 

Gov. Cornell was inaugurated Jan. 1st at 
Albany, N. Y., in the presence of a vast con- 
course of citizens. 

The shipments of treasure from Portland, 
Or., by Wells, Fargo & Co. during 1879 
amounted to $3,554,507. 

Three men were killed and two others fatally 
injured at Newark, N. J., by an explosion in a 
celluloid manufactory on Monday. 

Search for the victims of the Tay bridge 
disaster in Scotland has )>een suspended, on ac- 
count of the boisterous weather. 

During 1S79 the product of precious metals 
west of the Missouri river, including British 
Columbia, was $5,805,121 less than in 1878. 

A terrible story is told of the suilerings and 
outrages endured by the women of the White 
River Agency while captives of the Indians. 

Stock Sales. — Col. Saxe & Son seem to be 
pushing sales of fine stock in quite a lively man- 
ner, considering the times. They recently sold 
to George Hearst a herd of 17 Short Horns, 13 
females and four males. The cattle are to sail 
this week for the San Simeon rancho in San 
Luis Obispo county. Messrs. Saxe & Son also, 
recently, sold five female thoroughbred Jerseys 
(or Alderneys), and a fine Short Horn bull, to 
Col. J. D. Fry. These have gone to the 
Colonel's Napa ranch. 

Pajaro Valley Nurseries.— A neat descrip- 
tive catalogue and price list of fruit and orna- 
mental trees, evergreens, flowering plants, etc., 
has baen published by James Waters of the 
Pajaro Valley nurseries, at Watsonville, Cal. 
We find the lists of fruit trees especially full 
and commendable. The descriptive notes at- 
tached to the mention of the different varieties 
of fruit will be of value to new planters. 

Santa Rosa Nursery. — We have received 
the annual catalogue and price list of the Santa 
Rosa nursery, I.utherjjBurbank proprietor. Mr. 
Burbank is the originator of the famous potato 
which bears his name, His list of trees, plants 
and seeds is very full, and should be consulted 
by all planters. 



Los Nietos Nursery. 

Editors Press:— Though Los Nietos is commonly re- 
garded as a corn country only, we saw, in our recent visit 
to this section, orchards of orange, lemon, peach, apple, 
pear and walnut, in stages of such thrifty growth as to 
insure an important horticultural future here. The pro- 
genitor of many of these fine orchards is the Los Nietos 
Nursery, owned and managed by L. L. Bequettc, former- 
ly a well-known and respected resident of Tulare county. 
The nursery is approached from the San Gabriel river, one 
mile distant on the northwest, by a wide lane hand- 
somely shaded by tall eucalyptus and Lombardy poplar 
trees. The attention is attracted at once by the pretty 
dwelling set well back from the road with a graveled 
walk in front lined on either side with a charming profu" 
sion of fruiting lemon, lime and orange trees, flowering 
and fruiting shrubs, blossoming eoftwood plants, bulbs, 
tubers, etc. ; back of the house are several acres of that 
most majestic of orchard trees, the English walnut. Near 
the house is a greenhouse, an iudispcnsablc adjunct of a 
well-appointed nursery, and invaluable in all those deli- 
cate manipulations of early growth practiced among ex- 
perts. His tract is a choice one 40 acres iu extent, a light 
sandy loam, with an abundance of water. His trees are 
large and thrifty of their age, comprising a large variety 
of as fine nursery stock as we have seen, both semi- 
tropical and deciduous. Of peaches alone he has over 60 
varieties, an extra stock of the apple for sale at decidedly 
advantageous terms and semi-tropical fruits to supply al l 
demands Of nut trees he has the soft and hard shelled 
walnuts, the pecan, hickory, French chestnuts, almonds, 
and is experimenting w ith other kinds, notably the Brazil 
nuts. Here, too, we saw those rarer siiui-tropical fruits, 
the Japanese persimmon, strawberry guava, medlar, cber. 
imoya, date and citron. He expects soon to have the 
white date of Egypt. He has some new roses also that 
will prove an acquisition, and is achieving results of un- 
usual value by adopting bold and original methods. Mr. 
Cequettc we do not hesitate to pronounce one of the best 
nurserymen ill southern California. Wc found him pos- 
sessed of a large fund of information, well read in horti- 
culture, an original thinker, bold and successful in new 
methods of handling his stock, extremely quick at catch- 
ing all those little points that contribute so much to per- 
manent success and so systematic that mistakes seldom or 
never occur. He is an expert and enthusiast in his occu- 
pation, honorable in his dealings and respected among 
his neighbors. He has kept his business within bounds 
without letting it degenerate into a sideshow to some- 
thing else, and sought points rather than corners. The 
future of California horticulture will be brilliant and suc- 
cessful only through such original and independent 
efforts as we have mentioned. H. E. Hallett. 



San Jose Nurseries. 

Hannay's Nursery. 
Editors Press:— In my annual round among our nur- 
serymen, I found Mr. John Hannay at his old stand in 
East San Joso, on the corner of Julian Btreet and Mc- 
Laughlin avenue, with a fair stock on hand all ready for 
the season's trade. Mr. H. docs not seem so ambitious 
as to extend his business over all the departments of the 
trade; he seems rather inclined to devote his best skill 
and energies iu carrying forward its more practical and 
useful parts, making the sale of his own home-grown fruit 
trees a specialty. By close attention to the business he 
so thoroughly understands; by fair dealing, giving every 
customer the full worth of his money whether the bills 
arc large or small, his sales have gradually increased 
with the development of the country. His trees this 
year look healthy well grown and well shaped. 

B. S. Fox's Santa Olara Valley Nursery. 

Never having been far south of Mason & Dixon's line, I 
really know but little of the tropics except from the ex- 
perience and descriptions of others. But whenever I 
wish to get a real genuine idea of some tropical bower 
without much expense of time or travel, 1 Just hitch up 
some cold, blustering day like this, and drive over to Mr 
Fox's tropical gardens; and, if there is any little gem of a 
place In all the Sunny South, surpassing these in beauty 
variety and artistic arrangement, I wish some one would 
pay my expenses down to see it. I really do not know- 
where in all the world Mr. Fox gets all these wonderfully 
strange and hpautiful things, nor do I know what he docs 
with them all. Of course, he must sell lots of them, or 
he would not be to the pain? and expense of keeping so 
many. But I believe he would 4ceep and work at them 
whether he sold any or not. The fact is, he is a natural 
born florist and botanist, and he can't help it. Two things 
you will be sure of, if you go once to bis gardens— you 
w ill Bad the nicest tropical plants there, and you will find 
Mr. B S. Fox there. I think be stays there. 

But Mr. Fox docs not give nil his attention to orna- 
mentals, this is but a branch of his business. He is large- 
ly engaged in growing and selling all kinds of fruit and 
nut-bearing trees, besides small fruits and berry plants. 

River Bank Nursery. 

Mr. L. F. Sanderson, at the corner of Twelfth street and 
the Berrvcssa road, is one of the pioneer nurserymen of 
San Jose. Some 12 years ago, when I came to this valley, 
he seemed well established in his business, and he has 
kept quietly along in the even tenor of his way, gradually 
increasing bis business year by year. With a good loca- 
tion and excellent land, by close attention to business, he 
has received merited success and prosperity. 

I noticed considerable increase in the arrangements for 
growing greenhouse and tropical plants. He is also in 
the market with a fine stock of fruit trees of all kinds. 
He has secured 25 acres of splendid Coyote river bank 
land, adjoining Mr. John Bock, where lie is engaged in 
growing his fruit trees; his ornamental stock being mostly 
grown on his home place in North San Jose. 

Mr. Sanderson has also established an agency in Santa 
Clara, near the" postofficc, under the care of Mr. L. W 
Sykes, where all kinds of trees and plants are kept for sale 
at nursery prices. 

James Hannay's Nursery, 
In East San Jose, on McLaughlin avenue, is yet but a new 
enterprise, though the stock this season offered for salo is 



of first quality in every respect. I could not but con- 
gratulate Mr. Hanuay at the general appearance of his 

new place. The house, barn, orchard, nursery and every- 
thing bears the marks of convenience, neatness and thrift. 
With this fine start on his own land, his energy, industry 
and experience in the business, Mr. H can hardly fail in 
building up a prosperous trade. 

Los Gatos Nurseries. 

These nurseries are located two miles south of San Jose, 
and still under the proprietorship of Mr. S. Newhall, their 
original founder. I found Mr. Newhall at work with his 
men taking up and heeling in some splendid specimens o' 
apple trees. Near them I noticed some rows of fine Tar- 
tarian cherry trees. Some of them looked to be ten feet in 
hight— the growth of one year from the bud— and straight 
as arrows. Mr. N. pays but little attention to ornamental, 
giving bis attention exclusively to fruit and nut trees. < >f 
these he has a larger stock for sale than usual. This is 
undoubtedly one of the finest fruit neighborhoods in tho 
State (and a good nursery' right here seemed to be a neces- 
sity), and for many years Mr. Newhall has, with great 
acceptance, been master of the situation. 

Some notes of Mr. Rock's nursery has already appeared 
in the Press. The people of Santa Clara valley have great 
reason to be proud of our nurseries and our nurserymen 
We have no more worthy or enterprising class of business 
men. G. W. M 

Santa Clara, Cal., Dec. 24, 1879. 



The Riverside Hocsb is pleasantly* located in the center 
of the town in Riverside Colony, 8an Bernardino Co. It 
is a new two-story brick building, containing some 40 
rooms. Health-seekers and other visitors to this most 
favored climate will find good boarding accommodation 
at favorable rates. For further information address the 
proprietors, Ct n.ningdaii Si Moodt, Riverside, San Ber 
nardino Co., CaL 



Frbsh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Oruber"s great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



S. V. Blakeslee, the gentlemanly canvasser of the 
Rural Press, called upon ui this week. Tho Press is 
the best agricultural paper published in the State, and 
no doubt meets with all the success anticipated. — Hollis- 

ter Enterprise. 



We would call attention to the swine and poultry ad 

v ertisements of Win. Niles, Los Angeles, Cal., which ap 
pear twice a month. 

Sample CoriEs —Occasionally we send conies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending it 
circulation. We call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 



Extra CoriES can usually be had of each issue of this 
paper, if ordered early. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 



Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 

on Wednesday of each weekn[our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the Btate of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 7, 18S0. 

There has been another dull week in trade, and prices 
have been but little changed, except where slight declina- 
tions in value have occurred. 

The wheat trade to-day is at a complete standstill. The 
prices which we give are about an average of those asked 
by holders, but shippers refuse to pay them and transac- 
tions are few. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation f,or Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 



Thursday.. . . 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 



I'M. AVBRAOK. 



10s ■ 8d(811s 
10s 8d<ails 
10s 8d@lls 
10s 8di8Us 
10s 8d@lls 
10s 8d(glls 



Club. 



lis oil-ails 

lis rkliills 

lis fW "IK 

lis 6d(*lls 



lis Mcrtlls lOd 
lis 6d@ll8 lOd 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Club. 

1877 12s 8d<»12s lid 12s ld@lSs 3d 

1878 8s — (80s 3d 9s 3d@ 9s 8d 

1879 10s 8d@lls 7d lie 6d@lls lOd 

The Foreigrn Review. 

London. Jan. 6.— The Mar* Lane Express, reviewing 
the British Grain trade for the past week, says: The 
recent frost prevented sowing much land intended for 
Wheat, especially in the midlands and new districts, 
where it is reported that only about one-half of the in- 
tended quantity has been sown. As the frost has now dis- 
appeared, some of the deficiency should speedily be reme- 
died. It Is impossible, as yet, to state the effect of ths 
frost uiwn growing Wheat, but it may be remarked that 
increased apprehensions are felt on this, point in France. 
The damp weather has rather deteriorated freshly- 
threshed Grain. The quantity offered at Mark Lane has 
been small, and prices are not quotably lower. The trade 
in foreign Wheat was only slightly affected by the holiday 
influence during the past week, and full rates of last Mon- 
day have been obtainable. The supply for the moment is 
doubtless in excess of the demand, and stocks are increas- 
ing. Holders, however, do not seem inclined to press 
sales. There seems a general inclination to await further 
development of the situation in America. Now that prices 
in England have risen to 12s per quarter, the possibility of 
a corner is materially diminished. It is noteworthy that 
Wheat, in the early part of the week, declined 6d to Is per 
quarter, but has since partly recovered. Wheat to arrive 
was Inactive. American offerings are still too high. Sales 
of English Wheat last week were 24,674 quarters, at 40s 
11c' per quarter, against 37,592 quarters, at 39s 7d per 
quarter, for the corresponding week last year. Imports 
into the United Kingdom, during the week ending Dec. 
27th, were 840,368 cwts of Wheat, and 222,914 cwts of 
Flour. 

Freights and Charters. 

British ship Astronomer, 1,119 tons, has been chartered 
for Wheat to Liverpool at £3 2» 6d; Cork, United King- 
dom, or Havre, £3 5s. 



Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

New York, Jan. 8.— The markets in general are very 
quiet, and to a great extent nominal. Breadstuffs are 
quiet and about ateady. Provisions are dull. 

Chicago, Jan. 3.— Sales for the week of the February 
option were as follows: Wheat $131(^1. 36 J; Corn, 40c@41; 
Oats, 35c@30t; Pork, 913.06(0(13.06; Lard. $7.60(37.87). 
The closing prices for February were: Wheat, $1.31}; 
Corn, 40Jc; Oats, 35c; Pork, $13.55; Lard, 7.67J, bid. The 
closing cash prices were: Wheat, $1.30}; Corn,39)c; Oats, 
35c; Rye, 81c; Barlcv, 90c: Pork, $13.30. bid; Lard, $7.50, 
bid. Whisky was $1.10, with liberal Bales to a firm close. 
Receipts for the week were: Wheat, 614,000 bushels; 
Corn, 1,313 bushels; Oats, 208,000 bushels. Shipments 
were: Wheat, 85,000 bushels; Corn, 318,000 bushels; Oats, 
169,000 bushels. Receipts in the same time latt year 
were: Wheat, 500,000 bushels; Corn, 727,000 bushels; 
Oats, 255,000 bushels. Shipments were: Wheat, 297,000 
bushels; Corn, 258,000 bushels; Oats, 137,000 bushels. 
The increase in the amount of grain on hand since last 
week is, according to these figures, a million and tb res- 
quarter bushels, something very unusual at this time of 
the year. An inference cannot be drawn, however, as the 
experience of the past month hasBhown that propheciesare 
apt to be falsified just now, no matter how wisely they may 
be conceived or uttered. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 
New York. Jan. 3.— Wool is quiet, and the market is 

without a noticeable feature. Stocks are held firmly. 
Sales, 86,000 fbs California Spring at 27)@29c; 320,000 lbs 
and 100 bales Fall at 21@38c. The stock of Wool on hand 
Jau. 1st included 652,700 lbs California Spring, Arizona, 
Nevada, etc , and 1,135,400 Its California Fall. Three 
hundred thousand pounds of California Wool were badly 
damaged at the recent fire in Boston, 

Boston, Jan. 3.— For Wool the demand is good and firm, 
with a buoyant feeling and more inquiry. The stock of 
domestic Wool now on hand is 18,496,492 fbs, against 13,- 
990,701 lbs at this time last year. At the same time the 
receipts for the year show an increase of 86,000,000 lbs in 
round numbers, so that the quantity of domestic Wool 
taken for consumption the past year has been 26,600,000 
lbs more than last year. Foreign imports were 69.307 
bales, against 30,833 in 1873. Manufacturers have taken 
from this market alone 62,600,000 fbs more foreign and do- 
mestic Wool than last year, and commence the new year 
with smaller stocks on the sesboard than last year, and 
with scarcely no Wool in tho interior, when last year there 
was a large supply at nearly all points. The sales of the 
week include Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia X and XX 
and above at 49@52c; Michigan X and No. 1 at 47@53c; 
New Hampshire, Wisconsin, Maine and N. Y. X at 46@ 
47jc; delaine and combing, coarse, fair and medium at 
■p. - , unwashed combing at 41c; unwashed and un- 
merchantable at 30c; Texas at 30@40c; super and X pulled 
at 44<g60c: Spring California at 31<345c; Fall do at 21® 
37c; scoured at 35@70c; tub-washed at 49c. The total 
sales of foreign and domestic were 2,397,680 lbs, of which 
1,268,600 lbs w ere domestic. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 3 —Wool is more ac.ive and prices 
strong. Oregon fine at 87@40c; medium at 40@42c; coarse 
at 30(§35c; California fine at 37@40c; medium at S7@40c; 
coarse at 33(d37c; New Mexican and Colorado fine at S5@ 
40c; medium at 35040c; coarse carpet Wool at 28@30c. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 
The following table shows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals. 

Beans, sacks. 

Corn, centals. 

Oats, centals. 

Potatoes, sacks. 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week. Were. Week Week. 

Dec. 17. Dec. 24. Dec. 81. Jan. 7. 



28,691 
298,158 
21,728 
11,149 
8,866 
7,784 
18,259 
1,271 
144 



741 



60,792 
299,742 
20,716 
8,907 
3,954 
1,197 
16,805 
954 
104 
29 
926 



35,627 
127,710 
11,467 
1,586 
1,627 
14,352 
17,391 
964 
24 



1,006 



20,464 
201,342 
4,737 
1,562 
8,336 
1,849 
9,802 
1,228 
108 
63 
487 



BARLEY— Unchanged since our last report, but there ha. 
been rather more activity in sales. We note the following: 
400 sks good Bay Brewing, for overland, at 92Jc; 1,200 sks 
dodo, also for overland, 90c; 1,000 do choice bright Feed, 
77}e; 500 do common Coast do, 70c, and 1,600 do dark do 
do, 67$c. 

BEANS— There is no change, except in Red Beans, 
which have advanced, as shown in our price list. 
CORN— There is no change. 

DAIRY PRODUCE — Fresh roll Butter is still lower, 
nothing but exceptional lots going above 28c. Cheese is 
unchanged. 

EGGS— Eggs are 2@4c lower. 

FEED— Hay and Ground Feeds arc unchanged. 

FRUIT— California Oranges continue to arrive, and eel| 
well; the best bringing $50 per M, and grading down ac- 
cording to size, etc., to $16 per M. 

FRESH MEAT— There is a little better feeling in Pork 
alive and dressed, and prices are about i <>■ per lb 
higher. 

HOPS— There is no change. 

OATS — Sales have been within the old range. 

ONIONS — Onions are about as last reported. 

POTATOES— Cuffey Cove Potatoes have sold lower, and 
Sweet Potatoes have advanced, as shown in our table; 
otherwise the trade is quiet. 

WHEAT— Sales are few and of little account, owing to 
a wide difference between holders' and shippers' views. 



LUMBER. 

Wednesday m , January 7, 1879. 



CARGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough. M 14 00 

Surface 24 00 

Rustic 24 00 

do. No. 2 18 00 

Fhrnring 24 00 

do. No. 2 17 00 

Beaded Flooring 28 OC 

Refuse 20 00 

Hall-inch Siding 20 00 

Refuse 16 00 

Half-inch Surfaced 24 00 

Refuse 18 00 

Half-Inch Battens 16 00 

Pickets, Rough 11 00 

Rough, Pointed 12 50 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 

Shingles 1 75 



REDWOOD. 

RETAIL PRIOR. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Pickets, Rough IS 00 

Pointed 16 00 

Fancy 22 50 

Siding 20 50 

Surfaced k Long B jadodJO 00 
Flooring 26 00 

do. No. J 17 00 

Rustic, No. 1 25 00 

do, No. 2 18 00 

Battens, lineal ft 

Shinties M 2 00 

pitiET sound rm 

RETAIL PRIOR. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fendng 18 00 

Laths 3 60 



BAGS AND BAGGING. 

JOBBING PRICES.] 

Wednesday *., January 7. 



Eng Standard Wheat. 11 ttl2 
California Manufacture. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 11 @12 

24x36 UMm 

22x40 — @12 

23x40 - OT12J 

24x40 13 @1SJ 

Machine Bwd, 22x36. -All 
Flour Sacks, halves.... 8 (dm 
Quarters 6 ® 61 



Eighths. 
Hessian, 60 Inch. 

45 Inch. 

40 inch. 
Wool Sacks, 

Hand Sewed, 34 lb. 

4 lb do. 

Machine Sewed.... 
standard Gunnies... 
Bean Bags 



January 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUJBJLL PRESS 



29 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

f WHOLH8ALB. 1 

Wednebda t m.. January 7. 1S79. 



16 



30 
27i 

-1 27i 

- <8 - 

— <3 27J 



BEANS «t IT IS 

Bayo, otl 1 10 wl 25 

Butter 1 25 ui 1 40 

Castor 3 25 @3 50 

Pea 1 if5 §1 40 

Red 1 10 &l 50 

Pink 95 @1 05 

Sm'l White 1 12tSl 25 

Lima 6 00 C*6 50 

Field Peas, yellow. 1 37!@1 50 
do, green.. 95 @1 00 
BROOM CORN. 

Southern 1J@ 2 

Northern 2J@ 3; 

CHICCORY, 

California 4 

German 6i@ 7 

It A I li V PKOIHICE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 25 @ 274 

Fancy Brands 28 @ 30 

Pickle Roll. 22i@ 24 

Firkin 18 @ 22J 

Western..., 12J@ 15 

New York - @ - 

CHEESE. 

Cheese. Cal, lb 14 

N. Y. State — 

EOOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 23 

Ducks' — i 

Oregon 

Eastern. by expr'ss. 

Pickled here 

Utah 

FEED. 

Bran, ton K 00 @17 00 

Corn Meal 22 50 ijJ23 50 

Hay 7 50 @12 00 

Middlings #22 00 

Oil Cake Meal. ..34 00 & 

Straw, bale 40 @ 50 

H OI It. 
Extra, City Mills . 6 12J<»6 62} 
do, Co'ntry Mills 5 25 ^»5 75 

do, Oregon 5 25 @5 50 

do, Walla Walla. 5 75 @6 124 

Superfine 3 50 @4 25 

I It * Ml MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 6 @ 

Second 4' 

Third 

Mutton 4 

Spring Lamb 6 

Pork, undressed... 3j(9 3 

Dressed 5 @ f> 

Veal . . 5 @ 6 

MilkCalves.'.'. - .'.'.'.' 6ll 6 
do choice... 6j@ 7 
GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 70 @ 77 
do, Brewing... 85 @ 97 

ChevaUer 1 50 @1 75 

do, Coast.. 1 00 @1 20 

Buckwheat 1 25 OT1 35 

Com, White 95 & 974 

Yellow 95 (31 00 

Small Round.... 974<§1 024 

Oats 1 00 m 35 

Milling - m 50 

Rye 1 10 (Si 25 

Wheat, No. 1 2 00 @2 02 

do, No 2 1 924(Sl 97 

do, No. 3 1 70 @1 75 

Choice Milling. . — @2 05 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 20 @ 204 

Wet salted 9 @ 10 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 22 J@ 25 J 

Honey in oomb.... 15 ft* 18 

do, No 2 124@ 15 

Dark. 10 15 

Extracted 10 @ 124 

HOPS. 

Oregon, 35 

California, new ... 35 

Wash. Ter 32. 

Old Hons — _ 

NI1TS -Jobbing. 

Walnuts, Cal 10 (3 14 

do Chile 8 (3 9 

Almonds, hd shl lb 8 (<* 10 

Softsh'l 17}« 20 

Brazil 15 @ 16 

Chestnuts, Italian. 25 @ 324 

Pecans 16 & 17 

Peanuts 8 @ 9 



Filberta 17 i 

ONIONS. 

Alviso 40 i 

Union City, ctl.... 75 

San Leandro — i 

Stockton — i 

Sacramento River. 40 i 



75 



- @ - 



Oregon 
Red. 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma. ctl 40 @ 621 

Tomales 40 @ 624 

Humboldt 65 3 75 

Cuffey Cove 60 & 75 

Early Rose, sk 20 S 35 

4J Half M'n Bay.new 35 @ 40 

Alvarado, red 65 (3 80 

Jersey Blue 85 @1 00 

Sweet 624@ 75 

POULTRY aft UAME. 

Hens, doz 5 09@ 7 00 

Roosters 4 50® 6 50 

Broilers 4 50@ 5 00 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 6 00(3 7 00 

Mallard 3 00@ 3 50 

Sprig 1 50@ 1 75 

Teal 1 00@ 1 25 

Widgeon 1 00@ 1 25 

Geese, pair 1 75(3 2 25 

Wild Gray, doz.. 2 50(3 3 00 

White do 1 00.3 1 25 

Turkeys 14 @— 16 

do, DresBed 16 @— 18 

Snipe. Eng — 

do, Common .... — 

Quail, doz — 

Rabbits 50 _ 

Hare 1 50 @ 2 00 

Venison — @ 

PROVISIONS. 

Cal. Bacon, H'vy, lb 

Medium 

Light 

Lard 

Cal. Smoked Beef 
Shoulders, Cover'd 

Hams. Cal 

Dupee's 

None Such 

Whittaker 

Royal 

Reliable 

Palmetto 13J@ 

Brown's — (3 

H. Ames tt Co .. 144(3 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa, 6 

do, Chile 5 

Canary — 

Clover, Red 16 

White 60 

Cotton — 

Flaxsoed 24i_ 

Hemp 8 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 30 

Perennial 30 




141(3 



Millet, German . . 12 (3 

do, Common . . 7 (3 

Mustard, White... 3 (3 

Brown 14@ 

Rape 3 

Ky Blue Grass 25 

d quality 20 

Sweet V Grass.... •— 

Orchard 20 

Red Top — 

Hungarian 8 

Lawn 30 

Mesquit — < 

Timothy — i 

TALLOW. 

Crude, tt> 5J 

Refined 7 @ 

WOOL. ETC. 

FALL. 

San Joaquin and S. Coast. 

Burry 13 @ 15 

Free (dusty) 14 @ 16 

Free (choice) 16 @ 18 

Northern. 

Free 26 @ 30 

Burry 20 f> 23 

Oregon, Eastern ... 27 @ 30 

do. Valley 28 (<* 32 

do. Lamb .... 30 (3 35 

Mendocino & Hum- 
boldt 28 (? 30 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

| WHOLBSALB. \ 

Wednesday m., January 7. 1879. 



5 00 



% 4 00 



i-14 00 



Citron 23 i 



n 

7 

4 _ 
11 @ 



Dates 

Figs, pr< ssed . . 

do, loose 

Peaches 

do pared . . 
Pears, slici d . . . 

do, peeled.. 
Plums 

Pitted 15 

Prunes 12J 



18 @— 22} 
5 (3 6 
9 @ 11 
3 C<* 4 
— 16 
13 



FRUIT MARKET 

Apples, box - 40 @ 1 25 

Apricots, box.. 
Bananas, bnoh.. 2 50 

Blackb'ries, ch'st 

Cherries, ch'st. . . — — 

Citrons, Cal., 100 

Cocoanuts. 100.. 2 50 

Crab Apples 

Cranberries, bbl. 10 00 

Currants, chest.. 

Figs, box @ 

Gooseberries. . . . (g? 

Grapes, bx (3 ■ 

Damascus . . . . @ 

Muscat @ 

Isabella (a 

Conichon - 70 & 1 00 I 

Tokay @ 

Limes, Mex 5 00 (3 6 50 Malaga .. 

do, Cal, box... 1 00 (3 1 50 iZante Currants.. 8 (3 10 
Lemons, Cal M. 10 00 @20 00 1 VEGETABLES. 

Sicily, box 8 00 @10 00 Asparagus, box..— — 

Australian @ j Beets, ctl — 50 

Nectarines, bsk. (* [Beans, String. . . 

Oranges, Cal M.15 00 @50 00 Cabbage. 100 lbs 40 

do. small ... @ .Carrots, sk 25 

do, Tahiti...- — @ [Cauliflower, doz 30 

do, Mexican 20 00 @30 00 Chile Peppers, bx 

Cucumbers, bx. . — 

|Egg Plants, bx. . 

1 00 jGarlic. New, 1b..- 

2 25 iGreen Corn — 

Green Peas, lb . .— 

6 00 | Lettuce, doz 10 « 

> Mushrooms, lb.. — @ 

(3 [Parsnips, lb ^J^ - *i 



Raisins, Cal, bx 2 00 (3 2 25 
do, Halves... 2 25 @ 2 50 
do. Quarters. . 2 50 (3 2 75 

Eighths 2 75 (3 3 00 

Lond'n Lay'rs bx 2 50 @ 2 75 
do. Halves.. 2 75 (3 3 00 
do. Quarters 3 00 ® 3 25 
do, Eighths. 3 25 (3 3 50 
Malaga 2 75 (3 3 00 



Peaches, bsk. 
do, Mountain.— — i 

Pears, bx — 75 i 

W. Nelis 1 25 i 

Seckel — — < 

Pineapples, doz. i 

Plums, box - 

Pomegranates lb- 



Prunes, bsk — (3- 

Quinces. box — 25 (3 50 

Raspb'ries, ch'st. @ 

St'wberries, ch'st (3 

DRIED FRUIT. 
Apples, sliced, lb 4 @ 5 
do. quartered. 3 @ 4 

Apricots 15 (3— 18 

Blackberries.... — @ 15 



Horseradish. , 

Rhubarb, lb @— 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn 6 00 i 

Summer, box.. — 
Tomato, box....— 

Turnips, otl — 40 i 

White . 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co. i 

8AN Francisco, January 7, 3 t. M. 

Silver i par. 

Gold Bars, 890(3910. Silver Barb, 10@18 cent, dis- 
count. 

Exchange on New York, 20, on London bankers, 49}@ 
491. Commercial, 50; Paris, five franca $ dollar; MexicaD 
dollars, 90(3904. 
London Oousola, 97 5-16; Bonds (4%), 1064 
Quicksilver in S. F. by the flask. W lb. 39c. 



Wk have read the "Handbook" with much pleasure and 
can cheerfully recommend it to all who wish to adorn, 
beautify and make their homes attractive. — Salinas 
Index. 

The "Pacific Rural Handbook," written by Chas. H. 
Shinn for the publishers of the Pacific Rural Press, 
will be sent, post-paid, in substantial cloth binding for $1; 
in full leather, $1.50; in eloth, interleaved with fine ruled 
paper for memoranda, $1.50. Address 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
No. 202 Sansome Street, San Frajiciscv. 



THE NEW ALTHOUSE VANELESS MILL. 

RAYMOND PATENT. 

More being Sold than of any other Kind. 




RECENTLY IMPROVED, 

And Manufactured 

Expressly for the Pacific Coast Trade. 



The Bearings are Wood and Babbitt. It is the BEST MADE, the MOST 
PERFECT, MOST DURABLE and the 

Cheapest First-Class Windmill in Use. 

Our new Vaneless Mill will last a life-time with reasonable care. Mills 
set up in any part of the State. Contracts taken for the erection of Water 
Works. Buy the 

NEW ALTHOUSE, 

The Cheapest and Least Liable to get out of Order. 

Orders for Windmills, Pumps, Brass Cylinders, Tanks and Frames, promptly filled at cheapest rates. For further 
particulars call on or address 

L. H. WOODIN, 

Office with Baker & Hamilton, 17 Front St., San Francisco 



SECURE PATENTS 




Through 
Dewey & Co.'s 



Scientific Press 



Patent] 
Agency. 



Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency pre- 
sents many and important advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by reason of long estab- 
lishment, great experience, thorough system, in- 
timate acquaintance with the subjects of inven- 
tions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library containing 
official American and foreign reports, tiles of 
scientific and mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or a 
description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of Patent 
business, and obtain Patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
givi the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices are 
as low as any first-class agencies in the Eastern 
States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
inventors are far superior. Advice and Circu- 
lars free. DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. II. STRONG. 



Commission Merchants. 



CHAS. RYHNER, 

(Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

— Dealer in — 

FLOUR, GrtAIN, FEED AND PRODUCE. 

216 Davis Street, 
Between Clay and Commercial, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 
Consi ninents of all kinds of Produce solicited. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rbfbrbnoh.— Tradesmen's National Bann, N. T. ; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, Cal. 



Charles Nauman. 



Frank Nauman. 



o. &. f. NAUMAN & CO , 
Wholesale Commission Merchants 

— AND DEALERS IN — 

GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, POULTRY, 
EGGS, GAME, ETC. 

227 & 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 
^"Consignments Solicited. ISt 



STOCKTON 

Tclegrapli Institute 

, NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Open day and evening for 
both acxes. Expenses less ( ~-f/0 1 n /,/./> S7J> 
than one-half the usual VJV 1- Is-Ctf-Vj 
rates. Excellent board iu V 
private families from $8 to $10 per month. Ad- 
dress for College Journal and Circulars, 

F. B. CLARKE, Principal, Stockton, Ca.. 

SEASIDE RESIDENCES AT SANTA CRUZ. 

A charming Homestead in the very choicest position 
may now be secured at a really tempting price. State 
requirements and receive suitable particulars from the 
Real Estate EXCHANGE & MART. 

Santa Cruz, Cal 

Metrick & Co., Insurance and Money Brokers and Agents 



PENSIONS. 



n>by iho 
or dralh 



Every wound or Injury, oreu 
by accident or any diteiie, enti- 
tle! » soldier ol the l»le war 10 
a pcnuioD. All penii( 
law of January 1619, becin back nt dale of ducWge -. 
o! Ibe toldier. All enihled ehould apply at once. Tbouaauu. 
whooreuow drawinir pentione are enlilled lo an lucrcsc. Sol- 
d m " i wido». 15 lb. war of 181?, and Mexican war enlilled 
to pemlons. Feel in all ca.e. only »10. Bounty yet du. lo 
ihoue.nde. Sampl. c.pyCmKN Sounna fr.r. BoA two •lunpl 
forncw lawa, blanks, and instructions to 
Col. N. W. Fitzgerald, U. S. Claim Att'y 

Box 588, Washington, D. C. 



c n Pir/umcd, gilt edge ft chromo Cards, Inelegant case, name 
?** In gold, lOo. Atlantic Gaud Co., B. WaUingfoid, 04 



Sawing off a Log, 
Easy and, Past 




Our latest improved sawing machine cuts 
off a 2-foot log in 2 minutes. A $100 
PRESENT will be given to two men who 

can saw as much in the old way, as one man 
can with this machine. Circulars sent free. 
W. Giles, 741 W. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 



SEMI-ANNUAL STATEMEi 

OF THE 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

Published in Compliance with Law. 
JANUARY, 1880. 

Amount of Capital actually paid 

in U. S Gold Coin $400,540 OO 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco.— 
G. W. Colby anil A. Montpellier. Uuing duly sworn, severally 
depose ami say that they are respectively the Picsiilent anil 
Cashier of the Grangers' Hank of California above mentioned, 
and that the foregoing statement Is true. 

(Signed) G. W COLBY. Prcsid lit. 

A. MONTTKLLIKK. Cashier. 
Subscribed and sworn to before uic this fifth day of Janu- 
ary, 1880. 

(Signed) J. ROBERT READ, Notary Public. 

Statement of the Actual Condition 

OF THE 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

At the close of business. December 31st, 1879. 

ASSETS. 

Bills Receivable, secured by Warehouse Re- 
ceipts, etc $101,216 31 

Loans secured by Mortgage 62. lfiO 73 

Real Estate (Bank's interest in Grangers' buUdfogj 77,2flO 00 

Other Real Estate 6,212 27 

Due from Banks 3,!I68 t2 

Office Furniture. Fixtures and Safes 3.000 00 

Interest Accrued 15.!'02 72 

Cash on hand 51.153 37 

Total S673.8H 25 

And that said assets are situated in the following counties, 
to-wit: Alameda, Butte, Colusa, Contra Costa, Inyo. Mer- 
ced, Kern. Washoe (Nevada), Solino. Sonoma, Stanislaus, 
San Francisco, Tulare, Tehama and Monterey. 



LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock Paid In Gold Coin S400.M0 00 

Due Depositors, etc 196,705 19 

Bills Payable (Mortgage assumed on Real Estate). 40.000 00 
Loss and Gain Account (undivided profits) 36,tb9 06 

Total 5673.814 25 

State o' California, City and County of San Francisco.— 
G. W. Colby and A M< nt|iellier. being each duly sworn, sev- 
erally d pose and say that they are respectively the I'res Sent 
and Cashier of the Grangers' Bank of California above men- 
tioned, and that the foregoing statement is tru J , 

(Signed) ti. W O'LBY. President. 

A. MONTPELLIEK. Cashier. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this fifth day of Janu- 
ary, 1830. 

(Signed) J. ROBERT READ, Notary Public. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California Street, cor. Webb. 

For the half-year ending with December 31st, 1879, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of Six and Six- 
tenthe per cent (6 6-10 per cent.) per annum on term de- 
posits, and Five and One-half per cent. (5J per cent.) per 
annum on ordinary deposits, free of Federal Tax, payable 
on and after Thursday, 15th of January, 1880. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half-year ending this date, the Board of Direc- 
tors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rato of 
Six and Nine-Tenths (6 0-10) per cent, per annum, and on 
Ordinary Deposits at the rate of Five and Three-fourths 
(5}) per cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and 
payable on and after the 15th day of January, 1880. By 
order. GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, Dccomber 31st, 1879. 

ROOMS TO RENT. 

Elegantly Furnished, and with Gas and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Room. 

A PLEASANT LOCALITY and REASONABLE TERMS 

At 1031 Market St., San Francisco. 

Comb Foundation. 



Any size sheets and any quantity, 40 cents per pound. 

Feeders, 50 cents each. 

Sample Simplicity Hive, $3.00. Address 

RUFTJS MORGAN, 
Bernardo, San Diogo Co., Cal 




Liberal advances on 'louahrnmenta 

Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch Supplies furnished 



CHEAPER YET! 

Tension Sewing Machines! 

A large number of nearly new frenuine SINGER, 
WHEELER & WILSON, HOWE, WEED, WILSON, 
G HOVER & BAKER, DOMESTIC, etc., will be sold very 
cheap, many as low as $10. These Machines were taken 
in exchange from families for the "AUTOMATIC" or 

NO TENSION MACHINE. 
Wilcox & Gibbs' S. M. Co., 

124 POST ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
No. 361 Twelfth Street, Oakland, Cal. 




BERRIES. 

Queen of the Market. 

The largest, handsomest, heist 
haniy RED RASPBERRY, 3 
incht-R around POT GROWN 
PLANTS [mm healthy Root 
Cuttings, M orth douhle thou6ual 
out-door Suckers Sent postpaid 
by mall. S'2 per doz. Catalogues 
free. 

W. PARRY, 

Cinnaminson, New Jersey. 



Putah Creek Poultry Yard. 

Plymouth Kocks and Brown Ltghorni, bred from the 
best' imported strains, offered cheap for the next six 
weekB to reduce stock. 

MAMMOTH BRONZE TUIIKEVS, the best in the State, 
all last spring*! hatch, bred from the finest imported 
stock, offered for sale clicsp. For prico list address 
MilS. L. B. McMAHON, 

Dixon, Solano Co., Cal. 



FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

FERT7VI.A.1T ctjano 

First-Clasa for Fertilizing. 



Apply at the office of 
JOHN PARROTT, - 414 Montgomery St. 



30 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



("January 10, 1880. 



Agricultural Articles. 



THE FAMOUS 

Spring Tooth Harrow. 




Manufactured and Kid on the Pacific Coast only by 

Van Gelder. Batchelor & Co., 

902 K St., Sacramento. 

THE GRANDEST ACHIEVEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL 
IMPLEMENTS ! 

The Most Perfect Working 
Harrow in Use! 

It can be easily adjusted u> run at any depth from one 
to eijrht inches, and is thereby adapted la all varieties and 
conditions of soil. The hroad te«th smooth the surface, 
filling furrows and other depressions; cut up and destroy 
vegetation and cover grain to any desired depth Their 
oscillating motion thoroughly pulverizes the earth, and 
being made of the best Oil-Tempered Spring Steel they 
pass over - 1 * . stems or other obstructions as easily as 
those of a bay rake. 

It is not liable to clog with trash or clods and seldom 
gets dull. They do the work of a harrow or cultivator, 
and will save one-half the expense of putting in a crop. 

Anyone who has an orchard or vineyard cannot afford 
to do without them. See one ojieratc and be convinced 
bef-re buying any other. 

For descriptive circulars and price list address tin 
manufacturers 

Correspondence solicited. 



The Famous "Enterprise." 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS. 

Pumps & Fixtures 

These Mills and Pumps ars 
reliable and always give sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all [sails. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double hearing* for the crank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Potitinely telf reflating, 
with no coil spnngor springs 
of any kind. No little rods. 
Joints, levers or lulls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in v .,..„....i now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of lumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LI VERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 




San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, 
<S» CO., 401 Market Street. 



RICF 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Ui 



Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Mau l, 
in Stockton, in 1870 

This Plow Is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long In the business and know what Is required 
fn the construction of Gang Plows II is quickly adjusted 
Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will pans over 
sradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
■hares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and ru'ist desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 



STOCKTON, CAL. 



The Boss Pruner. 

Patented Jan. 8. 1878. 

ENTIRELY NEWI 

Works on a cog principle Smallest size cuts one Inch and 
largest size two inch** in diameter. 



SUB-IRRIGATION. 





-FOR- 

Orckards, Vineyards, Small Fruits, Alfalfa, 
Lawns, Vegetables, Etc. 

The Asbestine System consists in conducting the water in concrete pipes l*id below reach of 

the plow. ... 
It saves from three-fourths to nine-tenths the water used in surface irrigation. 
It is under perfect control, and can be applied wherever irrigation is needed. 
The surface remaining dry there is no need of Summer Cultivation, either before or after 

irrigating. ... 

The soil is never excessively wet and cannot bake, but remains moist, loose and at a nearly 
uniform temperature, promoting a long-continued Summer's growth. 

Anything which the soil lacks as plant food (manure, lime, etc.,) can be easily, directly and 
economically applied in liquid form; the pest of the vineyard— phylloxera — can thus be easily 
reached. 

No grading is necessary, as the system works perfectly on hillsides and undulating land. 

Roots cannot get into the pipe, neither can it suck mud — difficulties never overcome by any 
other system of sub-irrigation. 

The pipe is made continuously with a recently patented machine which males and lays it in 
the trench, following all the undulations and curves. 

Water is not kept in the pipes: but is applied about twice a month. 

Three men will easily lay 1,200 feet of two-inch pipe in 10 hours. 

This system and machines used are fully protected by U. S. Patents. 

Our pipe machine makes the cheapest and best tile drain known, and is especially valuable 
for making and laying pipe for conducting water from springs, out of canyons, etc. 

For further information, circulars, etc., address WILSON & BEOWER, General Agents for 
California, Sacramento, Cal., or 

Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Co., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



Nathaniel Curry & Bro 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




Sole Agents for the 



Sharps Rifle Co.,of Bridgeport. Conn. 



FOR CALIFORNIA, ORaWOlT, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

AIso,Agcnts for W. W GREENER'S Celebrated Wcdgefast, Chokohore. Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
all kinds >.f GI NS, RIFLES ?.nd FIST' >LS made by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit. 



Thoroughbred. Poultry. 



LARGEST STOCK OF 

IMPORTED FOWL 

ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 



Bone Meal and Poultry Supplies 

Always on band. 

General Pacific Coast Agent for the 

AMERICAN POULTRY FOOD. 

It win make your hens lay. anil prevent disease. 
For raising young chicks It is almost Indispensable 

Letters of inquiry, enclosing stamp, cheerfully answered. Addr- 

WILLIAM 

P. O Box 250. 




My yards contain choice (drains of the lead- 
ing varieties, including Langthans, Plymouth 
Rocks, Pekiu Ducks, etc. • 
Zgrz f:r Eitchbg Tacit d to js »njr ttrtiMS. 
PRICKS ALWAYS REASONABLE. 

Sate Arrival of Fowls and Eggs 
Guaranteed. 

Imports* and Breeder of the Improved Short 
Nose, Dish Faced 

BERKSHIRE?. 

Also. Magie Poland-China Pigs. 




If You Want to Make Money 

By raising any number of Chickens at any season of 
the year without getting hens, procure an 

ECLIPSE INCUBATOR 

(E A. Samuel's Patent). 

In both public and private trials on this coast as else- 
where, the "ECLIPSE" has proved Itself a perfect and 
successful Egg Ha'cher. It may be examined and its 
merits proven to customers before they make purchases. 
Write for particulars and circulars to 

G. G. WICKS0N, 319 Market Street, S. F. 

Agent for the Pacific Coast 



COOLEY CREAMER. 

Supersedes large and small 
pans for setting milk. 

It require* no milk 
room. It requires capac- 
ity for one milking'oiily. 

Impure air, dost or flies 
cannot reach milk set 
in it. 

It make* more butter, 
because it raise* all of the 

cream, and the quantity is 
never lessened by unfavor- 
able weather. 

It makes Letter Butter. It requires lee* labor It ia 
cheaper. Butter made by this process took the Hie best 
Award at th« International- Dairy Fair, held in New 
York. December, 1878. and at the Royal Agricultural Ex- 
hibition, held in London, June, 1879, and brings the high- 
est price in all the great markets. 
Send stamp for the Daikthas to 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO., 

Bellows Falls, Vermort. 




ST. DAVID'S. 

FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE. 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 

715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This House is especially designed as a comfortable home for 
•utkmen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 



is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a siring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious snd healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook lor themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a Urge public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants sash the dishes and keep up a constant fire from 
H. to 7 P. M Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano - ah free to guests. Price 
ingle rooms per night, 50 eta. ; i - r week, from 92.50 upwards. 

H HUOHES, Proprietor. 
At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
ia comer Third and Howard. 



K EATING'S COUGH LOZENGES! 
The (ire it British Remedy. There is unquestion- 
ably no other reniedv so certain in itself ecu. ASTH- 
MA, WINTER COUGH, liKHNClimS and DIS- 
ORDERS of the THROAT alike yield to its influ- 
ence. The higbe-t medical testimony states no 
belter cure for these complaints exist (now proved 
by over a half a century 's experience.) They contain no 
opium, morphia, or any violent drug. HEATING'S COUGH 
LOZENGES prepared by THOMAS KEATING, London, 
Britain, are sold by all Druggists. 



SITUATION _WANTED. 

A Mechanic, 41 years of age, desires a situation on a 
Farm. Wages not so much of an object, for the first six 
mouths, as a wish ui remove from the city for the winter, 
and to gain some general information of farm work, be- 
fore going into the farming business for himself. Ad- 
dress, J SHOEBS, 
• No. 639 Mission St. 8. F. 



NILES, Importer and Breeder, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL 



WELLS* ItK'HARDSOy ft CCS 

PERFECTED 

( .Ives It utter l b«- uilt-oclue re.lor thr yrur round. The largest Butter Buyers recommend its use. Thousands 

i f Dairymen - r IT [0 PHHFECT. Asli yom druggist or merchant for It! or write to ask what It Is, what It 
costs, who uses It. whcr.i to K , t it. WfcM.H, KICK AltDSON dt CO., Proprietor*. Uurlington, Vt. 



BUTTER COLOR 



Agricultural Books. 



Orders for Agricultural and Scientific Books in general 
will be suppli d thruugh this office, at published rates. 



""• Has l»een thoroughly 

tested, and given perfect satisfaction. Sold by 

N .wc«2 e E pS^ I Dewey 4 Co{^ e s i n ; \ Patent Agts 



A GENTS ! READ TWIS? 



We will pay Agents a Salary of $100 i>er 
month and expenses, or allow a large Commis- 
sion, to sell our new and wonderful invention*. We 
mean what we say. Sample free. Address 

SHERMAN & CO . Marshall, Mich 



WANTED ! 

Reliable, competent, active Agents for the sale of my 

Orange and Lemon Trees, 

In all the counties and cities of the State adapted to Citrus 
culture. The best of references required for competency 
and reliability. Address with re ereticea, 

TH08. A. CiAREY, 

P. O. Box 18S, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rate*. 
CHAS H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietor*. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 



Giles II. Grat. 



Jamks M. Haven. 



GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

In building of Pacific Insurance Co., 
Corner California and Leldesdorfl streets, San Francisco. 



ITlLL AUuLll" cheapest ami best in the 
world. Also nothing can beat our SA HIM. UA- 
CHJLNK. II aaws oil a 2-foot log in 3 minute*. 
Pictorial books Iras. W.OIUiS, Cbic**u, 111. 



January 10, 1880.] 



TIE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



LATEST 



WINCHESTER REPEATER. 



MODEL 1879-TARGET RIFLE-45 CALIBRE. 60 GRAINS POWDER. 

CAUTION! 




With Pistol Grip, Vernier and Wind 



Sights. 



Uses Central Fire Cartridges (straight shell) 45 calibre, 60 grain 
wJar, 300 grains lead This splendid Gun is perfection as- a Sporting 
Rifle, for defense or as a target Rifle. 



The W R. Arms Co. manufact- 
ure Cartridges for, their own 
arms, and persons are hereby cautioned against 
using those made by any other Cartridge Compa- 
nies who have no interest in such arms or their effi- 
ciency, if they wish to be insured against accident. 



CtNTENN I At. MOD! 
1876 



The 8AN FRANCISCO AGENCY is now fully supplied with this splendid Arm -Standard blued or extra finish— set or plain Trigger. Also with the 

New Winchester Express Rifle, 

50 Calibre, straight Cartridge, 95 grs. powder, 330 grs. lead. Also the 

isTIEW HOTCHKISS REPEATER, 

st out, using the U. S. Government Cartridge, 45 calibre, 70 grains powder. Both Sporting and Military styles of this fine Arm are ready for delivery to the trade, 
o a larje and complete stock constantly on hand of Models, 1868, 1873 and 1876, as well as all other kinds of goods manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Co., viz. 

CARTRIDGES, 

Both RIM and CENTRAL FIRE, by the million, for all kinds of Rifles and Pistols. 

Brass and Paper Shot Gun Shells, Primed Cartridge Shells, Reloading Tools, Primers, Percussion Caps and Gun Wads. 



NEW MUSIC BOOKS ! 

Parlor Organ Instruction Book. 

($1.50). A. N. JOHNSON. This very easy, thorough 
an*l practical book teaches both light and Sacred music; 
that 18, songs, marches, waltzes, rondos, Sunday School, 
school and church music; in fact everything that can be 
played on a reed organ. It includes 50 tunes for one 
hand, 150 exercises for fingering, 80 graded pieces for 
lensons. and "bout 140 Hymn Tunes and Glees, all with 
full and plain directions. 

Johnson's New Method for Thorough Base 

is for Chord, Glee and S-icred Music, and is published 
for ($1 CO) 

Temperance Jewels. (35 cts. boards); 

Commends itself to clergymen by the religious charac- 
ter of its contents and to all temperance people by the 
excellence of its poetry and music. 
Send for Specimen Copy! 

mi TP "RfihpQ (30 cts.); sells very rapidly, 
l/C HUUoOi proving that it is appreciated 
as "the sweetest Sunday School Song Book ever made." 

Send fur Specimen Cojiy! 

Present yourself with a New Year's Subscription to 
"TffE MUSICAL, RECORD," ($2 OO), and 
receive ten times that amount in good music, all the 
news, and valuable instructive articles. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

. H. Ditson & Co., 843 Broadway, N. Y. 



JOHN SKINKER, 115 Pine St., S. F., 

Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast. 



MONEY FOOD 

For Farmers. For Hogs. 

CHEAP PORK. 

The Brazilian Artichoke, 

Is the cheapest and best food for Hogs, being ahead of any- 
thing in existence for that purpose. 600 to 1.000 bushels to 
the acre. Little trouble. No harvesting. No feeding. The 
Hogs will help themselves if allowed to do so. 

I have eight acres of Artichokes this year, and will furnish 
seed for half the price of last year, when my seed cost me 
25 cents a pound. 

PRICE— I will send by Express or common freight. 50 to 
300 lbs. at 3! cents a pound. Over 300 tt.s.. 3 cts.; 1.000 lbs. 
and over, 2J cts. ; 3 lbs by mail for $11. I will send a circular 
with each package giving all information. Send all money 
in draft on San Francisco or P. O. Order on Hollister Post- 
office. 

Winter is the best time to ship Artichokes. Frost does not 
hurt them. 
150 tts. plants an acre. 

For further information send for circular. Address 
J. H. F. GOFP, 

San Felipe, Santa Clara County, Cal. 

THE WILSON ADJUSTABLE CHAIR, 

With 30 Changes of Position. 

Patented n the United States and Foreign Countries. 
BEST CHAIR IN THE WORLD. 



Parlor, 



Combining 




LOUNGE 



READING POSITION. 



Comfort. 



Same Chair in Cane Seating, very desirable for summer. 

Manufactured of the best of wrought iron and rivets. 
Castors made purposely for the Chair. Everything to an 
exact science. ISTWILL LAST A LIFE-TIME. 

Has been awarded Medals, Prizes and Diplomas for its 
superiority and merit wherever It has been exhibited. 

Orders by mail promptly attended to. Goods shipped to 
any address, C. O D. Send for Illustrated Circular. 

Address the Wilson Adjustable Chair M'fo Co., 
535 Washington St., Boston 



CARD. 

The undersigned having purchased the business of the 
Marin and Sonoma County Land Office, and recognizing 
the necessity for a radical change in the matter of con- 
ducting it, have made arrangements to carry it on upon 
a basis and principles such as must insure satisfaction to 
our patrons. No shading descriptions permitted; all 
guaranteed. LINGLEY k BEATTY, 702 Market street. 

Itefer to Hon. C. Palmer, Hon. C. Clayton, R. McEIroy, 
Esq., L. Shore, Esq. 

N. B.— All descriptions of farms and city and Oakland 
property for sale and exchange. L. & B. 



THE DEAF HEAR 



I 



THROUGH THE TEETH! 

PEIO KtTLY. all Ordinary Conversation, I 
I Lectures. Concerts, etc., by new Chann.h, I 

i of minim, br » wonderful K»w 8*1- 
Wnlillrla.-nlion.THE DENTA PHONE. 
I For rtmarkiUe public leiu on Hie Ki ul'-i > . on 
Deaf and Uumb-Sce ,v-,c York Herald, I 
^1 Sept. 28, n>l tWtimm Standard, Sept. 27. etc. It | 
W displace* all Ear-trumpet*. Size of an or- 
■Mf WuU-h. Srait r«r car FKF.E pamphlet. Addrea 
AMERICAN OENTAPHONE CO.. «87 Tine au, ClndnnaU,Ob> 



I 



JOHN ROGERS &. SONS, 

GENERAL STOCK AND SALE YARD, 

Corner Market and 9th Sis., San Francisco. 

HORSES and MILCH'COWS sold on commission. Also, 
dealers In HAY and GRAIN. 

Parties consigning Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
prompt sales and quick returns. 



The American Exchange Hotel, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 

Is situated on Sansome street, next adjoining Bank of California, and ia in the very center 

of the great city. 

Sansome Street is one of the finest and principal business streets in S. F. 

The Hotel is'situatcd within two blocks of the U. Land Office and U. S. Surveyor General's Office; also within 




fsifflf 



I '% fttttf iff ilipt 

4=4 'pi AMERICAN OCHaKCE r^T~ J ^^= 1 




two blocks of the City Hall, Supreme Court and all the District Courts;.within two blocks of the PostofnVe and 
Custom House. All'places of amusement are convenient to the Hotel. Street cars for all parts of the city.pass me 
Hotel every minute. 

THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL 

Having been recently! renovated and refurnished throughout is in every respect the BEST FAMILY HOTEL 
San Francisco. It hasjwo Hundred Rooms, well ventilated and neatly furnished, and being easy of access, hre-prooi 
and sunny is decidedly the Hotel for comfort and convenience for the traveling public. 



OFFICE OF THE — 



BLUE POINT HUDD AND 





MERRY, FAULL & CO., Proprietors. 
TO OWNERS OF LIVE STOCK! 

We are prepared to receive on Consignment, CATTLE, SHEEP and HOGS, charging mod 
eratelv for killing, delivery and guarantee, and making advances to shippers on receipt at our 
Yards, which are supplied with every convenience. We assure our customers a 

SQUARE DEAL and FULL MARKET PRICES 

For their product, and invite their inspection of our facilities, which are the tot m the Pacific 
Coast. We shall be pleased to give all information in our power as to Market Prices. 
Please address our 

Principal Office, No. 125 & 127 California Street, San Francisco. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrius 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signatuy. 

thus, 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ash for LEA <&• PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors WorcesUr ; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
wrw<*> ^ ; and by Grocers an d Oilmen throu-hout the World. 

To be obtained of CBOSS St CO„ San Francisco. 



P. Josra. J. Thompson. 

JONES & THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Hay, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 
Reasonable Rates. 

COUNTRY CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED, and will 
receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as soon 
as sales are made. For further particulars address as 

above, 

1535 Mission St., San Francisco. 



M. COOKE. R. J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

K5T Communications Promptly Attended to. 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cooki & Grkoort. 



PLEASANT SUMMER READING. 

THE NEW PENELOPE 

— AND — 

Stories of California Life. 

By MRS. F. F. VICTOR. 

The best delineations of Western character and incident 
ever produced on this coast. Agents wanted for this popu- 
lar work. Easj r sales and large commissions. Address 

MRS. F. F. VICTOR, 
721 Market St. , S. F. , Bancroft's Building, top floor. 
PRICE, $2 00. 



A Card to Grangers and Farmers. 

HAY, GRAIN, HORSES and CATTLE. 

The undersigned ia now prepared to receive and sell Hay. 
Grain, Horses and Cattle that may be consigned to him at 
the Highest Market Rates, and will open a trade direct with 
the consumer without the intervention of middlemen. He 
also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock buyers to 
co-operate with him. aad thus have but one commission be- 
tween producer and buyer. Address S. H. DEPUY, Nos. u 
and 13 Bluxome St., San Francisco. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to 31.60 per gallon For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL <5£ CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S F 



SEND FOR THE 
SI. 50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 principal remedies, with directions for 
U3e. Also Veterinary cases and books. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAFEL, 
Homoeopathic Pharmacy, San Francisco. 



CARP 



SALE 



FISH FOR 

— BY — 

LEVI DAVIS, 

At Forestville, Sonoma County, California, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By A J IKixo. "The latest work on the Apiary, 
embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid for $L DEWEY * CO., 202 Sansome Street. S. J*. 



32 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 10, 1880. 



SPECIAL OFFERING OF SEEDS, TREES, PLANTS, ETC. 



Apple Trees, 4 to 6 ft S8 per 100 

Almonds. 6 to S ft $15 " " 

Apricots, 1 year S'5 " 

Nectarines, 1 year $20 " 

Peaches. 1 year 812.50 " " 

Pears, 4 to 6 ft SI 6 " " 

Plums and Prunes, best for Drying, 1 jcar $15 " " 

Cherries, 4 to 6 ft $16 " " 

Quinces, 3 to 5 ft S15 " " 

Persimmon — Japanese — Grafted $18 " " 



| Olives, 2 to 3 ft $25 per 100 

Oranges, Mediterranean $75 " " 

" Dwarf Chinese $50 " '* 

Japan Plum, fine fruit, extra large trees $9 " doz 

Breeder Apricot, fine for Table or Drying $15 " 100 

Royal Gooseberry, Spineless, fruit large, free from 
Mildew, heavy and constant bearer; fruit brings 

highest price $10 " " 

English Walnuts, 7 to 9 ft, twice transplanted $25 " " 

Magnolia Grandiflora, open ground plants, 1 ft $25 " " 



Musoat of Alexandria Grape Cuttings, excellent for 

Raisins, warranted true $G per 1,000 

Malaga Muscatella Grape Cuttings, for Raisins, 

true $12.50 " " 

Emperor Grape (new) Cuttings, excellent fruit, and 

the best keeper or shipper $15 " " 

Chile Alfalfa $4.50 per 100 lbs 

" " extra clean $6 " " '' 

Cal. " Various Grades at Lowest Market Rates 

bone Meal and Bone and Meat Fertilizer, pure, at $40 per ton 



A large stock of Flowering Bulbs. Flower and Vegetable Seeds. Grasses, Clovers, Garden Stakes, Trellises, Rustic and Wire Hanging Baskets. Fancy Pottery, 

Lawn Mowers, etc., comprising the most varied and extensive stock to be found on the Pacific Coast. 



^^*Catalogues ready Feb. ist. 



IR,. J - . TR/TJMBULL & QO., 

419 and 421 Sansome St., San Francisco 



Baling 

Fencing 

Telegraph 

Telephone 

Galvanized 



WIRE 




Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

"Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 

SHARPLESS 

ISEEDLING, 

Miners' 
Great Prolific 



Glendale. 

The BEST New 

Strawberries 
Many other Ne> 
and all the i Id 
favorites. 

RELIANCE, 

Cutbbert. 

PR'DE OF TUt 
HUDSOI,, 

HERSTINE, 

Highland Harpt 

And twenty o'her 

varieties of 
RASPBERRIES. 

Fine Plants, low prices. Send for Catalogue. Address 

C. M. SILVA & SON, 

Newcastle. Placer County, Cal. 




THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 



SAFE 
ARRIVAL 
or 

FOWLS 
in 
EGGS 

Guaranteed. 




UNLIMITED 
RANGE. 

Healthy Stock 

116 ACRES 
Devoted to the 
Business. 



LANGSHAN3. I now breed this Justly celebrated 
Fowl. Send 3c. stamp for price list and circular describi- 
ng the different breeds 1 keep. Incubators. 

M. BYRE, Napa, Cal. 
t3TPaniphlet on Breeding, Hatching. Diseases, etc., 
adapted especially to Pacific Coast, sent for 15c. 



Stationary, Portable and Self-Propelling 

STEAM ENGINES 

For all purposes. 

Pony and Standard Saw Mills, Grist Mills 

AND MACHINERY. 

A Complete Outfit for Saw and Grist Mills 

Of any required capac ty. by theold reliable nmou'acturers 
and o<jn racto s. *t*te what is wanted. Circul rs free. 
COOPER MANUFACTURING CO., Mt. Vernon. Ohio. 

^Q-pa<re Floral Autograph Album. Illustrated with 
t XO Birds, Scrolls, Ferns, etc. Cjvers Elegantly Gilded 
Also, 4.7 Select Quotations All 15c, postpaid. Stamps 
taken. Agts, wanted. G. W. Bocemsdcs, West Uaveu, Ct. 



Prescott House. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

O. P. BECKER, Proprietor. 

tf-sTFree Coach to the House 



G-eo - 



CO 

Q 

m 

CO 



IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



r 
o 



2 Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 



^ In large Quantities and offered in Lots to suit Purchasers. Q 



O GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES. 

Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington Street, San Francisco. 



CO 



PETER SAXE & SON, 

IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF 

THOROUGHBRED LIVE STOCK 
Horses. Cattle, 
BERKSHIRE 

Hogs and Pisrs, 
— and — 
SHEEP. 

We can fill orders at any time for the bestfami ies ol PURE BERKSHIRES. "SHORT HORNS," and "JERSEY' 
or "ALDERNEY" Cattle, JACKS and MULE4. Spanish and French MERINO, C VT-WOLD and SHROPSHIRE 
SHEEP. t3T All at moderate prices, and perfectly pedigreed. Imp orting to and breeding on this coast has been a 
specialty with U9 for the past ton years. SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

PETRI! SAXE, ) 

a Polk Saxr. ( Address 520 Bush Street, San Francisco, Cal. 





KNOB HILL POULTRY YARDS 

Sonoma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

THOS. D. MORRIS, 

Breeder of all the leading varieties of TnoRoroiiBRED 

Land and Water Fowls. 

The greatest variety on the Pacific Coast. Eggs in 
season, and warranted to carry safely any distance. 
itSTSATISFACTION GUARANTEED. Price list free. 



£ngraving.| 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotyp- 
. ing done at the office of the Mining 
and Scirntieic Prkss, San Francisco at favorable rate*. 



TOE 
GREATEST 
NOVELTY 



The Royal Tod 
SpinningPistol. 




r* \ Paper C»pm 

I urika the t.*r i, 
ia li Id no v !>■.-■■ 
in b« ■ . 1 to ipfn i t.r Top 
iiiotit Brini Iri* Cap, or to 
lh« Cap without ipnt- 
nR In* Top. A good toy 
lor girl* or 1 ft beat, 
poatMid, for 3* ocaU. 

T. AixrN, 515 Market 
Street, San FranciBCo. 
Importer of Firearms auTT Ammunition of every description 



Tbis paper Is printed with Ink fiirniahed b> 
Ohas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 50G South lOtl-i 
St, Philadelphia & 69 Gold St.. N. T. Affent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety. fcl20 
Sutter St.. S jP J 



M. W. DUNHAM 

Just Imported 36 Head 

FOR HIS OAKLAWN STUD OF 

Per cher on - Norman 

HORSES. 




Largest and Most complete Establishment 
of the Kind in the World. 

More than 200 Stallions and Mares 

Imported from Best Stud StablM of France. 

Winners of First Prir.»s in Europe and America, award- 
ed First Prizes and Gold Medals a' the Universal Exposi- 
tion at Paris, lfc"8, over all First Prizes and Orand 
Medals at Centennial Exhibition, 1870. 

The public appreciation of it« merits is indicated by the 
great demand for stock from every part of 'he country. 
During th past twelve months, the provinces of New 
Brunswick, Canada, and the States of New York, Penn- 
ly vania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, Iowa, N hraaka, Kansas, Texas, Louisiana, 
Colorado, Nevada, California and Oregon, and Utah, 
Washington and Idaho Territories have drawn supplies 
from its Stables 

lPOnago Catalogue— finest thing of the kind ever Usucd; 
25 jtic ures of Stallions and Mares, seut free on application. 

M., W. DUNHAM, 

Wayne, DuPagre County, Illinois. 

WN. B— All Imported and Pure Native 
Bred Animals Recorded in Percheron-Nor- 
man Stud Book. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 




Constantly ou hand and for sale, choice specimens of the 
following varieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Liirht Brabmns, Buff, White and 
Partridge Cochins, White and Brown 

I. ••(rhorn*. Dorkings, Polish, 
Hamburgs. Plymouth Bocks, Oame 
and Sebright Bantams, Bronze Turkeys. 
Pekin, Aylesbury and Bouen Ducks. 
/tS'Safe arrival of Fowls and Eggs Guaranteed. "Ct 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

lisrFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to GEO B. BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box 1771. San Francisco. Cal. 



Mountain View Nursery, 

Near Cemetery, Oakland, Cal. 

Is the Largest Rose Nursery in the State. 

Our collection comprises the hest named varietle*. Our 
prises the cheapest. Strong Plants, tl for |1 ; 2ft for 14; 
100 for (15. 10O.000 Blue and Red Gum Trrcs,\er> cheap. 
All kinds of 1 REE8, SEEDS. PLANTS and SHRUliS, 
ORNAMENTAL, SHADE and FRUIT THEE8 at Lowest 
Prices. Before purchasing elsewhere please send for Rose 
Catalogue and price list, mailed free. 

P. J. KELLER &c CO., 

Oakland, Cal. 




Volume XIX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 17, 1880. 



Number 3. 



The Legislature and the Agricultural 
Interest. 

There are many things which the Legislature 
can wisely do for the advancement of the agri- 
cultural interest of this coast. We pass by the 
acts for the public good and to enforce the pro- 
visions of the new Constitution, because they 
will already be in every reader's mind. There 
are other important matters which we lay aside 
for comment at another time. We shall men- 
tion a few of the minor things, which, though 
unobtrusive, are of great moment. 

We notice that a resolution has already been 
introduced in the lower house, authorizing an 
inquiry into the possibility of the State taking 
some measures to aid the people to profit by the 
opportunity in grape culture which now 
lies open. It is eminently proper that 
something should be done toward this 
end. Not more than once in a generation 
does a State enjoy a chance to advance its 
material interests as California now has in 
the vineyard industry. This, it should be 
remembered, is a branch of agriculture 
which thrives upon small holdings, which 
will flourish upon soil unfitted for most 
other crops, which employs many laborers, 
and will open an avenue to success to many 
of moderate means who are now here, 
anxious to turn their time and small capi- 
tal to account, and to many more indus- 
trious oeople who would be glad to come 
to our State. And it must be remem- 
bered that the grape industry, whether for 
wine or raisins, is one which calls ffor 
special information, which it is exceed- 
ingly hard to obtain. More than this, 
there are problems arising constantly in 
the experience of the skilled viticultu- 
rist, which can only be solved by careful 
experimentation and scientific investiga- 
tion. The vine grower generally has neither 
the time nor facilities for this research. 
Hence, both for the instruction of novices 
and for the determination of vexed ques- 
tions, we deem it of the highest impor- 
tance at this time that the movement to 
equip the State University so as to en- 
able it to supply the popular lack in viti- 
cultural instruction and investigation, is 
one which should prevail. It is of highest 
importance now that all should know 
which are the best vines, what is the best 
way to treat them, and what is the proper 
handling of the product. All the famous 
foreign varieties of grapes and all the ap- 
proved foreign practices in viticulture 
should be tested under local conditions, and 
this cannot be done except by State enter- 
prise. 

Another important direction in which 
the State can foster the agricultural in- 
dustry is in the dissemination of entomo- 
logical information, and the encouragement 
of war upon insect pests. All our field 
and orchard crops are seriously threatened 
by the inroads of injurious insects, and 
it is taxing producers to the uttermost to 
cope with the invaders. Importations of pla nt 
and seeds have brought their enemies. The 
phylloxera has beset the vine in one of our fair- 
est valleys. The coddling moth is tunneling 
our apples, pears and quinces. The borers and 
scale insects are attacking our fruit trees, root, 
stem and leaf. Our grain fields are time and 
again rendered unproductive by the attacks of 
insects. Individual producers are doing admir- 
ably in studying the evil and applying remedies, 
but they labor at a disadvantage. They should 
be aided by the State in the employment of the 
best specialists to lead in the reduction of the 
evil. The experience of the older States at the 
East, in the support of State entomologists, has 
shown that the cost of such service to the State 
was but insignificant compared with the bene- 
fits conferred. 

It is a notable fact that no State having at- 
tained the eminence of California has done so 
little toward securing and disseminating trust- 
worthy information of her industrial resources. 
The result is that nearly all citizens are in the 
dark concerning the character and adapation of 
soils beyond their own localities, nor is there 



any indisputable evidence upon which the new 
comer can rely, and disappointment often re- 
sults. A careful industrial survey of the State, 
the results of which can be expressed in popu- 
lar language, would be of incalculable benefit. 

In his inaugural address Governor Perkins 
alludes to the fact that during the last year an 
excellent work has been begun at the College of 
Agriculture in the establishment of a garden of 
economic plants, in which a large number of 
plants proposed for introduction in this State 
are now growing. Our adaptations for the 
growth of the world's useful plants are but little 
known, and, though enterprising individuals are 
constantly attempting introduction and accli- 
matization in a small way, the process is slow 
and the benefits not generally bestowed. No 
State has a greater pecuniary interest involved 
in securing useful growths, and none has such 
varied conditions to minister to. The work be- 
gun at the University in this direction should 



proposition has already been introduced in the 
Assembly to establish a bureau to collect and 
publish full and accurate statistics of land labor 
and its products. This should certainly be done, 
if no existing branch of the Government can 
fairly be charged with the work. 

TheBe considerations are presented as worthy 
of attention. Any of them whioh may meet the 
approval of our readers should be urged by them 
upon the attention of their representatives at 
Sacramento, and in this way they may be brought 
forward for discussion and disposition by the 
law-makers. 



Horticultural Meeting. — We give an early 
mention of the January meeting of the State 
Horticultural Society so that any of our readers 
who plan coming to the city during the month 
may defer their visit, if possible, so as to be 
present. The meeting will be held on Friday, 




ENGLISH BRED LANGSHAN FOWLS. 

be largely extended and supplemented wisely I January 30th, at 1 P. It., at Y. M. C. A. hall, 
and, at the same time, generously. To prove that 232 Sutter street, S._F. The set subject for 



governments can do most profitable work in this 
direction, we need but allude to the success and 
public services of the public gardens of European 
countries, of some of the Eastern States and of 
the Australian colonies. 

The extension of the signal service to this 
coast during the last year has been of great aid 
to agriculture. At times the coming of a storm 
unheralded occasions the loss of thousauds of dol- 
lars' worth of exposeddried fruit, raisins, grapes, 
grain, etc. The General Government should be 
urged by the Legislature to still farther extend 
this work. The conditions peculiar to this coast 
are so many that more observing stations and a 
local digest of observations and deduction of 
probabilities therefrom, seem to be called for to 
secure the greatest benefits to the people. 

The statistics of California agriculture, now 
gathered both by State and U. S. officials, are 
so deficient as to be misleading. The Surveyor 
General's report seems to be degenerating. The 
last omits several of our best counties from the 
lists of production altogether, and the productive 
position of the State is thus sadly belittled. A 



discussion will be " Transplanting and Prun 
ing. " A paper will be read by Mr. C. H. Shinn, 
which, we have no doubt, will be ar good one. 
It is expected that other members will tako up 
special branches of the subject as their experi- 
ence directs them. The subject is a timely one, 
and should elicit wide interest. We should like 
to see the hall well filled. 



The Langshans Again. 

In our issue of December 13th, we gave an 
engraving of Langshan fowls which wo find does 
not fully present the characteristics of the birds, 
and in order to give the breed a fair show, we 
have, through the courtesy of the Poultry Bul- 
letin, secured an engraving from a drawing by 
J. W. Ludlow, a well-known English poultry 
artist. As the Langshans stepped into famo 
from England, the English should be considered 
competent authority on their pictorial points. 
The description in the Press of December 13th 
will be found to apply more accurately to this 
engraving than the one which accompanied it, 
and the reader is referred to that article. 

We notice that in Col. Eyre's circular for 
1880, mention is made of the Langshans, 
and the method of their derivation from 
the Orient. As these details are new to 
our readers, we quote them. They were 
originally written for the London Live 
Slock Journal: "Shanghai became a treaty 
port in 1844, but it was not until 1862 
that a light-ship was stationed off the 
Langshan crossings. Communications with 
Shanghai and the light-ship lieing irngular, 
the captain and officers landed, from time 
to time, to purchase stock. Seeing these 
fowls they purchased some, not thinking 
anything of the breed, but mor> on account 
of their size. P>ut being so pleased with 
their delicate flavor they now a id then 
sent a present of some to their fra nds in 
Shanghai. These, in their turn, solicited 
the captain and officers to bring some for 
stock. When the natives became aware 
of this, they thought they might just as 
well send them direct to Shanghai them- 
selves. Through the success of the sale 
of these birds at Shanghai, the breed be- 
came scarce in their native place, and 
the people would only dispose of them when 
they were in moult, and considered unfit 
for sacrifice; for there is, as I before told 
you, a temple at Langshan, and the Lang- 
shan is a 'yop,' or sacred bird." 

Col. Eyre, from his study of tho Lang- 
shans, gives us tho following items: He 
considers them quite distinct from the 
Cochins, to which they have been likened. 
They have more of tho Brahma shape. 
They are not so heavily feathered on 
the legs as the Cochins. The combs of 
the cocks are smaller. The hens are not 
as persistent setters and make better 
mothers. The flesh is whiter, more like 
that of a turkey. Th« Langshans make a 
splendid cross with Plymouth Rocks; in 
his experience the hens have come black 
and the cocks have the color of Plymouth 
Rocks. It is somewhat difficult now to 
procure pure-bred Langshans at the East, 
Those starting in should be careful that 
they do not get stock crossed with Cochins, 
as the Cochins cost a good deal less money. 

As the Langshans have obtained a foot- 
hold in this State their local valuo will 
soon be determined by experience, and we invite 
the communication of facts, either for or against 
them, from all breeders. 



That Turkey Talk from France.— The 
threat to our wine and other producing inter- 
ests by the proposed reciprocity treaty with 
France, is one which has rightly awakened the 
opposition of those whose industries are endan- 
gered, and the State should exert its full in- 
fluence in preventing the adoption of tho pro- 
posed measure. It is reported that tho Legis- 
lature will be asked to express itself in oppo- 
sition to the treaty and it certainly should do 
so. 

Hon. L. Q. C. Lamar, U. S. Senator from 
Mississippi, is suffering from t> utroke of par- 
alysis. 



Personal. — We received a call the other day 
from Mrs. Jeanne C. Carr, who will soon be on 
her way to Pasadena, Los Angeles county, 
where she will engage in homo-making on a de- 
sirable piece of agricultural laud. Dr. Carr ex- 
pects to be able to follow her soon. They in- 
tend to occupy their time in agriculturo and 
horticulture, partly in an experimental way, 
and will, no doubt, bring to light many valuable 
facts concerning field and garden growths. We 
shall always be glad to hear of their doings, 
and wish them all success and happiness in the 
new venture. 

Alas, Poor Popfy !— We notice by a South 
Australian exchange, that Eschwhollzia Cali/or- 
nica, is found in pasture lands there and classed 
as a " naturalized weed." Unfortunate beauty, 
you never should have strayed so far from 
home 1 



34 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 17, 1880 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

We admit, unendorsed, oplnlonsof correspondents.— Eds 



Riverside Notes. 

Editors Press:— Last year we were pretty 
generally advertised as being sadly afflicted 
with a visitation of old "Boomerang Boreas." 
As I have seen nothing in the Press respecting 
the advent here of the frost king this year, I 
thought I would just say for the benefit of 
all doubtful minds that (Jen. Shields' "Well- 
hole in the wind " is located now in Riverside. 
We have had our boom in raisins; are now en- 
joying a boom in oranges at rate of from §37.50 
to §60 per 1,000 in the San Francisco markets, 
against all competitors — demand far in excess 
of supply; and can also thankfully say that not 
the tenderest twig, so far as I can see or hear, 
has been injured by the frost. Even the lime 
trees, so tender, do not show any symptoms 
of the cold snap, except here and there a 
few yellow leaves. It blew a hard north 
wind all night and next day, and so the frost 
had not time to settle down to it. The limbs 
kept in perpetual motion were not frozen nor 
were they injured in the thawing-out process. 

The oranges this year are much finer than 
those produced last year — larger and more 
solid. 

Arrangements are being made for Citrus 
Fair No. 2. It will be held under the auspices of 
Riverside Horticultural Association, some time 
in February. 

P. S. Russell, Esq., sold thirty acres of or- 
ange trees, not yet in bearing, last week, for 
$9,000, and as soon as the papers were signed, 
Mr. Allen, the purchaser, is reported to have 
said, "I would not now take §15,000 for my 
bargain." Everybody is busy planting and 
cultivating — a veritable hive of industry is 
Riverside this season. D. W. McLeod. 

Riverside, GUL 



Los Nietos. 

Editors Press s — In traveling through Los 
Nietos section recently I was impressed equally 
with the great richness of the soil, the fine 
climate and the slight development of its re- 
sources by reason of the hard times, high 
freights and lack of markets. With this soil 
and climate there is an immense'variety of prod- 
ucts which may be grown if a market may be 
found that will bear the freight: and there is 
ample opportunity for profitable investment of 
capital in a variety of ways. 

Barley, with the exception of being a little 
discolored some years by fog, succeeds admir- 
ably in all this section, but has made no ade- 
quate returns for several years past, and corn is 
no better. As in other parts of the State many 
are in debt, and cannot go to the expense of 
changing suddenly from corn or barley to dairy- 
ing, alfalfa, hogs, etc., all of which requires an 
outlay in fences, cattle or other stock, and 
takes time to develop. What is wanted is 
some crop that will yield an immediate return 
at a moderate outlay. 

One gentleman wishes information as to pea- 
nuts, where and under what conditions they 
succeed and yield a profit. 

Another asks about Chevalier barley, now 
quoted at SI. 50 to §1.75, while common barley 
brings only one-half. Where and under what 
conditions does it succeed, and what may be 
expected of the market one year with another. 

What is the extent of the demand for castor 
beans, and does the discoloration of the bean by 
rain injure it for the purpose of making oil? 
They are docked one-half cent per pound in the 
San Francisco market, bright beans bringing 
three and one-half cents. 

Is the exportation of the Lima bean likely to 
be kept up other seasons, and is there any way 
of arriving at the probable demand ? 

Odessa wheat will be sowed on thousands of 
acres the coming season, and will at least save 
thousands of dollars that now go for home con- 
sumption; but some are putting a high estimate 
on the grade and quality of this wheat, which 
it will hardly bear in comparison with the first 
grade Chile, Australian, and other varieties of 
the interior. The flour, in point of nutrition 
and sweetness, will compare favorably with 
whiter flour, aud rank in all points with most 
of Eastern wheat. Any information about 
Odessa wheat in addition to what has already 
been given in the Rural will be acceptable to 
the farmers of this county. Tiiere are many 
here who do not see the justice of making so 
much reduction in the price of wheat and barley 
because sometimes slightly colored by fog. 

W. H. Sproul, of Artesia, has received a spring 
wheat from Maine called "The Lost Nations," 
which grows all along the Atlantic coast with- 
out rusting. He sowed two pounds of this seed 
last season, and after losing some by blackbirds 
he harvested 75 pounds, and cut it before it was 
fully matured. It was sowed the 1st of May 
and the last of July. It is a bald wheat, long 
head, straw very tall, stiff, some of it four feet 
four inches in hight and will not lodge. I enclose 
sample of grain, the shrunken kernels being that 
grown here and the plump ones from Maine. Mr. 
Sproul will test this wheat on a larger scale 



this seasou. It is said to be the choicest wheat 
grown in Maine, and makes an exoellent flour 
back there. H. E. Hallett. 

Remarks. 

[Chevalier barley, of the best quality, will 
probably always maintain an advanced rate, 
for reasons which we shall give more fully at 
another time, and, with conditions favorable to 
its growth, castor beans, when discolored, will 
not yield a white oil, because the coloring 
matter follows the oil through its manufacture. 
Dark oil will not bring the price of white, hence 
the reduction in the value of the beans. We 
know of no data for determining the future price 
of Lima beans, except that if the supply were 
largely increased, the price must suffer. This 
is, of course, always the case in the growth of 
specialties which minister to a limited demand. 
We cannot determine whether the discount in 
the value of wheat or barley which is discolored 
by fog is just what it should be justly, but there 
is no doubt that some reduction must be made, 
because consumers will not buy it for the highest 
uses. Dark-colored grain makes dark flour. 
Brewers will not buy anything but bright grain, 
because dark grain makes " black malt." There 
was a ship loaded with barley last week for 
Peru. The shippers were unusually exacting, 
and rejected all that had the least tinge. They 
said the Peruvians call it " damaged barley " 
when it is not bright. Any commodity to 
market well must please the purchaser, but 
there are certainly cases in which prejudices are 
carried beyond a just point. This is one of 
many evils difficult to overcome. — Eds. Press.] 



California Wool Production and Prices 
for 1879. 

E. Grisar & Co., of the Wool Exchange of 
this city, have issued their customary wool re- 
port for the year 1S79, which will well serve as 
a history of California wool growing for the last 
twelve months. We quote as follows: 

The wool market in California during 1879 
has been a complete contrast to that of the pre- 
ceding year. In 1878, shrinkage in values was 
constant until prices touched the lowest point 
realized since the period California wools com- 
menced to improve, while in 1879 the apprecia- 
tion in values was rapid, being accompanied 
with an excited demand, large enough to take 
up wooU as fast as they arrived. 

At the opening of the year the outlook was 
most discouraging, the manufacturing interests 
being in a very bad condition and the losses 
arising from failures and depreciation in values, 
made dealers very cautious. Nothing to give 
any encouragement occurred during the first 
few months of the year, and when spring wools 
began to arrive, very little disposition to buy 
freely was manifested by operators, although 
prices were lower than they had ever ruled 
since the extremely depressed season of 1870. 
The first receipts were unsightly and buyers 
were deterred by this, as well as by the unfavor- 
able state of affairs in the Eastern markets. 
The general improvement, however, in the East 
made itself felt here about the time receipts be- 
gan to increase, and as wools improved in quali- 
ty, the demand was sufficient to prevent any 
accumulation of stock; prices advanced con- 
stantly until they were from 30% to 40% above 
opening rates. This upward movement reached 
its climax about the middle of J une, when the 
market showed depression, and prices gradually 
declined, until a shrinkage of at least 10% on 
choice northern spring and 25% on eastern 
Oregon took place. Early, however, in August 
signs of improvement appeared and a demand 
soon sprang up which cleared the market of the 
unusually large supply of choice California and 
Oregon wools. This demand continued without 
interruption, and prices advanced almost daily, 
until fall wools reached the highest rates realized 
since 1871. Stocks to-day are exceptionally 
small and receipts are almost nominal, as grow- 
ers hurried forward their wools early in order to 
take advantage of the high rates ruling. 

Character of the Wool. 

The character of the clip was far above the 
average, and with the exception of wools from a 
few localities which suffered from drouth, is su- 
perior to that of any clip ever grown on this coast. 
From some of the middle and southern counties 
where the rainfall was very light, the wools 
were dusty and unsightly, being esoecially no- 
ticeable in wools of a year's growth. The first 
receipts were largely made up of wools which 
growers were obliged to shear early, so that they 
might remove their sheep to fresh ranges. The 
undesirable nature of this wool and the de- 
pressed condition of the market resulted in very 
low prices being realized. As the season ad- 
vanced, however, the character of the receipts 
improved, and better prices were obtained. 
Northern wools were in better condition, of bet- 
ter growth, and freer from seed and bur 
than they ever were before. Competition for 
them for a time was exceedingly keen aud the 
advance in value very rapid. Fall wools have 
been better than was generally anticipated; 
their staple was good, although on account of 
late shearing a short staple was expected, and 
there is less this year than last of the very heavy 
earthy wool, but the proportion of wool free 
from bur decreases annually. 

Spring. — The range of prices can be best pre- 
sented in the following table. The first column 



represents the opening rates and the second 
rates paid in June: 

January. June. 

Average stapled wool in lair condi- 
tion, but unsightly 12} to 14c 17 to 18c 

Long stapled in poor to fair condi- 
tion, but unsightly 12 to 14c 1" to 18c 

Average stapled bright wool in good 

to light condition 14 to 15c 19 to 20c 

Long stapled wool in fair condition, 

having few burs (southern) 12 to 13c 17 to 18c 

Average stapled wool in fair condi- 

tion,havingfewburs(southerii).ll to 12c 15 to 16c 

Good northern 18 to 19c 24 to 25c 

Choice Northern opened at 20c, but rapidly 
advanced to 27c, aud for fancy parcels 28ic was 
paid. These rates were not maintained, and as 
stocks increased pricey fell back 10%, and early 
in August large sales of choice Humboldt and 
Mendocino wools were made at 25c to 20c. 

Fall. — The opening rates for fall were higher 
than anticipated, yet they constantly advanced. 
Southern fall opened at 12^c to 13c, and ad- 
vanced to 10'c and 17c. Ordinary fall opened at 
13c to 14c, and has been sold at 20c to 21c. 
Northern lambs were later than usual in arriv- 
ing, and few sales were made under 23c, but 
prices finally reached 30c to 31c. 

Oregon. — Oregon wools came forward earlier 
than usual, and as the Eastern wools were un- 
usually good, they sympathized with choice 
California wools. Prices opened at 19c to 20c, 
but advanced in a short time to 25o to 2t>o. 
During June and July receipts were large and 
stocks accumulated rapidly, causing prices to re- 
cede to a point below opening rates, and choice 
wools brought 20c to 21c, and good lots 18c to 
19c. Valley Oregon did not come forward freely 
until the market was comparatively quiet and 
fluctuations were less marked. The greater 
part of the valley wools were sold at 25c for 
good to 27c for choice; however, after the de- 
mand began, the market was soon cleared of 
both Eastern and valley. Valley wools were 
even coarser than in the previous year, and 
showed the lack of care and proper attention to 
breeding on the part of the growers. Eastern 
wools were decidedly better, and as a rule had 
less alkali, a stronger staple, better growth aud 
superior in condition to the wools of any pre- 
vious year. 

The prospects at present are very favorable 
for an increased clip in California for the year 
1880, copious rains having fallen over all parts 
of the State, and though in the south the losses 
caused by the drouth of 1S77 78 have not yet 
been made up, still the range for sheep is abund- 
ant, aud the high prices which have ruled dur- 
ing the past year for wool have caused more 
attention to be given to sheep, and at present 
rates farmers can hardly find anything more 
profitable. In the extreme northern counties 
the number of sheep is increasing annually, and 
it is in this part of the State that our choicest 
wools are grown. The flocks are generally 
small and show what can be done if farmers 
were willing to diversify their productions. On 
the other hand the extension of railroads ena- 
bles farmers to raise wheat on lands heretofore 
occupied by sheep, aud large numbers of them 
have been driven out of the State during the 
past year. 

Wool Production. 

RECEIPTS AT SAX EKAXCISCB. 



January 300 bags. 

February 181 bags. 

March 1,078 bags. 

April 18,588 bags. 

May 29,790 bags 

June 10,307 bags. 

July 7,527 bags. 



August S.042 bagt. 

September. 17,085 bags. 

October 28,183 bags. 

November 7,732 bags. 

December 551 bags. 

Total 125,030 bags. 



Of which there was BDring wool, 08,118 

bags, weighing 20,435,400 Lbs. 

Spring wool shipped direct from the in- 
terior 3,363,889 " 

Total spring production 23,789,289 " 

There was fall wool received, 50,912 bags. 

weighing 18,780,900 " 

Fall wool shipped direct from the interior. . 1,833,111 " 



Total fleece wool 44,403,300 " 

Pulled wool shipped direct from San Fran- 
cisco 2,500,000 " 

Total production of California 40,903,300 " 

On hand Dec. 31, 1878, about 1,400,000 " 

Received from Oregon (20,303 bags) 6.9S0.195 " 

Foreign wool received (520 bales) 180,000 " 

Grand total 55,449,555 " 

EXPORTS OK DOMESTIC, FOREIGN, PULLED AND BCOLRED. 

Per rail, inclusive of shipments from the 

interior 38,107,500 Lbs. 

Per steamer, inclusive of shipments from 

the coast 3,728,108 " 

Per sail 9,056,272 " 



Total shipments 50,891,933 " 

Value of exports $9,000,000 

On hand Dec. 31, 1879, about 300,000 Lbs. 

Difference between receipts and exports has 
been taken by local mills and scouring com- 
panies. The weights of receipts and exports are 
gross. The usual tare of bags received is about 
three pounds each; on pressed bales shipped, 
14 to 10 pounds each. 



The Outlook. — Falkner, Bell & Co., of San 
Francisco, have issued their annual Wool and 
Live Stock Circular, from which we glean the 
following: The present position of the market 
for the next spring clip is moat favorable. We 
can hardly look for any permanent great ad- 
vance on the present range of prices at consum- 
ing centers, but we may reasonably expect a 
few years of greater prosperity to the wool grow- 
ing interest than there has been for some time. 
Good bands of wethers are now held at §2.25(5; 
§3.50, aud breeding stock at §1.75(5 §2.50 per 
head. Basing our calculation on the wool prod- 
uct, we estimate the total number of sheep in 
California at this date at about 5,500,000 head. 
The annual consumption of fat stock we place 
at 1,250,000. The season we are now entering 



upon is opening favorably, and with the likeli- 
hood of remunerative prices for the spring clip 
of wool we anticipate a good year for the sheep 
farming interest of the State. 

14of\ticJlt0i\e. 

Fresno Horticultural Notes. 

From the writings of Prof. W. A. Sanders, in 
the Fresno Republican, we shall collect some 
notes of experience with fruits in his part of the 
San Joaquin valley 

Strawberries. — The writer declares that the 
old standby Wilson's Albany seedling is the 
best. His plan of culture is as follows: Select 
a piece of ground perfectly level; plow into 
ridges three feet apart, by throwing four fur- 
rows together and leaving a double furrow, 
eighteen inches or more in depth, below the 
ridges; set your strawberry vines a foot apart 
on the top of the ridges; fill the furrows round- 
ing up full of stable manure (using part straw if 
manure is scarce), leaving only a hand-breadth 
uncovered on the top of the ridges where the 
vines are set; then turn on the water in the be- 
ginning of the dry season, filling up the ditches 
anil completely saturating the manure, leaving 
only a few inches of the top of each ridge out of 
water. Such an irrigation lasts for twenty days 
here on my farm, when it must be repeated. 
This is all the work you have to do; no hoeing, 
no plowing out, no cutting off of runners, only 
irrigate and pick your berries. In our climate 
one square rod of ground treated in this way 
will give a larger return, whether the fruit be 
for market or use, than five square rods of ordi- 
nary culture. Vines transplanted from such 
rows possess a vigor and beautifulness that 
'twould take two years to develop in the dwarf, 
burnt-up things sold from runners of the ordi- 
nary strawberry bed. 

Utah Wild Currants. — Those who came to 
California when I did, in the days of ox teams, 
dust and alkali, need no description of the Utah 
currants. Along the creek bottoms, in the hot- 
test and driest parts of Utah and Nevada, how 
after our day's travel we'd take our buckets 
and fill them with the large luscious blue, yel- 
low or black currauts, aud how delicious they 
were with our bacon, beanB and hard bread, are 
matters that no old Californian can forget. For 
years I tried to get a start of these bushes. 
After repeated failures, two years ago I suc- 
ceeded, aud was rewarded last year by a supply 
of the well-remembered currauts of twenty 
years ago. They yield well and seem to be 
perfectly adapted to our soil and climate. They 
are difficult to make grow from cuttings. The 
best way to piouagate them is by means of root 
cuttings, which must be buried a few inches 
under ground and kept moist, or by transplant- 
ing the bushes. 

Mulberries. — No class of trees is more worthy 
of cultivation. They are perfectly adapted to 
our climate, are of very rapid growth, are orna- 
mental, produce valuable timber, and yield im- 
mense quantities of fruit, each variety of which 
has its special value. "Downiug's Ever-Bear- 
ing" is of most rapid growth, has very large 
leaves, produces valuable timber and yields, af- 
ter three years from the cutting, large quanti- 
ties of long, black, acid berries. One of the 
most valuable. It is easily grown from cut- 
tings. "White Mulberry" is like the preced- 
ing, only its Truit is white, small and of little 
value. Grown for shade, ornament and timber. 
"American Seedling" is a tree of vigorous 
growth. Has never fruited on my place. Not 
easily grown from cuttings. "Hick's Ever- 
Bearing" has fruit sweet and insipid, but pro- 
duced in immense quantities during five mouths 
of each year. Excellent for poultry. 'Tis also 
a fine rapid-growing shade or ornamental tree. 
"Black Persian" (Soir of Spain) M as introduced 
into the Southern States, where it is now ex- 
tensively grown for its fruit, many years ago by 
Mr. Berckmans, of Georgia. Its native home, 
l'er&ia, possesses a hot, dry climate like our 
own. The tree is of slow, compact growth, but 
'tis perfectly adapted to our soil and climate. 
It begins to bear here on my place at three 
years from the cutting. The fruit is black, very 
large, vinous, and very acid till fully ripe, when 
it is of a most delicious flavor. 

Crab Apples. — Some of these do not succeed 
here. The Soulard, Hyslop and Transcendent 
have been sufficiently tried to know that they 
thrive and bear bountifully in our county. - 

Culture of Fruit Trees.— Plow your ground 
very deep in February. Then plow out your 
ditches for irrigation. FiU them with water to 
settle the ground, and get the water-leveL 
Turn off the water, and let the ground dry till 
in proper condition to dig easily. Then set 
your trees by digging a hole sufficiently large 
to spread out the roots in their natural position. 
Tread the earth firmly around your tree, leav- 
ing the collet at the surface of the ground six 
inches above the water-level of your ditch, so 
that water may never afterward stand against 
the body of your tree. Remember that the life 
of this, and all other trees, is in their little hair- 
like roots. Don't let these be mutilated or ever 
become dry, in all the handling and moving of 
your trees. If any of these are cut off, which is 
necessarily the case in removing all but the very 
smallest trees, you should always cut off the 
top and limbs of the tree to correspond. Trees 
are never injured by too close pruning when 
transplanted, but if not top-pruned, a loss of 
root-feeders will kill the tree or very much en- 
feeble its growth. 



January 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



35 



TlfE flELD. 



Lima Bean Growing, 

The good prices gained by the Lima bean 
growers of Oarpinteria, Santa Barbara, for their 
last crop has awakened a desire to know the de- 
tails of culture and harvesting which they em- 
ploy. Although we are not fully informed as 
to the probable endurance of the export demand 
for these beans, it is quite probable that the 
high price of last season will induce a planting 
so wide that the price will be reduced. This is 
usually the case with specialties in agricultural 
production, hence we would advise our readers 
to consider this chance before going into Limas 
too extensively. However we will minister to 
the demaud for information as to the culture of 
the crop by quoting from the Santa Barbara 
Press as follows : 

Kich, deep soil yields the best crop, and the 
farther it varies from that requirement, as you 
approach the foothill slopes and uplands, the 
lighter the yield. Climate has its influence 
also, and localities subject to high temperature 
or severe wind storms are not suited to the busi- 
ness. This last consideration does not apply to 
this valley, however. 

Land intended for beans, or any summer crop, 
is plowed in the winter, and again plowed or 
otherwise thoroughly cultivated in the spring 
before planting, which takes place about the 
first of May. They are planted in drills from 
one to two feet in the row, and from three and 
a half to four feet between rows. If weeds 
start with the crop they are cut out before the 
beans begin to vine. 

In the course of their growth they run over 
the ground in all directions, completely cover- 
ing it from view. Late in the summer, when 
other parts of the country are looking brown, 
the bean fields of the Oarpinteria display their 
beauty to a good advantage. 

In October, the harvest begins, by passing a 
scythe between the rows, if they have vined 
heavily, and then cutting the main vine close 
to the ground with a short sickle attached to a 
handle like a hoe-handle. Some use a horse- 
power cutter, which runs just under the ground. 
They are then left to dry two or three weeks, 
when they are hauled to the floors and tramped 
out with horses. The floors are made by pack- 
ing a place from 50 to 80 feet in diameter on the 
ground while wet, and allowing it to dry and 
bake in the sun till it becomes hard. 

The past season has been better than the 
average, both in yield and price. In estimat- 
ing the yield and profits, we encounter a diffi- 
cult part of the subject. If a citizen of this 
place is asked what an acre will produce, he 
will say "about a ton." They are now worth 
(after they are all sold) cents per pound, and 
the anxious enquirer can readily compute that 
an acre in Lima beans is worth $130. But we 
wish to estimate the average amount per acre 
for the whole valley, and the average price ob- 
tained by the producers. Last year the crop 
fell short of 1,000 pounds per acre. This year it 
may have reached 1,500 pounds per acre. Last 
year the farmers realized about cents per 
pound. This year the average price was prob- 
ably 4\ cents. Four years ago the bulk of the 
beans was sold for H cents. Previous to that 
year the price was good. The average price for 
all the beans which have been sold in the past 
five years would probably be about 3J cents, 
and the average amount per acre for that time 
(omitting the dry year in which none were 
raised) we will put at 1,200 pounds. This gives 
$42 per year for every acre planted in Lima 
beans. The usual cost of farming is two-thirds 
of the crop, which would leave $14 net for the 
land, counting a term of five years, or $22.50 
per acre for the present year. Some of the 
best land in the valley has, by careful farming, 
produced nearly a ton per acre for the time 
mentioned above, making nearly $70 per acre to 
those who own and till the lands; but in count- 
ing back five years for an average, it would 
really be fair to cancel one- fifth of the amounts 
for the dry year of 1877. Those who have been 
long in the business will say these statements 
are very nearly correct. 



Plowing for Irrigation in Colorado. 

A Colorado farmer, H. B. Emigh, gives the 
Ft. Collins Express an account of his method of 
plowing land that is to be irrigated. He writes: 
In plowing the land to be irrigated, in order 
that it may remain level, free from high ridges 
and deep furrows, it should be plowed in lands 
of uniform size, say six rods or more in width; 
then always turn around youi land the same 
way until finished. The first year turn to the 
left; the second backing into, or commencing 
your land at the dead-furrow, turning to the 
right till the land is plowed to the right on either 
side. When there is a less fall than fifty feet 
to the mile the plow should run at right angles 
to the plain, or as nearly so as circumstances 
will permit. The water will then follow the 
plowing and flow over the land more rapidly 
than if plowed in any other direction. 

After plowing and seeding a furrow should be 
drawn down the ridge or back of each land, 
which, with the dead furrow on a six-rod land, 
gives a sub conducting lateral every three rods. 
These small laterals are a material aid in spotting 
np or finishing. 

If there are any small knolls between the sub- 



laterals, a furrow should be drawn from a sub- 
lateral above the knoll and through it. This 
will save time and labor when the irrigation sea- 
son comes, when time is grain. To irrigate 
speedily and well it is not well to run the water 
over a land more than 40 to 60 rods in length, 
and of a width suited to the quantity of water, 
so that it is well to have main laterals running 
through the field on the highest ground parallel 
to the plowing, from which cross-laterals at 
suitable angles, that the water may be changed 
and kept steadily at work. We are now ready 
to apply the water, when the season arrives, 
which will form another chapter. 



f LQr\[CdLjdr\E. 



Two California Lilies and How to Grow 
Them. 

Parish Brothers, of San Bernardino, Cal., 
write to the Gardener's Monthly concerning 
two native lilies, Lilium Humboldtii and L. 
Parryi: These beautiful lilies are natives of 
this part of California, and a few remarks upon 
their natural habits may perhaps be of interest 
and service to those who cultivate them. They 
are as unlike as lilies can well be; yet it would 
be hard to say which most charms the lover of 
flowers, the stateliness of the one, or the beauty 
and fragrance of the other. 

Humboldt's lily, L. Humboldtii, is quite gen- 
erally distributed through the upper part of the 
canyons of San Bernardino mountains, at an el- 
evation of about 4,000 feet above the sea, but 
where there are but light frosts or snows. It 
prefers the les,s steep sides of the canyons, 
growing at a depth of eight or ten inches in the 
soil, which is mainly broken stones of all sizes, 
compacted with coarse, decomposing granitic 
sand. But while found in the finest condition 
in such locations, this lily has such a power of 
adaptation that a bulb is sometimes seen pro- 
truding from a dry cliff into the crevices of 
which its roots only can penetrate, while others 
are found growing at the very edge of streams 
which continually saturate them with water. 
A partial shade develops the most perfect spec- 
imens, but those exposed to the full glare of 
the sun do better than those in deep shade. 

In March, when the ground is wet and the 
sun warm, the bulbs send up their stout stems, 
and, growing with great rapidity, are in full 
flower by the first of July. The rains are now 
over for the summer, and as their soil cannot re- 
tain moisture, they remain perfectly dry during 
their period of rest. 

The bulbs are loose and open in structure, 
with long, broad scales, and often deformed in 
shape by the stones among which they grow. 
They differ greatly in size; a bulb of two ounces 
in weight will send up a stem 18 inches high, 
bearing from two to six flowers, and from this 
they range through all sizes up to the grand 
plant 10 feet high, with more than 40 immense 
flowers, and a bulb weighing a pound and a half. 
In general appearance this lily somewhat re- 
sembles, but surpasses, L. superbum. The 
ground color of the petals is bright orangi, with 
large blood-red spots and blotches. 

In cultivation, this lily should have a well- 
drained and not over-rich soil, and not too 
much shade. A large bed which we treated in 
this way, presented hardly a failure, and when 
in bloom, was a beautiful sight. 

Parry's lily, L. Parryi, was discovered in 
1876, by the distinguished botanist whose name 
it bears, and has been found only in this vi- 
cinity; from a competent knowledge of the 
country, we can say that it is exceedingly rare. 
Should there be a demand for it, the supply 
must be mainly from artificial propagation. The 
scales root with great readiness, but judging 
from the season's growth of a lot of bulblets, it 
will probably take a number of years to produce 
a blooming bulb. 

These lilies grow in a locality higher and 
colder than L. Humboldtii, and where there is 
considerable snow and ice in winter, and they 
would no doubt prove hardy at least as far 
north as New York. Occasionally one is found 
in rather dry soil on the banks of streams, but 
their favorite location is in tussocks of coarse 
grass growing in the rich soil of "cienegas," as 
small tracts of springy ground are here called. 
They send up a slender stem two to six feet 
high, with scattered leaves, producing in July 
from two to sixteen horizontal, lemon-yellow 
flowers, the interior sparsely sprinkled with 
purple dots. They are very fragrant, and of 
an exceedingly graceful appearance. 

The bulbs are somewhat rhizomatous, with 
close, narrow, jointed scales, and are small, sel- 
dom exceeding two or three ounces in weight. 
A one-ounce bulb will produce a good flower. 
We have grown L. Parryi in ordinary garden 
soil with entire success. It ought to have con- 
siderable shade, and cannot be hurt by water. 
We believe it has not yet been offered for sale, 
but a few bulbs were distributed two years ago 
to botanical gardens and leading florists in the 
Eastern States, England and Australia, in all 
of which places it has, we understand, been 
flowered, and has excited a great deal of inter- 
est among those interested in rare flowers. 

Bluestone for Kose Mildew.— Dr. James 
Blake writes to the California Horticulturist as 
follows: Previous to this season my rosebushes 
have always been badly blighted with mildew. 
Early in the spring, I washed my bushes with a 
solution of bluestone, using about a tablespoon- 



ful to a bucket of water, and trusting that the 
plants might absorb enough without injuring 
their vegetation to prevent the attack of the 
mildew. The result has been that they are 
almost entirely free from mildew this season, 
and have blossomed profusely, although in 
former years hardly a bud arrived at perfection. 
Whether this is owing to climatic causes or the 
result of the bluestone, I am unable to say, as I 
have no horticultural neighbors. Of one thing, 
however, I am certain, that the bluestone is a 
direct poison to the mildew, as I have dipped 
some flower buds that were hopelessly mildewed, 
both on stem and calyx, into a solution of blue- 
stone, and they subsequently developed into 
almost perfect flowers. This year I shall again 
try it, applying it both in the spring and 
autumn ; and I mean also to use it in my or- 
chard to see what effect it will have on the peach 
trees, which this year suffered badly from the 
curled leaf oaused by another species of fungus, 
to which I hope the bluestone will prove a 
poison. 



P@Jiyi\Y Yw- 



The Sex of Eggs. 

Editors Press:— Will Mr. Eyre or some one else of the 
poultry raisers, please state if there is any way to tell the 
sex of an egg, andif there is please tell how. — Subscriber, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Editors Press: — There is no possible way by 
which the sex of an egg can be ascertained. 
Any claim to ability to determine the sex by 
the shape or the location of the germ or other 
method is simply ridiculous, and no more to be 
depended on than the device of the farmer who 
declared, that when he wished pullets he car- 
ried the eggs to be set in his wife's bonnet, and 
if cocks were desired he used his own hat. — M. 
Eyre, Jr. 



Fattening Poultry for Market. — No fowl 
over two years old should be kept in the poultry 
yard, except for some special reason. An extra 
good mother, or a finely feathered bird that is 
desirable as a breeder, may be preserved until 
10 years old with advantage, or at least so long 
as she is serviceable. But ordinary hens and 
cocks should be fattened at the end of the second 
year for market. When there is a room or shed 
that can be closed, the fowls may be confined 
there. The floor should be covered with two or 
three inches of fine sawdust, dry earth, sifted 
coal ashes, or clean sand. The food should be 
given four times a day, and clean water be always 
before the fowls. A dozen or more fowls may 
be put at once in this apartment, so that there 
may not be too many ready to sell at one time. 
The best food for rapid fattening, for producing 
well-flavored flesh and rich fat, is buckwheat 
meal, mixed with sweet skimmed milk, into a 
thick mush. A teaspoonful of salt should be 
stirred in the food for a dozen fowls. Two 
weeks feeding is sufficient to fatten the fowls, 
when they should be shipped for sale without 
delay, and another lot put up for feeding. If 
the shed is kept dark and cool, as it should be, 
the fowls will fatten all the quicker for it. — Cul- 
tivator. 



Feeding Troughs for Poultry.— Feeding 
troughs for poultry, properly constructed, ought 
to be generally substituted for the wasteful 
practice of feeding from the ground. Where 
there is a scramble for the food that is thrown 
helters-kelter the weak are prevented by the 
strong from getting their share until the latter 
are satisfied and food is trampled in the dirt. It 
is no advantage to fowls to eat sand, dirt or 
gravel mixed with their food. The gravel and 
other indigestible substances necessary to the 
proper trituration of their food in the gizzard 
can be given separately, and should be. A 
simple trough may be made, defended by slats 
placed vertically on a convenient angle, with 
spaces sufficient for the passage of the head, 
thus preventing the trampling and soiling of the 
food, which will not be wasted, as in the case 
where it is thrown carelessly on the ground. 



Preserving Eggs. — The Backer und Condilor 
Zeitung has put to a practical test a system of 
preserving eggs which has been lately recom- 
mended, and finds it to answer extremely well. 
On March 27th of last year the eggs were placed 
for an hour in a solution of 50 grammes of sali- 
cylic acid and a little spirits of wine, diluted 
with one liter of water, and afterwards packed 
away in bran in the cellar. At the end of June 
they were found in perfect condition and as 
well flavored as if just fresh laid. Autumn- 
laid eggs thus treated should keep equally 
good for a much longer time, as they would 
have all the advantage of colder weather in 
their favor. 



A Piece of Alum. — Do breeders know that 
there is great virtue in a piece of alum, espec- 
ially in the fall and spring months ? Preven- 
tion is always preferable to cure, and, during 
the spring and fall, all poultry is liable to dis- 
orders and disease, consequent upon the sudden 
changes experienced then, the most noticeable 
disorder being a laxity of the digestive organs. 
To prevent this, keep a fair sized lump of alum 
in each drinking vessel. Enough will be held 
in solution, in the water, to prevent any ten- 
dency to laxitiveness in the fowls. It is a sim- 
ple preventive, and worth adopting.— Poultry 
Bulletin. 



TtfE Swine Y¥l D - 



The Essex Swine. 

Essex hogs are now bred by several parties in 
this State, but we hear little of them. We 
should like to have all who have tested the 
breed locally, report their conclusions concern" 
ing it. The Essex swine stand high abroad, 
and it would be interesting to all swine growers 
to know its qualities in this State. To draw 
out the experience of others, we quote from a 
writer in the American Stockman the following 
enthusiastic tribute to the breed : 

The improvement of the present breed of Es- 
sex began about 40 years ago, under the aus- 
pices of Lord Western, of England. He had 
succeeded in raising a fine-boned, early-matur- 
ing, easy-keeping hog, but it lacked firmness of 
flesh; the lard and flesh were too soft for first- 
class pork. While traveling on the continent 
he came across the Neapolitan pig in Italy, a 
hairless, early-maturing, easy-keeping pig with 
flesh as hard and firm as an india-rubber ball. 
"Here," remarked Lord Western to his tenant, 
Fisher Hobbs, who was accompanying him on 
his travels, "is what we want to give firmness 
to the flesh and lard of our pigs." He purchased 
a pair and sent them home. Under the manage- 
ment of his intelligent and enterprising tenant 
began the improvement from which resulted the 
present breed of Essex swine, which are as 
thoroughly established as the Berkshires or any 
of the other improved breeds of swine. They 
are the largest of the small breeds; are ex- 
tremely hardy and healthy, standing the sudden 
changes and rigors of our climate remarkably 
well. 

They are a thoroughly established breed when 
bred pure, and have a wonderful power of im- 
parting their disposition and qualities to their 
offspring. They will not breed as young as the 
coarser breeds, but when they do breed they 
make good mothers, good milkers and prolific 
breeders. They are good grazers, will eat the 
poorest grass and thrive, and fatten on clover. 
They are extemely tine boned, and have small 
offal, frequently dressing 90% of their live 
weight, and for gentleness and quietude they 
defy competition. When they once become at- 
tached to a yard or field, they can scarcely be 
driven or forced from it. They are a black 
breed, admirably adapted to our hot climate, 
and equally adapted to the other extreme of 
wet weather, never getting sore by running in 
long, wet clover like the white breeds. As for 
the quality of the pork, no other breed equals 
the Essex, and I have yet to find the man who 
has thoroughly tried the qualities of the pork 
who is willing to exchange it for any other 
breed for home consumption. But one of their 
best qualities is their crossing on the larger and 
coarser breeds. A cross on the Poland-China 
sow makes one of the best feeding, most con- 
tented hogs in the country. The Essex gives 
them gentleness and early and easy fattening 
qualities, while the Poland-China gives them 
the size where great size is a desired qualifica- 
tion. All breeds have their good qualities, and 
above all they have their admirers. I have yet 
to find the man who has thoroughly tried the 
Essex and who has lost them through careless- 
ness or by accident, or who has dismissed them 
for any of the other popular breeds, who is not 
anxious to get them again. 



Preparing Pork Products for this Market. 

One of our city commission firms, Spear, 
Meade & Co., of Washington street, in a recent, 
circular gives some advice about preparing ba- 
con, hams, etc., which are to be sold on this 
market. We quote as follows: 

We have received considerable bacoD, lard, 
etc., from the country, which was not properly 
packed for the trade here, and desire to give 
our friends any information we can, tending to 
help them in sending their products in such 
shape as the market demands. For bacon, the 
back-bone should be taken out and the shoulders 
cut off at the last rib. It is customary with 
country packers to leave the shoulders on tho 
sides, hoping, we presume, to in this way sell 
them at bacon prices. The result, however, is 
otherwise, and instead of the sides increasing 
the value of the shoulders, the shoulders lessen 
the value of the sides; and although there may 
be only a few of them in the case, the price of 
the entire case suffers. 

Hams— Cut the shank off pretty close, and 
trim as nearly oval as possible. Sinoko rather 
deep with a light smoke. 

The shoulders, which are the most difficult 
part to handle and cure, should never be smoked 
for this market. Trim them neatly, place in 
brine, and as soon as corned ship them. 

Lard should be shipped in regular provision 
barrels, 20 to 30-inuh staves, 18 to 18.1,-inch 
head, and two-thirds hooped, or in half barrels. 
Send a pure article of oven quality, forwarding 
it as soon as convenient after it is packed. 

Shoulders should be packed in the same style 
of barrel recommended for lard, and hams, sides 
and bellies separately in the regular bacon case 
if possible, which is 19x26x45 inches, made of 
spruce lumber, with the top and ends dressed. 
Do not wrap or canvas the meats. Mark the 
correct gross, tare and net weights on each case, 
and on the head of each barrel. 



36 



THE PACIFIC BUR AL PBESS. 



[January 17, 1880 




Correspondent cordially invited from all Patrons for thia 
department. 



The National Grange. 

Eighth Day. 
We continue our review of the proceedings of 
the late meeting of the National < irange, quot- 
ing chiefly from the reports of the Grange Bul- 
letin; 

After the usual routine work of opening, 
reading minutes, etc., came the reports of com- 
mittees. 

Bro. Eshbaugh, of Committee on Co-operation, 
reported favorably upon Bro. Woodman's reso- 
lutions, for such amendments to the existing 
patent laws as will protect the innocent pur- 
chaser of articles made as infringements on 
patents, and holding the maker and vender 
alone responsible, and calling upon all State and 
subordinate Granges to memorialize Congress 
and sign petitions asking for this needed change. 
Report adopted. Blank petitions will be sent 
to all parts of the country, and it is to be hoped 
that Patrons and farmers everywhere will take 
hold of the matter and by their united efforts 
bring about this much needed reform. 

Bro. Piollet then presented the report of 
Committee on 

Transportation. 

Worthy Master: — Your Committee on Trans- 
portation and Commercial Relations have had 
referred to them such portions of your address 
as referred to the former action of the National 
Grange upon the subject of unjust freight dis- 
crimination. We heartily approve of them and 
recommend them to the serious consideration 
of the farmers and business men of the United 
(States. They have been already adopted by 
this body, and will be printed in the minutes of 
our proceedings. 

We have also had that portion of the Worthy 
Lecturer's address referring to the same subject 
before us for consideration. His words embody 
a fair and truthful representation of the flagrant 
wrongs which our laws enable the transporta- 
tion companies to impose upon the producers of 
the real wealth of our country. This commit- 
tee endorse and commend this report of our 
Worthy Lecturer, which has already been ap- 
proved by the National Grange, and will appear 
in the minutes of its proceedings. 

The partial relief given us by the National 
and State Legislatures is accepted with thanks, 
as the result of petition. There is, however, no 
substantial relief to the over-burdened farmers 
of America in any action thus far conceded by 
the legislative authorities of our Government. 

Thirteen years' experience and association in 
the Grange has satisfied the American farmers 
whom we represent that their grievances will 
never be removed until farmers are elected as 
representatives to the law-making bodies of our 
States and to the National Legislatures in Mich 
numbers as will constitute those bodies with a 
fair share of our people. 

The sacred right of petition is the legitimate 
and only way in which a minority can establish 
their claim to be relieved of unjust and unequal 
burdens. The American farmers once united, 
to act and vote together, can assume the full 
authority of the Taw-making powers of the 
States and of the National Government. To do 
this, we will avail ourselves of a constitutional 
right secured to us in perpetual succession by 
our honored sires who founded this republic. 
We have come now to consider how we can so 
act as to maintain our constitutional right to 
equality and defend our manhood. 

To this end we recommend farmers to make 
such alliance, whenever representatives to the 
State Legislature or to the National Legislature 
are to be chosen, as will enable them by their 
votes to elect from their own number an even- 
handed, fair share of representatives. Acting 
together to accomplish this grand purpose is no 
violation of their obligation as members of our 
Order. The assumption of this constitutional 
right is but the assertion of our manhood, and 
we cannot longer be dominated by party asso- 
ciations which deny us our equality, or support 
a partisan press that ignores the association of 
American fanners. 

Signed— V. E. Piollet, Wm. G. Wayne, A. 
K. Shipley, A. P. Forsyth, Wm. W. Lang, Com. 

Election of Officers.* 

Elliott Grange, No. 183, San Joaquin Co. 
Election, January 3d: Win. Ennis, M. ; Henry 
Adams, 0. ; Mrs. N. S. Misener, L. j F. Hitter, 
S. ; Robert Misener, A. S. ; Mrs. F. Ritter, C. ; 
James Lamb, T.; H. H. West, Sec'y; Charley 
Lamb, G. K. ; Mrs. J. Lamb, Ceres; Mrs. W. 
Ennis, Pomona; Miss Ella Misener, Flora; Mrs. 
H. H. West, L. A. S. Installation Jan. 17th. 

Magnolia Grange, No. 201, Grass Valley, 
Cal. — Election Dec. 13th. Installation Jan. 1st: 
Eugene Calvin, M. ; D. Bilderback, 0.;I. N. 
Ritchie, L. ; G. W. Sayles, S.; Ben. Nickeson, 
A. S. ; J. R. Nickeson, C. ; J. W. Gautier, T. ; 
Jennie Cunningham, Sec'y; M. Rollin, G. K.; 
Mrs. Geo. Sayles, Ceres; Mrs. Edward Denton, 
Pomona; Minnie Higgins, Flora; Mrs. Dan. 
Bilderback, L. A. S. ; W. H. Cunningham, 
Trustee; Mrs. E. Calvin, Organist. 

•Secretaries of Subordinate Granges are invited to send, 
for publication, lists of officers as soon as they are 
elected ; also dates of installation. 



Moro City Grange, No. 27.— Election Dec. 
(>th : A. J. Mothersead, M. ; R. C. Swain, 0. ; 
J. D. Fowlei, L.; D. C. Powell, S.; R. S. 
Petty, A. S.; E. H. Smith, C; G. S. Alford, 
T. ; Sister Glennie Mothersead, Sec'y; S. King- 
ery, G. K.; Sister S. F. Fowler, Ceres; Sister 
S. A Nuckolls, Pomona; Sister J. Kingery, 
Flora; Sister F. Isom, L. A. S.; H. Y. Stanley 
and J. D. Lindner, Trustees. 

Pilot Hill Grange, No. L— Election Dec. 
27 th: P. D. Brown, M. ; N. Went worth, O. ; 
A. A. Bayley, L.; Z. Cornelius, S.; G. J. Wil- 
ton, A. S.; J. W. Davis, C; A. W. Gregg, 
Sec'y; J. P. Bayley, T.; J. Young, G. K. ; Mrs. 
Jennie Taylor, Ceres; Miss Jennie Bayley, Po- 
mona; Miss Ida Bayley, Flora; Mrs. A. Dobbas, 
L. A S. ; Mrs. M. F. Stoddard, Trustee. In- 
stallation Jan. 24th. 

St. Helena Grange, — David Edwards, M.; 
John Lewelling, O.; J. W. Say ward, C; O. C. 
Blayney, L.; J. G. Norton, G. K.; Wm. Peter- 
son, S.; Frank Hewes, A. S ; Chas. A. Storey, 
T.; H. J. Lewelling, Sec'y; Mrs. Hewes, Ceres; 
Mrs. J. C. Weinberger, Pomona ; Mrs. 0. C. 
Blayney, Flora ; Mrs. John Lewelling, L. A. S. 

Vallejo Grange. — Election Dec. 13th: J. F. 
Doming, M. ; S. S. Drake, O. ; W. Hunter, S. ; 
H. Deming, A. S. ; Mrs. A. Deming, C. ; Miss C. 
Deming L. ; Mrs. M. L. Robinson, T. : Mrs. F. 
A. Mosley, Sec'y; Mrs. T. Drake, Ceres; Miss 
E. Corwin, Pomona; Miss F. Hunter, Flora; 
Mrs. L. Wilson, L. A. S. 



Pescadero Grange. 

Editors Press: — The officers of Pescadero 
Grange were installed on the 10th of January 
by Past Master Weeks, assisted by Bro. Chas. 
Burch. The second and fourth Saturdays of 
each month are our regular days for Grange 
meetings, and Patrons generally are cordially in- 
vited to attend and enjoy the good time with 
us. Having removed the dead branches, we 
start in the new year with new life and energy, 
full of hope, with a good prospect for prosperity 
and increase of strength. With perfect har- 
mony and unity of purpose, we expect improve- 
ment for ourselves and a contribution of 
strength to our Order. I. C. 8. 

Pescadero, Cal. 

Stockton Grange. — Editors Press: The 
officers of Stockton Grange, No. 70., P. of H., 
will be installed on Saturday, the 17th inst., in 
Pioneer Hall, Stockton, San Joaquin Co. After 
the installation there will be a good, old-fash- 
ioned harvest feast, to which all Grangers are 
invited with their friends. The proprietors 
and editors of the Rural are cordially invited. 
— Wm. G. Phelps, Secretary. 

Resolutions of Respect. 

MORO CITY GRANGE, No. 27, has adopted resolutions 
of regret at the death of Bro. W. A. Rbctor, in whose de- 
parture hence "the Grange has lost a worthy member, the 
county a good citizen, the church a faithful and zealous 
Christian, and his wife and children a kind-hearted and 
affectionate husbiuid and father." — A. J. Mothersead, H. 
Y. Stanley and N*. Nuckolls, Committee. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

Frost-Bittkn Plants. — Cor. Oakland 
Tribune: Whenever your plants of tender trees 
have been cut by the frost at night, try and re- 
move the frost as soon as possible. Cold water 
poured gently over the tree or plant for a short 
time before the sun strikes the plant will re 
move all traces of frost. If your plant or tree 
has been injured, as soon as the sun strikes it 
use you knife freely and remove all traces of its 
work, for it will be death to the balance of the 
plant as certain as letting a diseased limb re- 
main on the person when mortification has taken 
place, I have seen fine trees and plants, where 
the frost had injured a small part of the body, 
entirely killed by leaving the frozen part on. A 
deadly acid is caused which generates in the 
tree after freezing, and will follow to the root of 
plant or tree. 
BDTTE. 

Plowing. — Chico Record, Jan. 10: The 
farmers are busy plowing in every direction. 
But little sowing is beingdone, however, but when 
more favorable weather makes its appearance, 
seeding will be pushed ahead with vigor. As a 
general thing farming operations are one month 
behind this season. 
COLUSA 

Coyotes. — Sun, Jan. 10: Hon. T. J. Hart 
informs us that quite a number of persons re- 
siding in the foothills, have written him and 
asked that he draw up a bill allowing districts 
to offer a reward for coyote scalps. No special 
law can be passed on the subject, but under the 
new Constitution it can be done by the Board 
of Supervisors. The Legislature will have to 
pass some general law, putting in force the laws 
passed for different localities by the Supervisors, 
and we suggest to wool growers that they sim- 
ply call Senator Glascock's attention to the mat- 
ter. Apropos of this subject we clip the fol- 
lowing from the Red Bluff Sentinel: "From 
Supervisor Hightower, we learn the depreda- 
tions of the coyotes in the foothills between 
Thomes Creek and Stony Creek are so daring 
that flocks of sheep which are situated within 
150 yards of the farm-house are visited by these 
pests, and the neighborhood is aroused in war 
against the varmints. At a meeting held by 



stock raisers in that section a short time ago, a 
reward of §5 per scalp was authorized to be 
paid, which with the county reward of .?2 will 
make the total worth of this marketable game 
$7. Where are our hunters and trappers ?" 
LOS ANGELES. 

Frost Reports.— Express, Jan. 10: The in- 
jury to young orange trees occasioned by the 
frost is less serious in thia city and vicinity than 
statements heretofore made would indicate. 
Mr. Dana B. Clark, who has had occasion to ex- 
amine carefully many of the nurseries, reports 
the total loss at less than 10%, and this is con- 
fined mainly to budded trees, which were irri- 
gated late in the season, producing a forced 
growth of tender shoots, unable to resist the 
severe cold. Seedlings, which received less at- 
tention, became hardened, and rendered less 
susceptible to the frost, and are comparatively 
little injured. The most serious loss is in the 
Co operative nursery, where the budded trees 
were forced forward by irrigation, the conse- 
quence being that about one-fourth of them are 
killed down below the bud. About one-half 
are more or less injured, and one-fourth are lit- 
tle hurt. Of those partly cut down, many will 
be in as good condition for transplanting in Feb- 
ruary and March, as if they had not been ex- 
posed to frost, as the tops would in any event 
have to be cut off, and as it is, the wood will 
harden up with less draft upon the vitality of 
the tree than if the sap had continued to go into 
new growth instead of being confied to the body 
of the tree. The large orders for young trees 
received from Sacramento and other points, 
will be filled without difficulty. 
MENDOCINO. 

Rainfall at Pomo. — Editors Press: Rain- 
fall at this place to Jan. 1st: Aug., .60 inches; 
Sept., .00; Oct., 1.83; Nov., 0.45; Dec, 9.20; 
Total, 18.08 inches.— Z. W. Bransford. 
MONTEREY. 

Monterey Churches. — In commenting on 
our correspondent's statements concerning the 
churches in Monterey, the Castroville Aryus 
says: "There is a Protestant Episcopal church 
at Monterey, in which services are regularly 
held, and the attendance at the Catholic church 
is uniformly large." 
NAPA. 

Pruning. — Cor. Reyister: Pruning in the 
vineyards has now fairly commenced and will 
be pushed as rapidly as the weather.will permit. 
N EV ADA. 

Remarkable Shower of Worms. — Tran- 
script: A strip of country nearly half a mile 
wide, lying between L. Dulac's ranch and this 
city, was visited by a peculiar storm yesterday 
morning at about eight o'clock. Mingled with 
the snow and rain that fell were myriads of 
strange looking worms. They came down by 
the million, covering the snow so completely 
that one could not walk within the infested 
district and avoid treading on them. Mr. Dulac 
captured a large number of the visitors, and 
brought several of them to the Transcript office 
in a bottle. The specimens on our table vary 
in length from one to two inches, and about a 
sixteenth of an inch in diameter. They are in 
color nearly white and their bodies are trans- 
parent. Several worm sharps have been con- 
sulted, but none of them were able to recognize 
any familiar feature in these slimy inoffensive 
looking immigrants. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Citrus Trees. — Bee, Jan. 10: Hereabouts, 
despite the cold weather and frost, the orange 
trees have not suffered any this season, which 
would indicate that Sacramento is as good a 
place for their growth as any part of the State. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Olive Crop not Short. — News, Jan. 10 : 
We examined the olive trees on the town place 
of Frank A. Kimball in National City. Instead 
of there being a failure of the crop, as reported 
in a certain paper, ostensibly on the authority 
of Mr. Kimball, which was untrue, the crop is 
a good one for young trees, they being, appar- 
ently, almost ready to succumb to the weight of 
the fruit. We were not in the other orchards 
of Mr. K., of which he has three, some little 
distance off, but we understood from him that 
they were all doing well. His total planting 
amounts to something over 2,000 trees up to this 
time, with some 10,000 in the nursery ready, or 
about ready to be transplanted. 

Bees at Julian.- — Julian Cor. : About one- 
half of the stock of bees have died off, but the 
rain of last month caused the manzanita to 
bloom, which helps the bees very much. Apia- 
rists have neglected their btejjfor these last two 
years on account of the low price of honey. It 
is no uncommon thing to go by apiaries and see 
hives of bees lying scattered about, the house 
locked, and the owner miles away at work and 
anxious to sell. From the price at which honey 
is quoted in the market and the present price of 
sugar I think the bee business will be looking 
up from this forward. Bees should not be neg- 
lected now, for at the present low price there are 
some making money in the business. 

The Frost. — Union: Yesterday morning 
was another of those cold frosty mornings not 
at all peculiar to the climate and section. The 
thermometer at 4:20, the first observation taken, 
stood at 45°. We have examined the trees on 
the premises of Mr. Asher, and found that his 
bananas had been severely touched, but that 
the oranges, lemons and limes had almost 
entirely escaped. In the line of shrubbery, the 
pointsetters suffered, as did a few other articles, 
but the injury was slight. It is believed that 
all the banana trees will resuscitate. A gentle- 
man who has resided in Florida tells us that it is 



no uncommon thing for the trees there to be as 
badly touched as they have been here, and that 
they always came out. 
SAN MATEO. 

Plow Factory Burned.— Half Moon Bay 
Cor. Redwood Times: R. I. Knapp's plow shop 
took fire, and before any assistance could be 
rendered the whole building was one mass of 
flames. All the fencing, shed and barns near 
the blacksmith building were torn down. The 
building was owned by P. P. Quinlin; no insur- 
ance. Mr. R. I. Knapp, who is a heavy loser, 
had no insurance, though his heavy iron tools 
and steel may have been saved so that they' can 
be used again. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

^ Mammoth Carrots.— Advocate, Jan. 10: Mr. 
E. W. Steele, of Messrs. Steele Bros., exhibited 
a few carrots in town this week, grown by him 
on their ranch, two of which he left at this 
office, which weighed about ten pounds each, 
and measured one foot ten inches and two feet 
five inches in length, respectively. Messrs. 
Steele Bros, have demonstrated, by weighing 
the amount produced from one acre of ground, 
that the yield was over two thousand bushels to 
the acre. They have several acres planted in 
carrots, which are grown and used as feed for 
stock. The Steele Bros, have several thousand 
acres of land which will produce as large a yield 
of this and similar vegetables as is mentioned in 
this instance. 
SANTA BARBARA 

Beekeepers' Meeting. — Press, Jan. 10: The 
regular monthly meeting of the Beekeepers' 
Association M as called to order at 2 P. M. on 
Saturday, President Gilchrist in the chair. It 
being the close of the yearly term, the reports 
of the Secretary and Treasurer were read and 
approved. President Gilchrist then made a 
very pleasing farewell address, reviewing the 
past season's work. The Association then pro- 
ceeded to the election of officers for the ensuing 
term, resulting in the re-election of the old 
Board, viz. i President, J. C. Gilchrist; Yice- 
President, W. F. Spring; Secretary, Frank 
Flint; Treasurer, P. J. Barber. The Secretary 
was instructed to open communications with all 
the associations of the southern counties in re- 
gard to business of special interest to apiarists. 
The meeting then adjourned till the first Satur- 
day in February. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Gilroy Cheese Interest. — Advocate, Jan. 
10: The dairymen who were despondent over 
the state of the cheese market the early part of 
the year, and disposed to retire from the busi- 
ness to give attention to more profitable pur- 
suits, have been made happy by the growing 
public favor exhibited for Gilroy cheese, and by 
the rapid rise in its market value. Cheese mak- 
ing for the past few months has probably been 
the most profitable industry in this valley. 
SOLANO. 

Farming Notes. — Dixon Tribune, Jan. 10: 
Grain which was sown before the first rains, 
and has now been some time above the ground, 
is looking yellow, and has not grown percepti- 
bly during the cold weather; but it has re- 
ceived no real injury and may be considered 
very promising. The stand is good. More 
winter plowed land will be put in around these 
parts the present season than for several years 
past. Our farmers have the leeway of three 
poor years to make up, and of course they want 
to spread as much sail as possible; besides, sum- 
mer-fallowing has not proved of as much advan- 
tage the last two yeai* as it formerly did, which 
is another reason there is more plowing. 

SONOMA. 

Russian River. — Flay, Jan. 8: The heavy 
frosts are no doubt over, in the Russian River 
section, and from this on till summer we may 
anticipate only intermittent rain storms of 
greater or less severity, with accompanying 
high water, followed at once by long spells of 
warm, sunny, growing weather. The hills, and 
the fields where grain or grass has been sown, 
are already green, the buds on trees and shrubs 
are swelling, and soon the perfume of wild 
flowers and domestic blossoms will pervade the 
air. In a few cases where lambs came during 
the past frosty weather, old sheep and lambs 
both died, causing heavy loss to two or three 
of our large wool growers. But in most cases 
the lambs are coming only now, and are doing 
well. Along the Mark West, and very gener- 
ally on the creek and river bottoms round 
about, the old and careful farmers have not yet 
seeded; first, holding back on purpose to avoid 
packing of the soil, rotting, drowning or cheat- 
ing of the grain that has been common in sea- 
sons past, and lately they have held back be- 
cause they had to. But now the plows and 
drills will be running and the prospect is good 
for a broad acreage. Those, however, who did 
seed early have fine looking fields of grain six 
inches high. 

Truett-Zaber Sheep Ranch. — The success 
of wool over grain in our small valleys in the 
past and the good prospect for continued pros- 
perity, not only induces our grain raisers to 
ong for sheep but inspires sheep men to enlarge 
their folds. Messrs. Roland Truett and J. H. 
Zaber, sheep men, in an endeavor to enlarge 
their business, have absorbed and consolidated 
the acres around them till they now own and 
control 10,000. They are mountain grazing 
lands, extending from the Geysers down the 
north side of Pluton (Big Sulphur) creek to 
Squaw creek, to Little Sulphur and within five 
miles of Cloverdale. They have been offered 
30 cents a pound in Healdsburg already for 
their spring clip of 1880; an exceedingly profit- 



January 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUB JIL PB1SS. 



able rate, as 15 cents is considered better than 

wheat at 1^ cents. 

TUOLUMNE. 

Editors Press:— This county is enjoying a 
great variety of climates — frost, storm, sunshine 
and pleasant weather. The crops hold their 
own amidst the many changes occurring. Yine- 
yardists are trimming vines thus early — the wis- 
dom gained by experience. It has been the 
general custom to trim vines in February, and 
even later. Additions to vineyard and orchard 
are now in order. The very best varieties only 
are in demand. A few years will double up 
present supply. In fact we cannot foresee the 
probabilities or possibilities of the future of 
fruit culture in these foothills. The waters of 
the great rivers will be closer utilized for irri- 
gation; the old placer diggings will be filled 
up and converted into an Eden of beauty; the 
hill sides will be terraced and clad in green; 
school houses will arise to educate the future 
progressive population. But time must deal out 
a few more years to bring our dream to fruition. 
Every tree, every vine now planted, is adding 
to the future's great treasury; and it is a privi- 
lege to be a worker in helping to lay such a 
lasting foundation of thrift and prosperity as 
the future holds in its embrace. — John Taylor. 



News in Brief. 

The marriage of General Garibaldi has been 
annulled. 

Parnell spoke at a meeting in Philadelphia 
last Saturday. 

A new opera house at Napa was dedicated 
January 9th. 

Comanches from Texas are depredating in 
New Mexico. 

The delegation of Ute Indians have arrived 
in Washington. 

Dr. William Budd, the eminent London 
physician, is dead. 

The St. Louis shoemakers demand an increase 
of 10% in their wages. 

In county Galway, Ireland, process-serving is 
being violently resisted. ' 

The life insurance fund of the Pacific Stock 
Exchange has been abolished. 

Bogart, the defaulting treasurer of the New 
York Produce Exchange, is dead. 

A serious strike is in progress among the 
miners in the Basin of the Loire, France. 

In the Kanawha valley, W. V., the miners 
are in a state bordering upon insurrection. 

Unemployed laborers at Cork, Ireland, plun 
dered meat and bread shops Saturday last. 

The death of Lieut. Gen. Skobeloff, Russian 
Inspector General of Cavalry, is announced. 

The convention of the National Greenback 
Labor party will be held in Chicago J une 9th 

Beecher addressed a meeting in New York 
recently in behalf of the sufferers in Ireland 

Great excitement still exists in Maine, two 
State Governments now being in existence. 

Earthquakes occurred January 9th at sev- 
eral points in the southern part of the State 

Much sickness prevails among the British 
troops in Afghanistan, principally pneumonia, 

At Manuwaki, Canada, a man named Bris 
bos chopped his partner to pieces and escaped 

An unsuccessful attempt was made in New 
York recently to rob the grave of Count Joan 
nes. 

R. J. Barnet, an ex-Justice of the Peace 
killed* himself in San Jose last Thursday even 
kg- 

Since the 8th instant the fighting between 
the Albanians and Montenegrins has been inces 
Bant. 

Hon. Euoene Fawcett, Superior Judge 
died suddenly at Santa Barbara Friday morn 
ing. 

The laying of the corner stone of the new 
Masonic Temple was celebrated last Saturday 
at Oakland. 

Wallace R. White, charged with bribery 
in the Maine business, emphatically denies th 
whole story. 

Indians are fighting the whites in Arizona 
and troops have been dispatched to the latter" 
assistance. 

An attempt was made in London last Satur 
day to assassinate the priest of the Halton Gar 
den Italian Church. 

The father of Prof. Richards, of Yale Col- 
lege, was killed Friday last at Stamford, Conn., 
by a railroad train. 

The State Legislature of Mississippi are en- 
deavoring to elect a U. S. Senator to succeed 
Bruce, the colored member from that State. 

The Legislature of Arizona has organized — 
Council, four Democrats and nine Republicans; 
House, thirteen Democrats and thirteen Repub- 
licans. 

The Mayor of San Francisco has received a 
dispatch from the Lord Mayor of London, ask- 
ing aid for an international testimonial to the 
memory of Sir Rowland Hill, the author of the 
penny postage system. 

In the State Assembly, on Saturday, the first 
bill of the session was passed — an act repealing 
the so-called "Rogers Act," in regard to Water 
Commissioners. There was a long debate, but 
only one vote against the bill. 



Governor Perkins' Inaugural Address. 



We regret to learn that the wife of Rev. H. 
H. Messenger, of Orange, Los Angeles county, 
recently died of pneumonia after an illness of 
only two days. Her death was rendered doubly 
sad from the fact of her husband being absent 
in New Mexico, beyond the reach of communi- 
cation of any kind, his exact whereabouts not 
being known. 



As this is acknowledged to be a time of unus- 
ual moment in our public affairs, and as our in- 
dustrialists should be fully informed concerning 
the position taken by the new administration, 
with regard to their interests, we quote from the 
inaugural address of Governor Perkins the fol- 
lowing paragraphs, in which the material wel- 
fare of the State is discussed : 

Agricultural and Mining Interests. 
Of the largely diversified interests of Califor- 
nia, agriculture and mining are the principal 
ies of our prosperity and wealth. All 
cereals and fruits here yield most abundant har- 
ests. The soil responds to man's industry, 
and rewards his labors. Yet, ancient and hon- 
ored as is agriculture, constant improvments 
are being made in its departments, and new dis- 
coveries augment the net gains. It is the duty 
of the State to foster the agricultural interests 
by providing for the dissemination of trust- 
worthy information respecting her resources, 
the cnaracter and adaptation of her soils, so 
that the newcomer may enter upon his labors 
with an intelligent confidence in the result. 

A progressive step has been taken during the 
past year at the University, in the establish- 
ment of a garden of economic plants, in which 
a large number of growths proposed for culture 
in this State are being tested. 

Still the science of agriculture in our State is 
yet in its infancy. The peculiarity of our soils, 
seasons and climate, makes the ripe experience 
of other countries unavailable to us in our 
methods of agriculture. An unskillful and un- 
scientific agriculture will impoverish our soil 
and eventually convert our fertile valleys into 
desolate wastes. The carefully collected experi- 
ence of the older States, which constitute the 
literature of the science of agriculture, being 
unavailable to us, we are dependent upon self- 
instruction for what we now know or have yet 
to learn of the most scientific methods of field 
and orchard cultivation. The Bureau of Agri- 
culture at the National Capital is a most valua- 
ble aid in the dissemination of intelligence on 
the subject of scientific agriculture, as that 
science may relate to the laws of production 
under the conditions existing in the great body 
of States in this Union. But the peculiarities 
of condition existing in this State call for the 
evolution of a special science of agriculture, and 
as a means to that end I most respectfully re- 
commend that through our Congressional dele- 
gation in Washington, the Congress of the 
United States be memorialized to establish a 
branch of the National Bureau of Agriculture 
on the Pacific coast. 

Further, and appropriately in this connection, 
your attention is respectfully directed to the 
wise encouragement heretofore given by this 
State in the way of promoting a higher agri- 
culture by stimulating annual exhibitions of the 
highest results of industry. This encourage- 
ment should be continued under the guarded 
restrictions of the Constitution of our State. 

Mining, for a long time the principal pursuit 
of our people, is still one of the most active and 
profitable industries. Its importance to the 
State and to the nation cannot be overestimated 
or gainsaid; and it is not without pride that we 
point to the fact that, since the discovery of 
gold here, California alone has produced over 
8350, 000, 000, more than the aggregate pro- 
ductions of all the rest of the United States. 
As results are the measure of success, these 
many millions prove the importance — State and 
national — of the mining industry, and ought to 
relieve it of its supposed speculative character. 
There is a broad and well-defined distinction 
between the legitimate California miner — the 
producer of these vast sums — and the stock 
speculator who deals in paper evidences of titles 
to supposed mining properties. While legiti- 
mate mining has accomplished so much for the 
State, it must be admitted that the State has 
not done all it ought to have done for mining. 
We provided for a State Geological Survey, 
which was barren of any useful results, and be 
fore its completion a School of Mines was 
founded at the University, the outfit of whicli 
las never been furnished, and its chair is 
vacant. 

It is not due to the mining interest that the 
results of the geological survey already paid for, 
compiled and collected — such as are practical 
in their nature — be made public property, when 
no expense is entailed, except that of their pub- 
lication? What has been done we should, have 
the benefit of. 

Debris. 

In several sections of the the State a conflict 
has arisen between the mining and agricultural 
interests in relation to the debris washed down 
by the rivers. The best interests of the State 
require that this most important and most deli 
cate question should be settled upon some broad 
and comprehensive basis. The report of the 
Board of Engineers, provided for by the last 
Legislature, will doubtless furnish you with in 
formation in this connection. 

Irrigation. 

The important subject of irrigation, with 
sbecial reference to the San Joaquin valley, has 
been the topic of investigation by the State 
Engineer and his able corps, and it ia expected 
that his report to the Legislature this session 
will present some data upon which may be 
pased wise legislation. 

Freights and Fares. 
The progress made in the construction of rail 



roads during the past half century, the conven- 
ient facilities they furnish for travel and for the 
rapid interchange of commodities, have brought 
their relations to the State into a prominence 
that cannot be ignored by those occupying, or 
who would occupy, official stations. 

Transportation companies move the agricult- 
ural and manufactured productions of the world. 
Their growth has been so overshadowing that 
the earnest attention of the wisest statesmen of 
both hemispheres has been directed to the sub- 
ject of governmental supervision. In some of 
the older States such supervision has been tried 
and abandoned. In others the experiment has 
met with approval, and has resulted in a better 
understanding between the public and the rail- 
way companies. In this State we have had 
two commissions created by statutory enact- 
ments and clothed with limited supervisory 
authority. 

The railroad companies disputed the right of 
the State to interfere in their affairs, and this 
attitude undoubtedly tended to the adoption of 
the far-reaching provisions in the new Constitu- 
tion intended to regulate and control transpor- 
tation companies. 

A commission authorized by that instrument 
has been chosen by the people. Its powers are 
almost unlimited, and partake of the legislative, 
executive and judicial. The wisdom of delega- 
ting such extraordinary powers to such limited 
numbers is not open to discussion or challenge 
in this place. The people, with whom the 
power rested, have so decreed, and it remains 
for their servants to obey. Yet I trust that 
the Transportation Commissioners will not con 
sider me as exceeding official courtesy if I give 
expression to the hope that they will be able to 
effect a more harmonious .relation between the 
transportation companies and the people whom 
they serve. Some of the constitutional provis 
ions governing this subject are probably not self 
executing, and will need legislation to give them 
the effect designed by their framers. I respect- 
fully invite the attention of the Legislature to 
this subject, and recommend the passage of such 
laws as shall meet the requirements of the case, 



Revenue and Taxation. 



The highest prerogative of government, and 
one of the most difficult to deal with, is that of 
taxation. In his inaugural address in 1871, 
Governor Booth aptly said: '"No scheme of 
taxation has ever been devised which was abso- 
lutely just; perhaps none can be." This con 
dition must be accepted; but the nearest ap- 
proach to equality of taxation that experience 
can suggest must be our aim. 

The revenue laws of the State have been in 
great part abrogated, and much legislation on 
this subject is rendered necessary by the new 
Constitution. The taxation of mortgages, which 
is one of the new features to be dealt with, will 
not produce any additional revenue, and will 
only operate — for good or evil — between bor 
rower and lender. It is required that the 
amount of the mortgage be deducted from the 
realty on which it is a lien, and the proceeding 
renders cumbersome and complicated the duties 
of both Assessor and Collector. 

It is also required that all real and personal 
property, including credits, franchises, bonds 
and stocks, shall be taxed, and laws must be 
passed for the carrying out of this requirement 
Not, however, in such manner as to result in 
double taxation, to which I am most emphati 
cally and unalterably opposed. Debts due to 
A should be made an offset to a like amount of 
debts A might be ow ing to B, and the assess 
ments made on the balance only. The stock of 
corporations is required to be taxed. If an at 
tempt is made to tax the real and personal 
property, franchises, etc., of private persons 
and corporations, and another taxation of the 
stock and individual bonds, it would be double 
taxation, and, as such, oppressive and unjust, 
To prevent this, and at the same time to insure 
that all the property of any firm or corporation 
having a capital stock shall be properly taxed 
would it not be the plan of wisdom to secure 
the assessment of all stock at its market value 
to the company issuing it, after deducting the 
value of all assessments on the real and personal 
property of such company as may have been 
otherwise made. 

By this means many millions of dollars may 
be added to the taxable wealth of the State. 
The tax being paid by the company, the distri- 
bution of the assessment among the stockhold- 
ers would be equitable, while to attempt to as- 
sess the stock to individual holders would prove 
practically impossible, and result in much of it 
escaping taxation. 

Under the present law improvements con- 
structed on real estate which is itself exempt 
from taxation are not assessable. It seems only 
just that the code should be so amended that 
the improvements alone may be made liable for 
the amount of the tax. 

The new Constitution makes provision for the 
assessment and collection of income taxes in 
such cases and amounts, and in such manner ai 
shall be prescribed by law; and while I am not 
prepared to recommend immediate legislation 
upon the subject, I am persuaded that a tax 
upon personal incomes exceeding, say, §5,000, 
properly and impartially executed, would bo of 
most essential service in imposing the burden of 
taxation upon those most able to bear it, and 
compel them to aid in supporting the Govern- 
ment which makes possible the acquisition of 
wealth, and protects its possession, thus reliev- 
ing the limited means of the less fortunate, and 
the small property of widows and orphans from 
unnecessary impositions. Hut for the constitu- 
tional inhibition against exemption of any prop- 



erty from taxation, I should have been happy 
to recommend a moderate exemption from taxa- 
tion of the property of these certain classes of 
persons; but since that is impracticable, their 
burdens may be lightened by a just and search- 
ing income tax. 

Chinese Immigration. 
At the last election, in accordance with the 
statute providing therefor, a vote of the people 
of this State was taken upon the question of 
Chinese immigration — "for" and "against" the 
policy of permitting it to continue mnrestricted, 
as at present. Out of a total vote of 161,405, 
only 833 votes were " for " such immigration. 
The ballot was secret — there was no extra- 
ordinary excitement on the subject ; the result 
should be accepted as a fair indication of the 
real opinion of our people on this important 
mestion. It ought to be accepted everywhere 
as conclusive evidence that there is practically 
no difference of opinion among the people of 
this State relative to the policy of prohibiting 
the further increase of the Chinese element of 
our population. The question has ceased to be 
a political issue with us. Men of all parties are 
in perfect accord that emigrants from China are 
a curse to this country, and that some adequate 
restriction upon their coming ought to be im- 
posed without delay. 

An experience of thirty years has convinced 
them that immigrants from China do not and 
cannot assimilate with our peoplo. They come 
hither without families, with no accurate ideas of 
free government or of christian civilization; 
they retain their native dialects, their national 
prejudices, and even their race costumes. They 
take no interest in our political affairs, and 
manifest no desire to be identified permanently 
with the country, as do immigrants from other 
parts of the world. They are handicapped by 
labor contracts which reduce them to a condition 
worse than slavery, for the servitude cannot be 
abolished. Their contracts cannot be annuled 
by our laws, because they are founded upon the 
laws, customs and religious prejudices of China. 
The result is to renew ill another form the "irre- 
pressible" conflict between free and servile 
labor, which has already cost us one civil war. 
Hence the people of California say: Here is a 
new problem in American politics. Our repub- 
lican government has extended its jurisdiction 
across the continent and stands face to face with 
the oldest civilization known to history. It 
confronts the most populous nation in the world 
a country so populous that numbers equal to 
the entire population of the Union could be 
spared and their absence scarcely noticed. In 
all the Pacific States and Territories the popu- 
lation is less than one million and a half — utter- 
ly insignificant when compared to the 400,000,- 
000 in China. It costs much less for the immi- 
grant from that country to reach this State than 
it does for the immigrant from Europe, or even 
from the older States of the Union. 

Already nearly one- third of the men among 
us who make their living by their daily toil are 
Chinamen — Chinamen without families to sup- 
port, while most of the white laborers have 
wives and children to provide for. In this 
country the family is the unit of society. It is 
the family that makes the home, and the homes 
of our people are the citadels of our liberty. It 
is there that respect for law and the love of 
freedom are fostered until they become so much 
a part of the nature of the child that when he 
reaches manhood he is a useful portion of the 
political fabric. The Chinese know nothing of 
this American home culture, and we believe 
they are incapable of comprehending it. Hence 
they can never become American citizens in the 
true sense of the word. Bound in servitude, 
they differ radically from the class of immigrants 
for whom our ancestors entertained so friendly 
a feeling, and whom we have always received 
with hearty welcome. A new evil arises, for 
which we must provide a new remedy; that 
remedy we believe is to restrict the immigration 
of that class of people; and it is for the Federal 
Government to apply it. The expression of 
opinion through the vote lately taken was in- 
tended for the purpose of influencing such ac- 
tion, and it is to be hoped that it may have that 
effect. 

While we must look to the General Government 
for the complete redress of this evil, the people 
have attempted, in the New Constitution, to 
find some relief through the action of the State 
Government, by directing certain measures to 
be applied. The attention of the Legislature is 
therefore respectfully invited to this subject, 
with the assurance that whatever can be prop- 
erly and legally done in this behalf by the State 
shall have my hearty co-operation. 

Land Monopoly, 
One great source of our success and prosperity 
as a nation is that, under a wise system, the 
public lands have been disposed of in small 
tracts to actual settlers. Attaching men to the 
soil by ownership creates an independent and 
intelligent population. While there are large 
areas of dry and desert lands that cannot be 
cultivated without large expenditures for costly 
works of irrigation, and large areas of swamp 
lands unavailable for agriculture until vast sums 
are expended in their reclamation, yet, wherever 
by legislation men have been enabled to mono- 
polize and reduce to private ownership large 
tracts of farming land for purposes of specula- 
tion, it has been in opposition to the wise policy 
of the founders of the Republic, who sought to 
give every man wishing to cultivate the soil as 
much land as would support him and his family, 
and no more. 

In the acquisition of California from Mexico 

Continued on Page 44, 



38 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 17, 1880. 




The Grizzly. 

[Written for the Riral Press by "Aston. "1 

In the early dawn of an April day — 
Bright April, near to her sister May— 
Our blankets were spread and our horses tied, 
Ob a grassy slope of the mountain side. 

Dear land ! we remember the purple light - 

The fading Irate of the parting night— 

The glisteniiiK mantle and tremulous haze 

Of the mountain crests in the morning rays, 

The Bhcen and shadow and golden glow 

That came to the pines on the slopes below; 

The lake, and the islet's misty vail, 

The dusky flocks of the crested quail, 

And the sounds of the earth, and the sounds of theskv, 

On that April dawn in the days gone by. 

We remember a trample, and snort and stamp, 

And the sudden haste of the stirring camp; 

For our mustangs surged on the straining strings, 

That held them fast in the grassy rings; 

Plunged, snorted and trembled, ;ind trampled theground 

And we knew that a panther or bear was around. 

We sprung to their stakes at the thrilling cry: 
"A grizzly! On with the saddles! Fly!" 
He stood in the shadow, gray and grim- 
Huge in body and gaunt of limb- 
Surveying our camp with a careless air, 
The very ideal of a grizzly bear. 
The riders are roadv— the mustangs wheel. 
And bound and plunge at the urging steel; 
And bruin stampedes, with a snort and rush, 
For the chapparal and the tangled brush. 

Pacheco, ahead of the tearing rank. 
On a straining steed with a bleeding flank. 
With powerful whirl and skillful throw, 
Threw his lasso over the flying foe. 
The Saxon nerve and the native skill, 
And the Alisan trained to the rider's will, 
And the slender strands of the yielding hide, 
That would quiver and lengthen, but not divide, 
Were a kind of brake to the grizzly's speed, 
And a permanent stop to his wild stampede. 

At the edge of the brush which he sought to gain, 
Bruin leaped and struggled and raved in vain; 
For the Alisan, cool in the deadly fight, 
Kept the slender bond of union tight, 
And sometimes, in spite of the grizzly's strength. 
Flung him over and over, thrice his length; 
Evaded his plunges, as if in play, 
And held him there at an angry bay. 

The gathering horsemen closo around 
The angry brute, In the trampled ground, 
And the loops of their strong rialas grasp 
The tcrrib c paws in a deadly clasp, 
Prostrate and helpless the grizzly lies. 
With a fiendish light in his blazing eyes; 
He died in the struggle, fierce and grim; 
Our morning chase was a death to him; 
And we carried in triumph the great gray hide, 
To our mossy camp on the mountain side. 

I remember the zest for the meal delayed — 

The boisterous rids to the camp and shade. 

Our world was before, and the world was fair, 

When we came from the chase of that fierce old bear. 

The pitiless years pass by and by — 

They wither the heart and dim the eye; 

But memory still with a kindly hand 

Leads us back to our youth in the golden land. 

San Diego, Cal. 



Killing in the Moon. 

There used to be, when I was a boy — which 
was once upon a time — a good many men, and 
women, too, who believed in the moon. It 
seemed as if some of the women did really be- 
lieve there was a man in it, who controlled 
their destinies, to some extent; and the men, 
too, were just as bad. They couldn't have been 
worse if they had believed there was a woman 
in it, too. It would not do to kill pork in the 
oWof the moon, nor to sow onions in the new of 
the moon; for if they did the first, the pork 
would shrink in the pot, and if they did the 
last, the onions would not bottom, or be sub- 
ject to some disagreeable infirmity or other; and 
moreover, it wouldn't do to cut the children's 
hair, unless the moon was just right. 

Men and women are growing wiser, we all 
admit, yet we haven't all outgrown our belief in 
the moon. A great many believe in it yet to 
some extent, and to show that their belief may 
not be ill-founded after all, I will cite the follow- 
ing case: 

There lived, in the days of my boyhood, an 
old — at least they seemed old to me — couple, 
in the same part of the town that 1 inhabited. 
I used to go to see them quite often — Uucle 
Zack, as we used to call him, being so accom- 
modating, and Aunt llhody such a good old 
soul. They were just comfortably to do, and 
nothing more. 

Uncle Zack tilled a little land, kept a cow and 
pig, and worked out a part of the time for the 
neighbors whe were better off than he, though 
there were certain odd times in the summer 
when he himself had to have a hired man. 
Neither Uncle Zack nor Annt Rhody were very- 
well read, and Aunt Rhody, in particular, be- 
lieved most firmly in the moon. Uncle Zack, 
of course, admitted that it did make a differ- 
ence, yet there were times when he chose to ac- 
cept the difference, though it were against him, 
rather than go out of his way. 

Late one fall— only a few days before Thanks- 
giving — he was already to kill a nice large hog, 
which was to furnish his year's supply of pork, 



when both he and Aunt Rhody suddenly re- 
membered that it was in the old of the moon. 

" You wouldn't wauter kill him in the old of 
the moon, Zacheus," she said, "of course." 

" But I'll have to, Khody, or we won't have 
no spare rib for Thanksgiving." 

"I'd rather go without, Zacheus, as fur's I'm 
concerned. I wouldn't kill him till after the 
moon changes, any way, if 1 were you." 

"Wall, Khody, you ain't me; if you was you'd 
kill him to-morrer mornin'. The Deacon ex- 
pects the spare rib, ye know, and we want one 
ourselves for Thanksgiving. I don't s'pose the 
moon'll make so much difference, arter all. The 
Deacon says folks are kinder gettin' out of that 
notion." 

"The Deacon's a sensible man, I s'pose, but 
I gness he don't know everything, arter all. 
'Taint likely, though, Zacheus, that he'd kill 
his hogs in the old of the moon, and I wouldn't 
mine, if I were you." 

"But I tell ye, Khody, you ain't me. You'n 
the Deacon can do's you're mind to; but I goin' 
ter kill him." 

"You wouldn't kill the Deacon, would you, 
Zacheus?" and the good woman almost smiled. 
"You didn't mean that did you ?" 

"'Taint no matter what I said, I know what 
I meant, an' I'm goin' ter kill him. You 
needn't larf at me, Rhody!" 

"I ain't larhn', Zacheus; but the idee of your 
killin' the Deacon, and in the old of the moon, 
too!" 

"Wall, Khody, you can larf if you want to;" 
and Zacheus laughed himself, now. "I'm goin' 
ter kill the old hog, anyway." 

"I would'nt call him an old hog, too, Zach- 
eus; the Deacon's a real good man, you know." 

"Of course, he is, Khody; but if I don't kill 
the old hoi/, you know, the old hog, you under- 
stand, we won't have no spare rib for Thanks- 
giving!" 

"Wall, wall, jest go an' kill him if you want 
to; I don't s'pose it's any use for me to advise; 
but if the pork shrinks in the pot, you'll know 
the reason on't. We ain't none too well off 
now, Zacheus, an' it does seem 'sif we oughter 
make things go as fur's we can." 

"Of course, Rhody, but we've allers had a 
spare rib for Thanksgiving, ye know, and the 
moon'll change to-morrer, any way. I guess 
the pork'll hold out. If it don't we can buy 
some of the Deacon, and I'll pay him in work or 
soniethin'. It won't make no difference with 
you.'' 

"That's always the way," murmured the 
good wife to herself, when the easy-going hus- 
band had left her, to make his preparations for 
killing. "He thinks 'twont make no difference 
with me, just as if a woman wasn't nobody." 

A deep sigh followed, which was succeded by 
a half-formed wish that she was a man. But 
that wish was checked when she thought that, 
if she were a man she would have to asso- 
ciate with men, so many of whom, she well 
knew, were not what they ought to be. 

"I'm thankful, arter all, that I hain't got 
only one on 'em," she murmured, "and that he 
ain't the worst one that ever was, either. But 
it does seem's if I might have done better." 

"Wall, he may kill the old hog, for all me; 
I guess we shall live through it. I wonder just 
what time the moon does change? " and to find 
out she took down the almanac from the nail 
where it hung over the fire-place, and opened 
it to November. The year 1839, was in large 
figures on the cover, but the smoke of many 
fires had somewhat obscured the figures, and of 
course she knew well enough what the year 
was without looking at them. 

"It would be a little late," she said to herself; 
"not till seven minutes arter seven in the even- 
in'. Wall, I wouldn't want 'em butcherin' 
around at that time 'o night, I don't s'pose. It's 
too bad the moon didn't change to-day;" and 
with another sigh she hung the almanac back 
on its nail, adding, "but ' wat can't be cured 
must be endured.' 

The next morning Zacheus rose early and 
completed his preparations, while Rhoda, with 
calm resignation, prepared a plain breakfast of 
johnny-cake, picked-up fish and baked potatoes 
— not the worst breakfast that ever was, by any 
means, but not near so good, Zacheus said, as 
the dinner of fried haslet they would have. 
"It's too bad about the moon, Rhody," said he, 
full of good nature in the pleasant anticipation, 
"but the haslet won't have time to shrink much, 
I guess, 'specially if Sim stops to eat dinner 
with us." 

Sim was the butcher of the neighborhood, 
who was coming to help him. His fondness for 
fried haslet generally led him on such occa- 
sion, to stay to dinner. 

"Sim would know better than to butcher for 
himself in the old of the moon, I guess," was 
Rhody s reply. It was plain enough that she 
could not look on the matter so lightly as did 
her husband. 

"Wall, Khody, I ain't goin' ter talk any more 
about the moon. 'Taint likely that all our 
talking '11 make it change a minute sooner, and 
the water to scald him with is bilin' now ! That 
pint's settled. If I'd made the moon myself, of 
course I'd have fixed it all right; but you see 
I didn't. I hope you'll feel thankful to-morrer, 
Rhody, that we had a hog to kill!" 

"I'm always thankful for every thing the Lord 
gives -us," said Rhody; "but it does 8eem some- 
times, Zacheus, as if I married you ag'inst his 
will." 

Zacheus had left the table, and was looking 
into the boiling cauldron when the last words 
were uttered, and probably they did not come 
with full force to his ears. It is doubtful 
whether, in the steam and the noise of the boil- 



ing, he heard them at all. At any rate he made 
no reply. 

"The water's hot," said he to no one in par- 
ticular, "and Sim oughter be here now." 

Kven as he spoke, the door was opened, and 
Sim was there. "All ready, eh," Baid Sim, 
looking into the cauldron. "That's good! 
That'll start the brustles! But you'll have ter 
help me grind my knives, Zack. Good mornin' 
Miss Timmins! Look's if you's goin' to have a 
spare rib for Thauksgivin'." 

"Good mornin' Mr. Lufkins ! I hope we 
shall all be thankful for whatever we get; but 
I'd rather got along without the spare rib, 'fur's 
I'm concerned." 

Mr. Lufkins gave her an inquiring look. " I 
don't know of anything much better'n a good 
roast spare rib," said he. 

"There ain't nothin' better," said Zacheus; 
"and Rhody likes 'em as well as anybody. 
We've been eatin' chickens all the fall, an' now 
I'm goin' ter have a spare rib. We'll have has- 
let for dinner, too, Sim I " 

Sim understood that as an invitation to dine. 
"I've got to kill a Bhote for Widow Beaman, 
arter I've done yours," said he, "but I'll be 
back by dinner time, I guess." 

The look of inquiry was now Rhody's. " Did 
you say you's goin' to butcher for Widow Bea- 
man today!" she asked. 

"To-day!" and the look of inquiry seemed 
reflected back from Lufkins. " What about 
to-day f he asked; "ain't it a good day to kill?" 

" 1 thought you's a sensible man, Mr. Lufkins; 
don't you know it's in the old of the moon ? " 

" The old of the moon ! — what be you talkin' 
about, Miss Timmins? — the moon changed 
yesterday ! " 

" It don't change till seven minutes past seven 
to-night," said she; " I should think yew men 
were all outer yer senses ! " 

" Wall, then old Bob Thomas has told a lie 
this time. Where's yer almanac, Zack ? — let's 
see." 

Rhody herself took down the almanac and 
opened it to the very place. "There," said she, 
showing it to Sim, "what's that say ?" 

Sim looked at the day, the hour, and then 
at the top of the page; and then he looked at 
Rhody and at Zacheus with a funny sort of 
look. "I don't see how I made such a mis- 
take," he said. "Accordin' to your almanac 
the moon does change to-night, sure." 

In silent triumph Rhody hung the almanac 
again on its nail. "I ain't believin' in the moon 
so much as I was," said Zacheus. "Come, Sim, 
let's grind the knives." 

"It does make a difference, though; there's 
no doubt about that," said Sim. "But I s'spose 
the brustles'll have ter come off, now the 
water's hot." 

And off they came within the next half hour; 
and at noon Sim had also dispatched the 
widow's shote and was back for dinner. The 
savory fumes of the fried haslet made Rhody 
more cheerful than she had been in the morn- 
ing, and she even expressed a hope that the 
pork wouldn't shrink in the pot after all. 

"I don't hardly believe it will," said Sim. 
"It's coolin' off nicely and lookin' hard and 
firm. I shouldn't wonder if it spent jest as well 
as though you'd killed it in the new of the 
moon. But I'd no idee the moon didn't change 
till to-night when I came away from home." 

And so the killing was done, and both the 
Deacon and Zacheus had roast spare rib for their 
Thanksgiving dinners. And in due time Rhody 
began to use of the salted pork. Then, as 
Zacheus expressed it, he had her, for the pork 
cooked beautifully. 

"We ain't never had no better pork than 
this, Rhody," said Zacheus. "What d'ye think 
of the moon, now ?" 

"You wait, Zacheus. Don't begin to crow 
too soon. Wait, an' see how 't holds out." 

"All right, Rhody; of course 'twould be too 
much ter ask ye to give in all 't once. I'm 
\\ ill in' ter wait." 

And as they continued to use the pork, Rhody 
became very serious, very solemn, and Zacheus 
proportionately cheerful and elated. "I hope 
you ain't agoin' to be sick, Rhody, on account 
of this pork," he said one morning at breakfast. 
"You know yourself we never bad no better 
pork than this. I wouldn't blame the moon 
any longer, if I was you. " 

"The pork is good enough," said Rhody; "but 
I guess 'twouldn't happen so agin in a thousand 
years !" 

" 'Twon't be in our time then;" and Zacheus 
had good sense enough to stop right there. 

It happened that he went to the store that 
very day — it was about the beginning of the 
new year — and when he came home he brought 
a new almanac. 

"Now Rhody," he said, "we'll see what the 
weather's goin' to be this year." 

"I should think you were old enough to 
know't the almanac can't allers tell about the 
weather," was the rather discouraging reply. 

"I ain't so old as you be, by three years, ye 
know, Rhody." 

"It's fortunit, perhaps, that you ain't; for it 
does seem 's if the older you grow the less you 
know." 

"That's all owin' to the pork, Rhody; I won't 
lay that up against ye. If t had only been in 
the new of the moon, you know, 'twould been 
all right." 

Without saying more, he took Rhody's shears 
and cut open the leaves of the new almanac. 
Then, to have it all ready for hanging up, he 
went and took down the old one, to get the 
leather string that had alternated with other 
strings in doing the same sort of service for 
many years. He had some difficulty in untying 



the knot in the string, and while at work on it, 
he suddenly stopped, and gazed silently at the 
figures on the cover. After awhile he opened 
the almanac and looked inside, and after 
another while he looked at Rhody. 

"Rhody," he said at last, in a low, fearful 
sort of voice, "d'ye know what year 'tis?" 

"You ain't lost all yer senses, have ye, 
Zacheus?" 

"I dunno; but jest come here." 

With a curiously alarmed look, Rhody went 
towards him. "Here, Rhody," said he, "what 
figgers be these?" 

She looked at them. Then she took off her 
spectacles and wiped them, and looked again. 
It was quite a minute before she seemed fully 
satisfied that what she saw was real. "There, 
Zacheus !" she then said, giving him a gentle 
slap on the shoulder, "this is the old almanac, 
and I put away the new one instead; I shouldn't 
wonder if 'twas in the new of the moon, arter 
all." 

"Of course 'twas, Rhody; of course 'twas; 
that accounts for it; and I'm real glad, for your 

sake. " 

To be sure that it was, Rhody went and 
brought out the almanac that she laid away by 
mistake, and they found it was even as Sim had 
said, "the moon changed yesterday." 

It was fortunate for both of them ; for their 
lives were becoming miserable, just because 
they thought they had killed their pork in the 
old of the moon. — Neiv England Farmer. 



Women on School Boards. 

A Boston dispatch to the New York Tribune 
says: The fact that at least a few women voted 
in each of these 13 cities for members of school 
boards — voted for the first time under a legisla- 
tive act of last spring — gave the elections an in- 
terest and an importance they would not other- 
wise have had. In Cambridge, where 217 
women were registered as voters, two out of five 
members chosen on the school committee are 
women. 

In Somerville the citizens' caucuses in two of 
the four wards were attended by women, who 
assisted in making the school board nominations; 
women distributed ballots in one ward on elec- 
tion day, and were not anywhere disturbed in 
the exercise of their rights; the one woman 
nominated for a place on the school committee 
was defeated by about a dozen votes. In Chel- 
sea, women acted as ballot-distributors at the 
polls of one ward; two of the four new members 
on the school board are women; it is stated that 
every one of the 105 registered women appeared 
and voted. The 93 women who registered in 
Newton were accorded one of the four school 
committee. Their attendance at the polls is 
said to have kept many of the usual ward-room 
loungers away. Fall River elected four mem- 
bers of the school committee, two of whom were 
given to the 78 women voters. Lawrence regis- 
tered only 22 women, and nominated no one of 
them on the school board, but their votes saved 
one of the Republican nominees from defeat. I 
do not learn that any women were nominated in 
the other cities, viz. : New Bedford, Taunton, 
Gloucester, Haverhill, Fitchburg, Springfield 
and Holyoke. Thus it appeared that in five 
cities seven women and fifteen men were elected 
to the supervision of schools. 

Cehes, the Rural Queen.— The kingly pre- 
rogatives of cotton were stoutly asserted 20 to 
30 years ago. His domination of foreign ex- 
changes was generally acknowledged, and every 
other export of the farm was frowned upon as 
plebeian and trivial. When, 58 years ago, $20,- 
000,000 in cotton gave the nation credit abroad, 
the foreign shipments of grain were worth only 
one-fourth as much.' In 1850 cotton exports 
had reached a value of almost $72,000,000, 
while breadstuff's, at a slower rate of increase, 
represented only $13,500,000. In ten years 
more cotton, grown imperial in his maners, 
swollen with the importance of $192,000,000 in 
foreign exchange, looked contemptuously upon 
the slow and sure advance of breadstuffa to the 
paltry sum of 824,000,000. How stands now 
the race of the agricultural hare and tortoise ? 
Cotton has not declined, for the average value 
of its exports for ten years past exceeds the 
boasted revenue of 1860, but the grain exports 
of the fiscal year 1879 make the princely sum of 
$21(1,355,528, greater by $48,051,278 than the 
value of cotton exported in the same time. All 
hail to Ceres the Queen!— N. Y. Tribune. 



Hint to Church Door Loafers. — A young 
lady requested theCalistogianto insert the follow- 
ing for the perusal of the young, unmarried gen- 
tlemen of Calistoga, and it may serve as a hint 
to the same class in other towns : "Wanted, 
thirty-seven young men, more or less, of all 
shapes and sizes, from the tall and graceful, 
with hair sufficient on his upper lip to stuff a 
cushion, down to the little bow-legged, freckled- 
face, carrot-headed upstart. The object is to 
form a gaping corps, to be in attendance at the 
M. E. church doors at the close of divine ser- 
vice, next Sunday evening, to stare at the ladies 
as they leave church, and to make delicate and 
gentlemanly remarks about their dress, etc. All 
who wish to join the above corps are requested 
to appear on and about the steps at the church 
doors, at the time above mentioned, when they 
will be duly inspected, their names, personal 
appearance, quantity and quality of brains, etc., 
will be registered in a book for that purpose. 
To prevent a general rush, it may be well to 
state that no one will be enlisted who possesses 
intellectual capacity of a well-bred monkey." 



January 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FB1SS. 



3P 



Our Daughters and Their Dresses. 

The Dublin Farmer has a mild lecture to the 
young ladies on the subject of dress, which 
should be heeded by those who are prone to ex- 
cesses in this direction. It says: Farmers' 
families are not specially guilty of ostentatious 
extravagance in dress ; but the youth in all 
classes, farmers' children not excepted, have a 
tendency in this direction, and cannot be taught 
too early that all ostentation is indicative of 
vulgarity. The common feeling and the common 
expression among them is, "We must keep up 
with the fashions ; we might as well be out of 
the world as out of the fashion ; " but all well- 
bred persons know that fashion is a tyrant, and 
consequently ladies of the most perfect breeding 
have too much self-respect to comply with all 
her absurd demands. She, therefore, follows 
fashion at a respectful distance, and is a law 
unto herself as to what is proper and becoming 
to wear. 

With the introduction of sewing machines we 
were in hopes that dressmaking could be done 
so expeditiously that women would not only find 
more time for intellectual and social culture, but 
also could be dressed more economically ; but 
they tell us that the stitches are so multiplied 
on their dresses, and there are so many skirts, 
plaits, tucks and furbelows of one sort or another, 
that it requires more cloth and more time to 
make a dress than ever, the expense of making 
often exceeding the cost of cloth. This state of 
things would be more tolerable if there were 
any grace or beauty in all these expensive im- 
provements in dress and form. But there is 
one consideration which we wish to press home 
upon all young ladies given to extravagance in 
dress, and this is that young men will be cau- 
tious in taking upon themselves the responsi- 
bilities of a family so long as the expenses of 
living are kept up at the present high rate. 
Matrimony becomes unfashionable to the same 
degree that stylish dresses and stylish living 
grow in favor. Young farmers certainly cannot 
afford in these times to take partners that are of 
the fashionable, butterfly kind. The bills of the 
milliner and dressmaker make large drafts on 
the income of farmers long established in busi- 
ness and having some accumulated capital, and 
a young farmer just starting in life will very 
likely be swamped if he loads himself down 
with such an expensive luxury as the dressy 
wife ; hence, shrewd and thoughtful young 
farmers will be cautious in making a selection 
from a household whose fascinating young mem- 
bers are thoroughly schooled into every new 
idea of styles and fashions, and whose fingers 
are better adapted to tuning a " Collard and 
Collard " than washing up a set of milk vessels 
or dusting down a room. We are not insensible 
to the delicacies and requirements which as 
properly belong to the daughters of farmers as 
those of every other respectable class in the 
community, but we think the practice we com- 
ment on has been carried beyond the bounds of 
prudence, and we hope the few facts here de- 
scribed will be laid to heart by those whose 
incomes suffer from such excessive expenditure, 
and also by match-making mammas, as well as 
by the lovable young creatures who are the vic- 
tims of these errors. 



Chaff. 

A GOOD lady who, on the death of her hus- 
band, married his brother, has a portrait of the 
former hanging in her dining-room. One day 
a visitor, remarking the painting, asked: "Is 
that a member of your family?" "Oh, that's 
my poor brother-in-law," was the ingenious 
reply. 

A very much inebriated fellow stands at the 
edge of the sidewalk and looks doubtfully at 
the crowd of carriages. Near him stands an 
extremely venerable and dignified old gentle- 
man, who, after looking on a while, kindly 
takes the young man by the arm and helps him 
across the street. When he is safe on the 
other sidewalk, he blurts out with tipsy grati- 
tude: "Thank you. You know what it is to be 
drunk." 

It was always considered a great affair for a 
youth to teach his grandmother how to suck 
eggs. This is the way it was done by one 
promising sprout: "You see, grandma', we per- 
forate an aperture in the base, and by applying 
the egg to the lips and forcibly inhaling the 
breath, the shell is entirely discharged of its 
contents." "Bless my soul!" exclaimed the 
old lady, "what wonderful improvements they 
do make ! Now, in my younger days they just 
made a hole in both ends and sucked." 

A landed proprietor, a kind and sympathiz- 
ing person, but at the same time curiously 
absent-minded, called on a tenant and was 
asked to condole on the death of a valuable cow 
— a very valuable cow. The farmer began a 
long-winded history of the untoward event, his 
landlord soon going off into the clouds. The 
last words of the narrative were, "And, can 
you believe it sir ? when we opened her, wc 
found she had been choked by a large turnip 
that was sticking in her gullet." At that point 
the sympathetic but absent-minded landlord 
woke up and said, in rather a congratulatory 
tone of voice, too, ' 'Ah yes, and so you got your 
turnip." 



A Helpful Paper. — An old reader, J. W. 
Osburn, of La Gratiosa, in renewing his sub- 
scription, says: "The Rcral is a helpful pa- 
per — always welcome; pure in tone and makeup, 
and I would not do without it." 



Yodplq folks' Col 



Changed Thoughts make Changed Tempers. 

Nurse held up her hands. Nurse was as- 
tounded, and well she might be. 

Such a racket! such a clatter! such a dis- 
tracting time altogetherl and in the middle of 
the floor stood Master Edward. Pound, pound 
went the wicked feet. It was frightful. Chat- 
ter, chatter went Nurse's tongue; around and 
about went Nurse's brush; wriggle and frisk 
and shake went the half-brushed head; and 
how were the buttons to be fastened ? What a 
condition of things! How should it all be 
mastered ? 

Clatter, clatter! stamp, pound and chatter! 
It was out of all reason, and in the middle of it 
Clarice came in. 

Clarice was such a little creature. Her gold 
hair was braided and twisted into a little 
French twist and tied with a black bow on top, 
because mamma was dead, and Nurse knew so 
little about twining curls. Then her stockings 
and dress were quite black; and her eyes were 
blue and tender; and her lips! I wish I could 
paint them for you; but I can never paint a 
picture of Clarice. 

Clarice did not say a word about the clatter. 
She came up close to Edward, and told him to 
"watch," pointing to her wrist. 

Edward could not stamp and watch; but he 
watched, and saw the throb, throb, throb, and 
so forgot to stamp. 

"What is it ?" he asked. 

"It is caused, papa says, by the heart, which 
is pumping the blood all over our bodies. It is 
very wonderful." 

"How does it pump ? Do you feel it go ?" 
"Put your hand on your own heart. Do you 
feel that? Every time it beats it is taking in 
one kind of blood and pumping out another 
kind." 

"Two kinds of blood?" 

"Not exactly that, either; but, I think papa 
said one was purer than the other. " 
"Where does it pump to ?" 
"I do not know if I can tell you quite right; 
but think that one side of the heart sends out 
blood to pass over the lungs and be purified by 
the air, and that this same blood, after it is 
purified, comes back to the heart — only it goes 
in on the other side of it, and there it is pumped 
out again into the arteries, which carry it over 
all the body." 

"What are arteries ?" 

"Papa says they carry the blood away from 
the heart. Veins carry it to the heart." 

"Mine thumps harder than yours. Let us 
stop the pumps a minute." 

"Oh ! we cannot. We would die. We can- 
not stop them." 

"The pumps of Beekman's Hill, last summer, 
got out of order. I wonder if these pumps will. " 

"Men made those at Beekman's Hill," said 
Clarice. "God's work is different." 

"Why, something may slip or get fast. 
Thump, thump ! Mine goes slower than it did." 

"It can go slow or fast; but will not stop 
or wear out. Papa has just been telling me, that 
if God has made us so carefully, we should be 
very thankful. If he had made a rough place, 
how it would have rubbed and hurt. If he had 
let a part be loose or work badly, the blood 
would have stopped, or gone rushing around all 
kinds of ways; and so we would have died." 
"I do not make it thump; yet see how it goes. " 
' 'Papa says that God started our hearts, and 
they will go until he stops them." 

"When will he stop them, Clarice?" Asked 
Edward, holding his hand on his side. 

"When he is ready to take us to be with 
mamma and with him," whispered Clarice. 
"Hearts are wonderful." 

"Papa says that he wants us to-day, when we 
go to Thanksgiving prayer, to remember espe- 
cially about our hearts, and thank God that he 
has made them just right." 

Nurse was brushing the locks and fastening 
the buttons. 

"After all, they may slip a little, Clarice." 

"No, they will not." 

"Things do about engines and pumps. Now 
I know they do." 

"Men's pumps. You see, these are different." 

"Don't yours scratch a bit or hurt?" 

"Why, no; of course not." 

"Mine does not either; but it might." 

"It has been pumping for nearly seven years; 
and only think how long papa's has been at 
work." 

Edward tried to stop the heart a minute, put 
could not; tried to feel if there was not a screw 
loose somewhere; watched the blood beating 
through his sister's pulse and his own; and 
wanted to know fifty tilings which Clarice never 
could tell him. And before he had half made 
up his mind how it could be that so many 
pumps could go all the time without breaking 
he was seated, with nurse, in her pretty French 
cap, and Clarice, with her sweet face, in the 
church pew, ready to give thanks; for to change 
the thought is to change the temper, and to 
look into Nature's wonderful face is to see God. 
— Independent. 

Maggie attends school. The teacher gave 
her the words "sofa " and " bustle " to hunt up 
in the dictionary, and give the definition as 
stated therein written out on paper. She got 
the definitions transposed, however, at\d next 
day the teacher said: "Maggie, give the defini- 
tion of 'bustle' as you have it written." Mag- 
gie—" Bustle, a long, stuffed ornamenta.1 seat." 



QQQ) 



What is a Cold? 

On a less authority than the Loudon Lancet 
would the theory be credited that the resolve 
of a person not to take cold is ample protection 
against having one. ' 'It is startling to discover, " 
says the Lancet, "how little we know about 
the commoner forms of disease. For example, 
a 'cold.' What is it ? How is it produced, and 
in what does it consist ? It is easy to say a 
cold is a chill. A chill of what part of the or- 
ganism ? We know by daily experience that 
the body as a whole or any of its parts may be 
reduced to considerably lower temperature than 
will suffice to give to man a cold if the 
so-called chill be inflicted upon the surface sud- 
denly. Is it then the suddenness of a reduction 
of temperature that causes the cold ? It would 
be strange if it were so, because few of the 
most susceptible of mortals would take cold 
from simply handling a piece of cold metal or 
accidental contact with ice. The truth would 
seem to be that what we call cold taking is the 
result of a sufficient impression of cold to reduce 
the vital energy of nerve centers presiding over 
the functions in special organs. If this be the 
fact, it is easy to see why nature has provided 
the stimulus of a strong fit of sneezing to rouse 
the dormant centers and enable them at once to 
resume work and avoid evil consequences. This 
explains why the worst effects of cold do not, as 
a rule, follow upon a 'chill' which excites much 
sneezing. Shivering is a less effective convulsion 
to restore the paralyzed nervous energy, but in 
a lower degree it may answer the same purpose. 
The shivering that results from the effect of a 
poison on the nervous centers is a totally differ- 
ent matter. We speak only of the quick mus- 
cular agitation and teeth chattering which oc- 
cur whenever the body is exposed to cold and 
evil results do not ensue. It follows from what 
we have said that the natural indication to ward 
off the effects of a chill is to restore the vital en- 
ergy of the nerve centers, and there is no more 
potent influence by which to attain this object 
than a strong and sustained effort of the will. 
The man who resolves not to take cold seldom 
does." 

Crude Petroleum as a Remedy in Con- 
sumption. — Dr. M. M. Griffith, of Bradford, 
Pa., reports some astonishing results obtained 
by the administration of crude petroleum to 
consumptives. He claims that out of twenty- 
five cases of well marked tuberculosis so treated 
twenty are to all means of diagnosis cured; the 
rest have been materially benefited; and none 
have been under treatment more than four 
months. The nausea attending the use of ordi- 
nary crude petroleum led him to adopt the 
semi-solid oil that forms on the casing and tub- 
ing of wells. This, made into three to five 
grain pills by incorporating any inert vegetable 
powder, was administered from three to five 
times a day in one pill doses. This first effect, 
he says, is the disappearance of the cough; 
night sweats are relieved, appetite improves, 
and weight is rapidly gained. It is to be hoped 
that Dr. Griffith has not mistaken some self- 
limiting phase of throat or bronchial disorder for 
true consumption of the lungs; also that con- 
tinued trial of the alleged remedy will justify 
the high opinion he has formed in regard to its 
efficacy. 

Dangerous Curiosity. — It is the most nat- 
ural thing in the world, when you have gone 
to bed, to get up, run to the window, hoist it 
and look out at an alarm of fire or any unusual 
nois'e or clamor going on outside. A lady was 
roused from her sleep by a cry of " fire ; " her 
chamber was as bright almost as day when she 
opened her eyes. She went to the window, and 
soon saw that it was her husband's cotton fac- 
tory. She felt on the instant a shock at the pit 
of the stomach ; the result was a painful disease 
which troubled her for the remainder of her life, 
a period of nearly 15 years. A young lady just 
budding into womanhood was called by the 
sound of midnight music to the window, and in 
her undress leaned her arm on the cold sill; the 
next day she had an attack of inflammation of 
the lungs which nearly killed her. She eventu- 
ally recovered, only to be the victim of a life- 
long asthma, the horrible suffering from the oft- 
repeated attacks of which, during now these 20 
years, is the painful penalty, to be paid over 
and over again as long as life lasts._ 

Digestion is a complex act. Meat is digested 
in the stomach; feculas, already modified by the 
saliva, achieve their transformation in the intes- 
tines, while fatty matters are only digested in 
the intestine. Hence the explanation, why 
some persons can digest meats and eggs without 
difficulty, while their stomachs are rebellious to 
feculent and fatty substances. Individuals on 
the other hand, who cannot cat veal, can par- 
take of fatty preparations and pastry without 
inconvenience. Thus each organ has its role, 
and on their state of health depends the integ- 
rity of digestion. • Inhabitants of cities suffer 
most from dyspepsia, that is, from an alteration 
of the digestive fe rment. 

Nearsightedness and the Color ok the 
Eyes.— M. Nicate stated, at the meeting of the 
French Society for the Advancement of Science, 
that as one of the results of his examination of 
3,434 eyes in rolation to myopia, at Marseilles, 
this defect was observed far more frequently in 
light than in dark eyes, blue and gray eyes 
furnishing 18%, and black and brown eyes only 
11.27%. 



esjic EcojIo^y. 



Hints on the Care of Food. 

At the last meeting of the Connecticut Board 
of Agriculture a paper was read by T. S. Gold, 
on the preservation of food; being a concise 
account of the methods that have been adopted 
in his own household, and which have proved 
highly satisfactory. In most families, meat is 
one of the chief articles of food from one end of 
the year to the other, and where one lives at 
some distance from the village butcher it be- 
comes an important question how to preserve 
meats in a wholesome aud palatable condition. 
Heat, cold, salt and sugar, each may be de- 
pended upon for preserving meats and other 
foods. Beef, hung in a cold room, where it 
will not freeze, improves with one or two weeks 
age. City butchers understand this, and usually 
have tenderer meat for their customers than 
country butchers. All meat is better for keep- 
ing awhile in a cold room, but veal and lamb 
less so than that of mature animals. 

When dressing hogs they should be split 
down the back and the leaf lard removed, that 
the pork may cool quickly and thoroughly. 
When salting beef or pork for long keeping, it 
should not stand in a very cold room till it is 
cured through. Frozen meat is unfit for salt- 
ing. In hot weather much pains should be 
taken in having fresh meat thoroughly cool and 
free from the eggs of flies when put in brine, 
for such eggs are not destroyed by salt. Ani- 
mals should be slaughtered toward evening in 
hot weather, and they must not be hard driven 
or excited just before killing. In packing pork 
use plenty of salt in the brine, and if the barrel 
is used from often, the pork will keep all the 
better. Moving the barrels or shaking them 
occasionally will prevent taint. For curing 
hams he uses six gallons water, nine pounds 
salt, two pounds sugar, two quarts molasses 
and two ounces saleratus for a hundred pounds 
of meat. When pickled through, smoke, wrap 
in cloth bags and pack in barrels away from 
flies. In steady cold weather beef may be 
frozen and packed in snow to be thawed out in 
cold water as wanted for age, Both raw and 
cooked meat may take a second lease of life by 
being scalded in boiling water for a short time. 
It kills mold and excludes the air from the in- 
terior of the pieces. The best sausages are 
made from good, clean fat and lean meat free 
from tendons and gristle. They may be kept a 
long time packed in hot lard. Sliced ham may 
also be preserved in the same way when it is 
always ready for the cook. 

Cake Basket. 

A culinary correspondent of the Germantown 
Telegraph, recommends the following: 

Rice Cake. — Pick and wash in two or three 
waters a couple of handfuls of rice, and put it 
to cook in rather less than one quart of milk 
sweetened to taste, with addition of the thin 
rind of one lemon cut in one piece, and a small 
stick of cinnamon. Let the rice simmer gently 
until it is quite tender and has absorbed all the 
milk. Turn it out into a basin to get cold, and 
remove the lemon rind and cinnamon; then stir 
into it the yolks of four eggs and the white of 
one; add a small quantity of candied citron cut 
into small pieces. Butter and bread-crumb a 
plain cake-mold; put tlio mixture in it and bake 
in a quick oven for half an hour. 

Luncheon Cake.— Take one and a half pounds 
of dough, one-half pound of currants, or one- 
half ounce caraway seeds, six ounces of sugar, 
two or three eggs, and one-half pound of clari- 
fied dripping or of butter. Spread out the 
dough on the paste-board, put it well out, rub 
in the currants and sugar, then add the dripping 
or butter, and lastly the eggs. Mix all well to- 
gether, leave it to rise, put it into tins, and 
bake about an hour in a moderate oven. 

Cake for Children.— Mix well two pounds of 
flour in one pint of warm milk, and atablespoon- 
ful of yeast, let it riso about half an hour; then 
add one-fourth pound of treacle, one-half pound 
brown sugar, one-fourth pound raisins stoned 
and chopped, two ounces candied peel shred 
fine, and one-quarter pound of good fresh beef 
drippings; beat the mixture well for a quarter 
of an hour, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Tea Cake. — One cupful of sugar, butter the 
size of a walnut, rubbed together to a cream; 
half teacupful of milk, ouo and a-half of flour, 
pinch of salt, one teaspoonful of vanilla, one 
tcaspoonful of yeast powder; bake as a thin 
cake; before putting in oven sift powdered su- 
gar over it. 

Apple Cake. — Two cups of stewed dried ap- 
ples boiled in two cups of molasses. Drain off 
the molasses (for the cake) from the apples, add 
two eggs, two teaspoons of soda, four cups of 
flour, one cup of butter, one cup of sour milk. 
Spice to suit. Then add the apple (which was 
drained as above). The apples should be soaked 
the night before stewing for the cake. 



Recipe Wanted. 

Editors Phkhs:— Will voutell mo how to mako Ucramn 
cream pic, and much oblitro a coimtant reader of your 
highly esteemed paper?— B., Guonoc, (Jal. 
Will some of our friends prescribe ? 



Moth-Dkstroyino Powder. — Lupulin, 1 
drachm; Scotch snuff, 2 ozs. ; camphor, 1 oz.; 
cedar sawdust, 4 ozs. Sprinkle the powder 
among the articles to be protected. 



40 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 17, 1880. 




DEVEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, S02 Samome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Akroal Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
months, *1.25. Whon paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will he deducted. No nhw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. C. orders at our risk. 
ADVSRTisiNrt KaTbs. 1 week. 1 month. 3 moe. 12 mos. 

Per lino 26 .80 $2 00 $ 5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 W OO 40.00 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. T. DEWBT. 



W. B. KWKR. 



O. B. BTROSO 



Quack Advertising positively declined. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 17, 1880. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS.— The Legislature and the Agricultural 
Interest; Horticultural Meeting; The Langshans Again, 
33. The Week; Retrospect and Prospect; A Proposi- 
tion to Cheapen Bags, 40. Letters from Southern 
California.— No. 12; American Sheep in the Orient; 
The Boss Pruner; Woolford's Improved Wrench; The 
Census and the Tobacco Growers, 41. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.- English Bred Langshan Fowls, 
33. Woolford's Improved Ratchet Wrench; The "Bliss 
Pruner," 41. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Corn-Ear Worm; How 
Louse Unseated a Commission; The drain Aphis; Th° 
Red Scale in Los Angeles, 40. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Riverside Notes; Los Nie- 
tos, S3. 

SHEEP AND WOOL — California Wool Produc 

tion and Prices for lS70;Thc Outlook, 34. 
HORTICULTDRB.— Fresno Horticultural Noteg,34 
THE FIELD.— Lima Bean Growing; Plowing for Irri- 

Eitlon in Colorado, 35. 
ORICULTURE.— Two California Lilies and How 
to Grow Them; Bluestone for Rose Mildew, 35. 
POULTRY YARD —The Sex of Eggs; Fattening 
Poultry for Market; Feeding Troughs for Poultry; Pre- 
serving Eggs; A Piece of Alum, 35. 
THE SWINE YARD.— The Essex Swine; Preparing 

Pork Pr -ducts for this Market, 35. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -The National 
Grange; Election of Ofticers; Pescadero Grange; Stock- 
ton Grange; Resolutions of Respect, 36. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 38*67. 
NEWS IN BRIEF on page 37 and other pages. 
HOME CIRCLE.— The Grizzly (poetry); Killing in 
the Moon; Women on School Boards; Ceres, the Rural 
Queen; Hint to Church-Door Loafers, 38. Our 
Daughters and Their Dresses; Chaff, 39. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. — Changed Thoughts 

Mako Changed Tempers, 39. 
GOOD HEALTH — What Is a Cold? Crude Petro- 
leum as a Remedy in Consumption; Dangerous Curi- 
osity; Digestion, 39. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-IIints on the Care of 
Food; Cake Basket; Recipe Wanted; Moth-Destroving 
Powder, 39. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Governor Perkins' Inaugural 
Address, 37-44. Legislative Committees, 44. 

Business Announcements. 

theep Ranch For Sale, Ruel Stickney, Little River, Cal. 
Farm For Sale, Ivar P. Weid, Los Angeles, Cal. 
"Abel Stearns Ranchos," Alfred Robinson, Trustee, S. F. 
Log Sawing Machine, W. W. Giles, Chicago, 111. 
Muller's Optical Depot, San Francisco. 
Stallion For Sale, A Bilz, Pleasanton, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Menzo Spring, Manufacturer of Artificial Limbs, S. F. 
Grape Cuttings, H. W. Crabb, Pateville, Napa Co., Cal. 
Annual Meeting— State Agricultural Society. 



The Week. 



The new moon, or some other bright agency, 
has brought us genial skies again, and as the 
warm sun beats down upon the chilled frame 
one seems to grow an inch in every direction at 
every step. It is to be hoped, both for humani- 
ty and horticulture, that the frigid regime is 
over. This protracted series of frosts has been 
Bevere upon the sensibilities of those who had 
cherished plants exposed. Often we have looked 
out into the cold starlight to measure the weight 
of the chill our plants were taking, aud as the 
cold was biting deep, the impulse was to seize 
the warmest blankets in the house for their pro- 
tection. But the second thought, that every 
effort thus to cover a plant would uncover a 
baby, restrained the hand. We never saw in 
California gardens, scenes so much like April 
garden views at the East. But the revival will 
be spec dy from roots uninjured, and a generous 
planting of choico annuals will bring bright 
flowers upon the graves of wholly departed 
favorites until new stock can be obtained. The 
replacing of killed plants will give our nursery- 
men and florists a trade which will bring coin 
to their boxes and smiles to their faces. 

The event of the week, the solar eclipse, was 
true to its engagement, and the heavens weie 
most propitious to observation of the phenome- 
non. Our representative, in the line of the to- 
tality in Fresno county, reports the scene grand 
beyond adequate expression. The Government 
observers upon their mountain top obtained ac- 
curate records, which will add another item to 
scientific truth. The moon has survived the 
shock; the sun is the brighter for the going- 
over which the dame gave his countenance, and 
the season is propitious for plenty and comfort 
to all who merit them. 



Retrospect and Prospect. 

The farmers of the United States may be 
earnestly congratulated upon the prospect which 
now opens before them. All the solid interests 
of the country are experiencing a most gratify* 
ing revival, and as these interests are all allied 
and interwoven, the good influence of prosperity 
will be universal. To agriculture, the underly- 
ing and all-supporting industry, the signs of 
better times come most opportunely. The era 
of prices, which have often fallen below the 
actual cost of production, not only robbed farm" 
era of their small accumulations, but went 
farther and placed many mortgages upon fair 
rural homes. Thus the agricultural interest has 
for several years been carrying heavy burdens, 
and the time for casting off encumbrances and 
for restoring our grand producing interest to an 
independent and untrammeled position should 
be hailed with joy by the whole people. 

In our own State, the drouth of 1S77 left scars 
which the but partial successes of 1S7S and 1879, 
coupled with the low market values for our 
great staple products, could not efface, and but 
few producers escaped accumulating debts. But 
now with wheat, wool and grape products all 
profitable, and other minor specialties taking 
new heart from the advance in staple products, 
there is found a basis of success, which is giving 
our farmers new strength and hope, and is in- 
citing them to put forth new and vigorous efforts 
to avail themselves of the benefits of a season 
which has already so auspiciously begun. 

It is worthy of note that great progress is 
continually being made in the discovery and 
development of special lines of agricultural pro- 
duction which minister to particular demands. 
Thus California raisins, equal to the best im- 
ported, have been eagerly purchased this year, 
and tho producers are enjoying the high prices 
which a partial failure in European raisin dis- 
tricts occasions. Our canned fruit is taken 
quickly for export, and is finding consumers in 
every civilized country in the world. These 
are but instances of a large group of productions 
which may be said to have been newly under- 
taken, but which are bringing prosperity and 
comfort to thousands of citizens who are labor- 
ing intelligently to advance them. The prin- 
ciple involved is one which may be earnestly 
urged upon our agriculturists upon the broad 
ground of diversification in production, and 
which wins success by utilizing the special 
adaptations of our varied resources of soil and 
climate; by supplying wide demands which are 
as yet unsatisfied; by concentrating values so 
that the cost of transportation to most distant 
points takes but little from producers' receipts, 
and by giving employment to thousands. This 
is a secret in our agricultural growth which is 
being daily more widely recognized, and the re- 
sult is the uprising of happy, prosperous homes 
on the hills and in the valleys far remote from 
the centers of transportation and of trade. 

Local statisticians in their summaries of the 
city's trade during periods closing Dec. 31, 
1879, enable us to give some idea of the status 
of our various producing interests. For ex- 
ample, in wheat the exports during the half 
year from July to December, in several years, 
have been as follows: 

Centals. Value. 

1879 7,041,055 $13,380,865 

1878 6.549,296 11,248,767 

1877 2,451,586 5,712,449 

1876 7,911,968 13,172,805 

1875 4,229,804 8,671,024 

For the full year 1879 exports of wheat were 
10,511,347 centals, valued at $19,221,958; in 
1876, 9,907,941 centals, valued at §17,124,576. 
These amounts were influenced by unequal 
amounts carried over from preceding years. 

Thus appears that it has not been a mean 
year in wheat notwithstanding the hardships 
which some regions have suffered. Although 
the amount is almost a million centals less than 
in 1876, the value has approached quite close to 
that of 1876, and thus nearly as much money 
has come into the State for wheat. In wool 
there has also existed the compensation of 
higher prices. By the review in another col- 
umn of this issue it appears that the value of 
wool exported during 1879 was about §9,000,- 
000, which is an advance of $2,0000,000 over 
last year; and an advance of 8800,000 over the 
value of 1876, in which year the production was 
5,000,000 greater than during 1879. Thus our 
flock owners received more money for a great 
deal less wool. And one of the best things 
about wool values is that they bid fair to con- 
tinue, and the shepherd's industry may be 
fairly said to be oa its legB again. 

The exports by sea of other products, as com- 
pared with the last really good year, 1876, are 
as follows : 

1879. 1876 
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 

Barley, ctls 541,348 $ 717.014 351.897 $ 414.481 

Beans, ctls 21.123 38,427 13,682 24,282 

Brandy, galls.... 88.252 197.149 36,888 74.391 

Flour, nliU 609,754 2.355.591 508,143 2,560.759 

Hops. lbs 136.598 19,470 340.9S6 44.592 

Hay. Us 14.990 28,531 728 12,777 

Hides. No 9.391 37.829 94.348 330.249 

Leather, pkga.... 2,794 79,025 2,131 97.118 

Lumber, ft 11,977,703 232.199 

Oats, ctls 10.847 15,807 3,721 7.283 

Potatoes, sks 35.647 33.986 35,817 49,644 

Salmon, pkga.... 135,200 663,994 170,887 960,990 

Wind, galls 1,31)2.940 GS1.132 50S.497 314,396 

WIno, ca 3,699 14,964 

ExportB by sea, as those given above, com- 
prise only a fraction of our production, for the 
overland roud carries full trains of produce of 
different kinds for which much money is re- 



turned. There is also a vast local consumption 
which is not included at all. The figures given 
must, of course, be taken relatively and with 
due cognizance of their partial character. 

The records of receipts of domestic produce 
at the Produce Pixchange during the last half 
year, as compared with previous years, furnish 
another guide to a general idea of our agricul- 
tural progress in certain directions. 

July 1 to December 31. 

1879 1878 1876 

Wheat, ctls 7.834,107 6,668.465 8,658.805 

Flour, bbls 250.606 263,781 1,176.391 

Barley, ctls 1,089,245 1,160,235 1,284,669 

Hay. tons 42.126 46,625 48,352 

Oats, ctls 139.404 210.809 177,015 

Wool bis 63.239 58.752 80.561 

Bran 'and Middlings, sks. 156,583 168.049 137,743 

Potatoes, sks 422.8 '8 378.557 462.031 

Onions, sks 47.022 25,708 

Beans, sks 175,014 168,' 36 78.584 

Dry Hides. No 76,102 67.622 107,145 

Quicksilver, Flasks. 36,929 36.162 36.957 

Corn, sks 87.998 123.697 10*,268 

Hops, bis 4.692 4,826 6.580 

Rye. sks 20,968 17.253 17.951 

Buckwheat, sks 4,064 3,281 6,212 

One feature of the general trade of the year is 
the decrease of imported articles. Tho duties 
paid at the Custom House in 1878 amounted to 
§6,310,196; in 1879, §5,510,555. If this means 
that we are learning more and more to produce 
for our own needs, it is a satisfactory condition 
of affairs. On the other hand, our general ex- 
port trade in merchandise and produce is in- 
creasing, as shown by the following: 

1879 $36,941,663 

1878 32.9113,551 

1877 29.357,550 

1876 30.684,711 

The export of treasure does not keep pace 
with the advance of produce and merchandise. 
On the other hand, it is §20,000,000 less than in 
1877, and the total value of our exports is 
therefore less than in preceding years. 



The Corn-Ear Worm. 

Eiutors Press: — As my business is In raising fruit and 
vegetables, I am consequently interested in any combined 
movement to discover means to overcome tbe numerous 
iusects that mar our prosperity by destroying our crops. 
First with me in the catalogue of pests is the corn worm. 
My investigations and experiments so far have only met 
with partial success. The egi:s, from which the worms, 
hatch, are dejiositcd in the silk near where it leaves the 
husk, and are very small, and when the worm i- Hrs,t 
hatched out is scarcely discernible with the eye; hut it 
grows rapidly, and soon makes its way t« the corn. I 
have found that, to put any liquid on the silk strong 
enough to destroy the eggs or worms would interfere with 
the transmission of the pollen from the tassel to the silk, 
by which means the corn is fertilized. Neither will pinch- 
ing the silk always be successful, for this reason: If done 
too soon it will injure the fertility of the com, and if too 
late the worm will have passed to a safer place on the 
corn. Now, I should like to obtain a true description of 
the moth that lays the eggs, the precise time in the 24 
hours it usually lays its eggs, and its size, color and habits. 
1 intend next season to experiment against it in another 
direction, and if successful I will, by your permission, re- 
port to my fellow farmers through the medium of the 
Press.— Montgomery Pike, Sacramento county, Cal. 

The corn worm (Heliothis armigera), as it is 
usually called (or the "corn-ear worm," as we 
term it, for we find that some of our readers 
understand by "corn worm" a pest that attacks 
the seed in the ground), is an old enemy of the 
corn nlanter and of the cotton planter, for it is 
the "boll worm" of the cotton districts. The 
moth measures about one and a half inches when 
its wings are fully spread: " it is of a tawny or 
pale clay-yellow color, with faint greenish tinge. 
The front pair of wings are branded with two 
or more bars or rows of pale olive and have a 
crescent-shaped, dark mark near the center. 
The hind wings are paler than the front wings 
and invariably have along the outer margin a 
dark brown or black band, in the middle of 
which is an irregularly shaped spot of the same 
color as the wing. There is likewise a dark 
spot in the center of the wing and the nerves 
are black or dark colored." This description 
will doubtless enable our correspondent to re- 
cognize the moth. 

The moth does not show itself in the broad 
daylight unless disturbed. It appears about 
sunset andtlit8 around depositing its eggs in the 
twilight. It is a nocturnal moth, and conse- 
quently feeds at night. Each moth is capable 
of laying 500 eggs, which hatch out in three or 
four days, and there are two or three genera- 
tions in a season. It is therefore highly import- 
ant that destructive efforts should be made early 
in the season, that the increase of the insect may 
be checked as early as possible. 

Various means have been adopted to destroy 
the pest, with partial success. Fires lighted in 
the fields at dusk attract and destroy many of 
the moths. They are also trapped by placing 
plates of a mixture of vinegar and molasses here 
and there among the corn. This has been done 
by driving stakes into the ground, capping them 
with small pieces of board to support the plate. 
As many as thirty-five moths have been caught 
in a single plate. When this has been done for 
five or six nights, so as to catch the first moths 
of the season, a marked beneficial effect has 
been produced in the corn crop. 

Previous articles concerning the characteris- 
tics of the insect and means proposed for its 
destruction, may be found in the Rcral of 
August 16th; also of September 13, 1879. 

We hope our correspondent will succeed in 
devising some way of destroying the insect 
which is more applicable to large fields, for it 
would require considerable crockery and "dope" 
to entertain the moths on a large corn ranch. 
We shall be pleased to hear the results of any 
experiments which he may make. 

How a Louse Unseated a Commission. 

They have just had a first-class phylloxera 
sensation in South Australia. When the insect 



was first seen in another colony last year, South 
Australia adopted vigorous protective measures, 
passing a law and appointing a commission. In 
November the members of the commission treed 
gamed and shouted that the phylloxera had been 
found. The mighty wheels of government were 
set in motion, the public press sounded alarums, 
all the forces of the colony were being concent 
trated to drive the invested vineyard, vine and 
soil clear into the central fires of the globe, for 
fear that ordinary stamping out processes might 
fail. Everything was proceeding in due form 
until some entomologist thought it might be 
worth while to take a look at the little chap 
which was occasioning such disturbance. He 
took a glance at this royal prisoner, so to speak, 
•and found — not a phylloxera, but an aphis. 
Imagine the result. Government, press and 
people, with arms and tongues extended, must 
strike something. If not the phylloxera, then 
the commission must be stamped nut. And 
thus it was. The man who now gets a commis- 
sionership in South Australia will doubtless be 
previously examined a little on the subject of 
" bugs." 

The Grain Aphis. 
Doubtless some of our Humboldt county 
readers who had their grain fields devastated 
by the louse (Aphis aven<e) last year, are 
considering the chance of a re-appearance 
of the evij next summer. It may be remarked 
that the visitations of the grain aphis are 
sometimes very short. They may devastate 
large fields one year, and the next there may 
be so few as not to produce any appreciable 
effect upon the grain. Prof. Rathvon tells of a 
case in Pennsylvania when the whole oat crop 
all over Lancaster county and beyond, and in 
many cases the wheat also, was reduced almost 
to straw valuo. After the straw ripened the 
aphids disappeared and since then have not 
been seen again in ruinous numbers. The aphis 
is shown to be such an uncertain visitor that 
ordinary crops may be continued with a good 
chance of their being harvested in safety — so 
far as his evil work is concerned. 

Tbe Red Scale in Los Angeles. 
We had a call on Monday from W. R. Bar- 
bour, of Orange, Los Angeles. Mr. Barbour 
informs us that the red scale (described in the 
1'hess of Jan. 3d) is hardly such an inconquerable 
scourge as it was at first feared, and that it be- 
gins to yield to treatment. One of the San 
(iabriel growers is reported to have arrested its 
progress with bluestone water forced upon the 
trees. Mr. Barbour is himself experimenting 
with kerosene and water, and finds the trees 
will stand a stronger dose of the oil than he 
thought. Another grower has been using crude 
petroleum. We trust all experimenters will 
keep us informed of their success or failure with 
different materials and methods. 



A Proposition to Cheapen Bags. 

The immense advantage it would be to the 
grain and other produce producers of this State 
to have the price of bags reduced one-half will 
be appreciable to anyone who has indulged ex- 
tensively in these expensive envelopes. All 
will be interested to know that Oov. Perkins is 
of the opinion that by securing free introduc- 
tion of the raw material, until it can be pro- 
duced here, and manufacturing it into burlaps 
at the State prison, the problem of convict sup- 
port can be solved and at the same time the 
farmer can secure cheaper bags by saving the 
profits made by the foreign burlap weavers. 
In his inaugural address Gov. Perkins has this 
allusion to the subject: 

After Jan. 1, 1882, the Constitution prohibits the con- 
tracting of prison laOor, and then an additional responsi- 
bility will devolre upon the Prison Commission. We can- 
not too early turn our earnest attention to a consideration 
of the uses that can be advantageously made of convict 
labor, so as not to conflict with and degrade the free labor 
of the State. For the handling of our cereals alone, up- 
wards of 25,000,000 sacks are required annually, besides 
large quantities for other purposes. Millions of dollars go 
abroad yearly for the purchase of theso necessary articles. 
It must be that the diversiflcd soil and climate of this 
State are. able to produce the jute from which tho burlap 
is made. Its manufacture is not difficult, nor is tho requi- 
site machinery complicated, though somewhat expensive. 
If the raw material can be grown in California, of which I 
have no doubt, its manufacture by convict labor would 
open a new industry to the husbandman, and its full de- 
velopment would cheapen the cost of the manufactured 
article to the agriculturist. Employment would be given 
to convict labor without coming into competition with 
free labor to any appreciable extent. If experiments 
should establish tho impracticability of growing the raw 
material, then we should ask Congress to abolish the duty 
on raw jute to be manufactured at the State prison. We 
have in the State but one factory for working up the crude 
material, and that is operated mainly by Chinese labor. 

If this proposition to make the burlaps should 
prove practicable, and we hope it may, there 
would be another gain in giving work at sack- 
sewing to hundreds of our own citizens, and to 
women much in need of employment, instead of 
paying out money to foreign makers of the bags 
which now come ready made through the Cus- 
tom-house. 

Alfalfa in Colorado. — Colorado ranchers 
are rapidly learning the value of alfalfa. The 
Denver Farmer states that one firm of that city 
has ordered ten tons of fresh seed from this 
State and other smaller lots are being taken 
hence. This growth of public sentiment in 
favor of alfalfa the Farmer considers all the 
more remarkable, as it remembers that when 
the first load of it raised near Denver was offered 
for sale, a prominent dealer in hay forbade its 
sale from his yards, believing it was not best to 
countenance the sale of the "worthless stuff." 



January 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC 1U11L PRESS. 



4"> 



Letters from Southern California —No. 12. 

Continuing our ride some seven or eight 
miles south from Centralia we reached 

Westminster, 
Another of the nourishing colonies of southern 
California. This place was started as a Presby- 
terian temperance colony, by Rev. L. P. Web- 
ber, in 1871. He selected a tract of level land 
some 8,000 acres in extent, and about half way 
from Anaheim to the ocean. Two thousand acres 
were subsequently added to the original pur- 
chase, and a class of persons were brought to- 
gether who could heartily co-operate in church, 
school and social matters, and thus secure all 
the advantages of an old settlement from the 
start. The settlement has proven 

A Grand Success. 
In less than nine years all the 10,000 acres has 
been purchased and occupied by actual settlers, 
and mostly in farms of 40 acres each. The 
town no w contains a population of over 2,000, three 
school districts, and three neat church build- 
ings all free from debt. The village has its own 
stores for general merchandise, and all the lit- 
tle shops usually found in villages of this size. 
Water, Productions and Soil. 

An abundant supply of pure water, both for 
irrigation and household purposes, is secured 
from about 250 artesian wells, varying in depth 
from 100 to 200 feet. Nearly every farm has 
its own well; some How more than others, and 
occasionally two places may be irrigated from 
one well. In the driest years there is always an 
abundant flow. Thus every man owns and con- 
trols his own water supply. The chief products 
about Westminster are corn, barley, bacon, 
hams, lard, butter and vegetables. This locality 
makes no specialty of semi-tropical fruit; but 
the apple, peach and other deciduous trees do 
well. There are several packing establishments 
here which are doing a good business, also sev- 
eral dairies, which supply butter to the neigh- 
boring towns and to Los Angeles. The soil is 
generally a heavy sandy loam and very rich. 
Alkali prevails on the lower lands and hollows; 
but efforts are being made to wash it out by 
drainage and cultivation. Barley averages 
about 20 centals to the acre, and corn from 40 
to 100 bushels. The price of land varies from 
$20 to $40 per acre, according to quality and 
location. 

The Climate. 

The country being open to the ocean, the 
summer heat is very agreeably tempered by the 
sea breeze, while the winters are mild and pleas- 
ant. The whole country, from the mountains 
to the sea, has a good natural drainage of about 
13 feet to the mile. 

A very good idea of the climate may be gained 
from the following extract from a letter from a 
resident there, which was dated on the 14th of 
February last: "We note for Eastern readers that 
we picked our first dish of asparagus February 
12th ; that strawberries are ripening in small quan- 
tities and will be plenty in ten days, and that 
the Austalian Saucer peach is in blossom. This 
is said to be the earliest peach known, ripening 
in May. Having now the December peach, the 
peach season, if the frost does not nip it at either 
end, will last eight months." 

Gospel Swamp. 

Continuing our ride in a southeasterly direc- 
tion, we soon entered the region known as 
"Gospel Swamp," a section of very low land 
lying on either side of the Santa Ana river, and 
extending landwards some ten or twelve miles 
from its mouth, by.six or eight miles in breadth. 
This is a famous corn-producing country, where 
from 80 to 120 bushels of corn are raised to the 
acre, "where pumpkins forget to stop growing," 
and where the squashes and beets and turnips 
and potatoes are the wonder of the world in size 
and quality. The corn in the hight of the stalk 
and size of the ear almost exceeds belief. These 
products form the material for pork and beef, 
for poultry and eggs, and they are always as- 
sured crops. No country can produce better; 
few can equal them. A fanner from "Gospel 
Swamp," who asserts that he has raised 
pumpkin which weighed 300 pounds, is not re- 
quired to make an affidavit in support of his 
statement. The Anaheim Gazette is authority 
for saying that a sweet potato was recently 
brought into that town which weighed 47 
pounds. If Bro. Melrose has made no mistake, 
that, we think, must have been the largest po 
tato ever produced. It is certainly a large one 
to swallow, as is also the story. Did it come 
from "Gospel Swamp," Bro. M. ? 

After crossing the Santa Ana river and turn- 
ing northeasterly, some five or six miles brought 
us to 

Santa Ana, 

A lively little town, which supports two news- 
papers, while three church spires point em- 
phatically to the God they worship. There are 
many fine residences here and the public school 
building is the finest in the county, outside of 
Los Angeles. As it was getting late we had to 
push forward without visiting 

Tustin City, 

Which lay some two miles out of our way to 
the east, and which we were assured is a de 
lightful place, thickly settled, with numerous 
young orange orchards scattered about. The 
land here as well as at Santa Ana, is quite dif- 
ferent from the "swamp " through which we 
had passed — a light rich loam, easily worked, 
aud well suited to the culture of the orange, the 



lemon and the lime, as well as deciduous fruits. 
Just beyond Tustin City lies the famous San 
Joaquin rancho, on whose broad acres are pas- 
tured thousands of sheep, which find a ready 
market for either carcass or fleece. Continu- 
ing on our way still northerly from Santa Ana, 
we came to the neatest and most really charm- 
ing place which we had seen in all the day's 
ride — ■ 

Orange. 

This town is most fitly named. Although the 
sun had set and twilight was fast gathering over 
the landscape, we made a hasty drive through 
the principal streets. Orange groves cluster 
thickly in and around the settlement, and vege- 
tation of all kinds seems to grow w'th surprising 
thrift and vigor. The orange trees are just 
coming into bearing, and we believe the estima- 
ted product of this season is about 50,000 or- 
anges; but in a few years the yield will be very 
large. There are now about 120,000 orange and 
lemon trees growing here, the greater part of 
which are of the choicest varieties of budded 
fruit. Oranges and raisins are the specialties 
here, as the soil and climate are well calculated 
for such products. Wine makiDg will not be 
carried on to any extent, for the reason that it 
is a temperance settlement. The residents made 
their sentiments in this regard very forcibly 
known two or three years ago, when they re- 
sisted the effort to establish a saloon there so 
vigorously, that there is not much danger of any 
very early renewal of the attempt. The town 
and district is fast being filled up with men of 
intelligence and culture. The population — 
about 1,500 in number — is thus far made up 
mostly of Eastern people, who have brought 
with them their usual thrift and advanced civi- 
lization. The railroad passes within one mile 
of the village. The price of good unimproved 




southern California, and whose fields of grain 
are counted by the thousands of acres, has put 
in more wheat this year than ever before, in 
both Los Angeles and San Diego counties. It 
will be seen from the above, that Los Angeles 
must soon be reckoned among the large wheat- 
growing counties of the State. 

Ananelm's Coal Mine. 
Among her other resources Anaheim is begin- 
ning to talk of her coal mine, recently opened 
in the mountains some 14 miles east of the 
town. The mine is controlled by residents of 
Anaheim, and there is much reason to believe 
that its development will add much to the in- 
terests of that portion, if indeed it does not to 
the entire county. A considerable quantity has 
already been taken out and sold, and used in 
Anaheim with very good results. It sells for 
eight dollars per ton. A test of its value for 
locomotive works was recently made on the 
Southern Pacific, which, we understand, was 
very successful. It was used for hauling a 
heavy freight train from Los Angeles to Yuma, 
and we are told that it burned freely, while the 
locomotive steamed well. It has also been used 
for a stationary engine, with similar favorable 
results. The percentage of ash was somewhat 
large, but the ashes were soft and quite free 
from slate or clinkers. 

An Anti-Pat Mineral Spring. 
In the mountains, and not far from this coal 
mine, has recently been discovered a mineral 
spring which is said to possess very peculiar 
qualities — the chief feature of which is thought 
to be some mineral or organic substance which 
has a tendency to reduce any superabundance 
of fat with which the drinker may be burdened. 
We understand that a sample of the water has 
been sent to the Smithsonian Institute at Wash- 
ington for analysis. If so, we shall feel much 
obliged to the parties interested if they will for- 
ward the result of the analysis to this office. 
Several instances of the effects of these waters 



Woolford's Improved Ratchet Wrench. 

orange- producing land varies from $25 to $40 
per acre according to location. 

A ride of five or six miles from Orange brought 
us back to Anaheim, after a charming jaunt of 
some 45 or 50 miles, more than delighted with 
our trip, and more than ever impressed with 
the value and importance, and varied advan- 
tages which southern California possesses for 
both fruit growing and mixed farming. It is 
not only a good farming country, but it is also 
the best fruit-growing region in the State, while 
in point of climate it probably — at least in some 
portions — has no superior in the world. There 
are many localities in this portion of Los Angeles 
county — many 40 and 80-acre farms — on winch 
are growing side by side the grape, the orange, 
the lemon, the lime, the banana, the fig, the 
pomegranate, the guava, the olive, the apple, 
the pear, the peach, the nectarine and other 
fruits, besides corn, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes 
and other agricultural products. All these 
things not only grow, but they thrive vigorously 
and bear or produce profusely. 

Wheat. 

Much attention is now being given to the cul 
tivation of wheat in Los Angeles county. A 
very large breadth of land is sown with this 
cereal in the San Fernando valley, north of Los 
Angeles, and more or less in other portions of 
the county. From all the information which 
we can obtain, we should judge that there were 
at least 5,000 acres of land devoted to wheat 
this year in the vicinity of Anaheim. The 
wheat sown here is almost altogether the Odessa 
variety, on account of its immunity from rust. 

Miles Bros, have rented 400 acres of their 
land for wheat; Mr. Geo. Irvine, of the San 
Joaquin ranch, has about 500 acres ; Mr. B. F. 
Seibert's farm, a short distance southwest of 
Anaheim, is seeded mostly to wheat this season. 
Mr. Robert Strong, of Westminster, has sown 
about 50 acres of his farm, and Mr. S. K. Wood- 
ward, of Downey, has seeded 400 acres. Mr. 
I Lankershim, who is the largest wheat grower in 




The "Boss Pruner." 

are given. In one case a party, after drinking 
the water for ten days, was reduced in weight 
twenty-five pounds. By continuing his pota 
tions, he was in a short time reduced from an 
avoirdupois of 212 to 170. This result, it is 
claimed, was brought about without any other 
apparent effect upon his system. If the spring 
really possesses the qualities claimed for it, and 
analysis and use shows that there is nothing 
deleterious about it, it must prove a most valu 
able property and a great blessing to the com- 
munity at large. W. B. E. 



American Sheep in the Orient. — It seems 
Mr. Markham, the western New York sheep 
breeder who recently took a large band of Meri- 
nos via San Francisco for Japan, has been dili- 
gent in working up the Orient on the sheep 
question, and it looks as though ho might open 
quite a door for the importation of American 
thoroughbreds. We read in an address of Dr. 
John L. Hayes, Secretary of the National Asso- 
ciation, that Mr. Markham is "on his way to 
Mongolia, with the object, under the auspices 
of Gen. Grant, who favored his mission and gave 
him letters to the high Chinese officials, of in- 
troducing American sheep in that distant quar- 
ter of the world." We arc glad that Mr. Mark- 
ham has undertaken this errand, for the interest 
which he bids fair to awaken will be profitable 
to California breeders as well as to their Eastern 
competitors. 

The State's Fish Farming.— The report of 
the California Commissioners of Fisheries, Hons. 
B. B. Redding, S. K. Throckmorton and J. D. 
Farwell, for the years 1878-9, shows that their 
public-spirited labors have been prosecuted 
with due zeal and with most gratifying results. 
We expect in an early issue to present such 
parts of the report as are of most general in- 
terest. 



The Boss Pruner. 

We give an engraving on this page of a prun- 
ing device introduced to California tree growers 
by George A. Larkin, Newcastle, Placer county, 
and which he styles the "Boss Pruner." This 
apparatus has been already tested by a number 
of our orchardists and they have assured us that 
its work is satisfactory. Hence we give place 
to an engraving that all may see its plan and 
method of operation. 

As may be seen by the engraving, the upper 
end of the handle, A, consists of a hook with a 
cutting edge by which hold is taken of the 
branch to be pruned off. To the upper end of 
the other handle is secured a bar, B, formed 
with a toothed or cogged segment, which gears 
into the independent cutting blade, C. This 
independent blade, C, the upper edge of which 
forms the cutting edge, slides upon and beyond 
the cutting edge of the crook above, and thus 
these two cutting edges jointly form the shears. 

It will be seen that by moving the handle, B, 
away from the handle, A, its cogged end will 
engage the sliding blade, O, and cause it to de- 
scend, thus opening the shears. By moving the 
handle, B, towards the handle, A, the sliding 
blade, C, will be forced upward beyond the cut- 
ting edge of the crook, and this will sever the 
branch held between the two. 

The cogged or toothed segment, B, is made 
so as to be readily detachable, so that it may be 
temporarily removed, so as to change the rela- 
tive position of the cogs where any of them 
should be worn by long use. The movable 
blade, C, is shown in the small figure in the 
engraving as it appears when removed from the 
shears for sharpening, etc. Being thus wholly 
independent from the other parts, it may be 
renewed if necessary. 

The Boss pruners which we have seen, were 
exceeding well made, the parts fitting nicely 
and the motion smooth and apparently possess- 
ing much force. 

Woolford's Improved Wrench. 

We illustrate on this page an improved ratch- 
et wrench, recently patented through the Min- 
ing and Scientific Press Patent Agency by 
Joseph Woolford, of Plymouth, Amador Co. 
In adjusting the wrench to any desired work, 
the head is slid up on the handle until the lug 
on the latch is over the slot or notch desired, 
and the spring will engage it with said notch. 
This secures the head in position and regulates 
the gripe of the jaws. For a greater or less 
gripe of the jaws, the outer end of the latch or 
catch is depressed by the thumb and the lug thus 
lifted out of the slot so the head may be slid up 
or down the handle to another slot, where, by 
releasing the catch, its spring will throw the 
lug on the latch into the slot. 

In turning nuts, the nuts may be grasped in 
any position, either on the corners or the sides, 
and as a new hold can thus bo taken on every 
quarter inch of surface without regard to cor- 
ners, this device will work in confined spaces 
where no other wrench can be used. The sim- 
plicity, rapidity and strength of the adjustment 
render the tool a very useful and practical one. 
Mr. Woolford may be communicated with at 
the address given above. 

The Census and the Tobacco Growers. — 
We have received a copy of the circular issued 
by Gen. Walker, Superintendent of the Census, 
Washington, D. 0. , for the purpose of securing 
returns concerning the culture and curing of 
tobacco. Hon. J. R. Dodge has been appointed 
the special agent of the census office to havo 
charge of this inquiry, and ho is admirably 
qualified to produce a valuable report. The 
circular is prepared on the same plan as the cot- 
ton circular to which wo alluded recently. It 
asks for description of all important conditions of 
soil culture aud subsequent treatment, and is 
arranged so that these can be easily given by 
the grower. ' We would advise all California 
tobacco growers who have not yet received the 
circular to apply for it to Gen. Walker, per ad- 
dress above. It is not only important that our 
State should have credit for what it is doing in 
the growing, but there are a number of unique 
processes of curing, adopted by different experi- 
menters, to meet our peculiar conditions of cli- 
mate, which would doubtless be of interest to 
the student of the general subject of tobacco 
growing. 

St a 'ik Agricultural Society Meeting.— 
An advertisement in another column announces 
the annual meeting of the Stato Agricultural 
Society, in Sacramento, January 20th, at 2 P. M. 
A President and three Directors will be chosen. 
The meeting will doubtless be one of great im- 
portance aside from the election of officers, be- 
cause under the new Constitution there may bo 
some new steps needed to ensure the success of 
the society and its exhibitions. We trust the 
notice of meeting will be duly heeded. 



On File.— "Fruit in California," J. S. ; "Ad- 
dress at Santa Clara (irango," A. J. K.; "The 
Dripping Rain," N. R. 

Frank Leslie, the publisher, died at New 
York last Saturday. 



42 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 17, 1880. 



Incendiary Silks. — The danger of spontane- 
ous combustion, to which weighted silks are 
liable, during transportation, has lately been 
forcibly demonstrated in the case of the steam- 
ship Mo*el, which mysteriously took lire re- 
cently in mid-ocean. The fire was fortunately 
discovered and extinguished. On reaching her 
destination, a careful investigation afforded un- 
mistakable evidence that the fire had originated 
spontaneously in certain silk goods that had 
formed part of her cargo. Samples of the silk, 
under the microscope, presented a remarkable 
appearance. The fibers ran very irregularly, 
and were partly covered with scales of a me- 
tallic luster, while on other fibers, heavy, 
sponge-like knots of a dark color were observed. 
A chemical examination revealed the following 
remarkable results: One hundred parts of the 
silk were composed of pure silk fiber, 21.34% ; 
oxide of iron, 13.45%; moisture, 9.15%; fatty 
oils, 1.85% ; organic dye-stuffs and coloring 
matters, 50.90% ; mineral matters not de- 
termined, 3.30%. For each part of silk fiber, 
therefore, it was shown, 0.75 part of oxide of 
iron and 2.50 parts of coloring matters were 
used. 

Firearms frequently burst when the muzzle 
has been accidentally closed with earth, snow, 
etc. Prof. Forbes' explanation of this fact is 
very simple. If the charge moved slowly, a 
very slight pressure of the air in the barrel 
would be sufficient to clear the muzzle, but as 
the charge actually travels with a speed greater 
than the velocity of sound, the resistance offered 
by the obstacle becomes excessive and the gun 
bursts. It has been demonstrated mathemati- 
cally that the pressure generated by a plug of 
the density of air is seven and half tons. 



Hutchinson & Mann, 

INSURANCE AGENCY, 



Nos. 322 and 324 California Street, 



San Francisco, 



FIRE INSURANCE: 

GIRARD of Philadelphia I 8T. PAUL of St. Paul 

HOME of Columbus UNION of Galveston 

NEW ORLEANS ASSOCIATION | TEUTONIA of New Orleans 

PEOPLE'S of Newark | BERLIN-COLOGNE of Berlin 

REVERE of Boston LA CONFIANCE of Paris 

LA CAISSE GENERALE of Paris I 

MARINE INSURANCE.' 

Paris Underwriting Association, of Paris j London and Provincial Marine Ins. Co., Lond o 

CAPITAL REPRESENTED, $23,000,000. All Losses Equitably Adjusted and Promptly Paid. 



PACIFIC DEPARTMENT 



Purchasers of Stock will find in this Directory tub 
Nambs of some of tiik Most Reliable ISreedrrs. 

Ocr Katrs.— Six lines or less inserted in this Director}- at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



ETER SAXE & SON, 520 Hush St. S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Morses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pedigreed. ^ 



M. B. STURGES Centerville, Alameda County, Cali- 
fornia. Breeder of Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle. 
Young Bulls and Heifers for sale. Correspondence 
solicited. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co. ) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSET, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland -China Swine. 



London and Lancashire Fire Insurance Co. 

Of Liverpool. 

Capital, S7,. r >00.000. | Cash Assets, $1,709,976. | U. S. Bonds, deposited in America, $400,000. 



BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., Gen'l Agents, 



316 California St., San Francisco. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O- RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Markot. S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Dot's, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded In the American Berkshire Record. 



BEES. 



JOS. E ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 




LARGEST MUSIC HOUSE 

On the Pacific Coast. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

Lowest Prices and Best Goods. 

OT Write for information concerning any Musical In- 
strument, and terms of sale. It will be given with plea- 
sure. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1850. 

KOHLER & CHASE, 

137 and 138 Poet Street, San Francisco. 



Hare Opportunity 

- FOR A — 

COLOHY 

— OR — 

Farming Enterprise ! 



A tract of land, comprising 20,000 acres, lying in Town- 
ship 18, south, range 19 and 20 east, in 

FRESNO COUNTY, 

Is offered in whole or in part, as a very desirable location 
for a Colony or extensive farming enterprise. 

This land is in the immediate vicinity of several Colo- 
nies, which are already iu successful progress. 

Work for bringing water upon the land has already 
been commenced, and the land is so situated that it can 
be irrigated at very little outlay. It is also convenient for 
Railroad transportation. 

Terms Reasonable. 

For further particulars inquire of FRANKLIN D. 
COTTLE, No. 932 Howard Street, San Francisco, or of 
COTTLE k LUCE on the premises, or at Fresno 
City, Cal. 




For Sale in large or small tractB, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAfee brothers, 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



■ ft ■ |% Good land that will raise a crop every 
II ml 1 1 year. Over 14,000 acres for sale I 
I U 111 1 1 suit. Climate healthy. No drouths, bad 
mw ll I 1 mw floods, nor malaria. Wood ami water 
convenient. U. S. Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
trated circular, to EDWARD FRISBIE, Proprietor of 
Reading Ranch, Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capita], - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

O. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWI . 1,1. 1 NO Vice-President 

ALBERT Ml >NTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEW EL LISC. Vice-President Napa Co 

J V WEBSTER AlamedaCo 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. a MERYFIBLD Solano Co 

THOMAS MnjoNXELL Sacramento Co 

I c STEELl San MatooOo 

SOLOMON JKWETT Kern Co 

C .1 CRESSEY Stanislaus Co 

SENEi A EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for the 
transaction of OMll Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER deDosits received. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued for Gold and Silver. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 6% per annum if left for 3 months; 7% per annum if 
left for 6 mouths: 8 / per annum if left for 12 mouths. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States bought and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Oct. 15th, 1879. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half-year ending this date, the Board of Direc- 
tors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY 
has declared a Dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of 
Six and Nine-Tenths (0 0-10) per cent, per annum, ar.d on 
Ordinary Deposits at the rate of Five and Three-fourths 
(5j) per cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and 
payable on and after the 15th day of January, 1880. By 
order. GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, December 31st, 1879. 



Seedsmen. 




J. Hutchison's Nurseries, 

OAKLAND, CAL, 

-Established in 1852 

An immense stock of NEW and RARE PLANTS, Ever 
green Trees and Ornamental Shrubbery. 

CYPRESS FOR HEDGES, 

One to three years old. 

Roses. Fuchias, Pinks. Magnolias 
Camelias, Daphnes. Etc.. Etc.. 

In endless variety, at 

BEDROCK PRICES!! 

SEEDS and BULBS of all kinds. Send for Catalogue 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 
Seedsmen, 

Havinpr on hand the Largept Stock of Seeds 
of any House on the Pacific Coast, 

Have come to the conclusion to offer the following induce 
ments to buyers, for quantities of not less than 100 n>s. ; 

•JO. 000 Its. Alfalfa I 'lover Seed (best) 8c per lb. 

5.000 lbs. Red Clover Seed 15c. per lb. 

5,000 Its. Australian Rye Grass 20c per Ih. 

5,000 ll.s. Kentucky Blue Grass 15c per lb, 

5,000 lbs. Red Top Grass 13c per lb 

8.000 lbs. Timothy Grass He per lb. 

5.000 lbs. Mesipiit Seed 10c per II. 

10.000 Its. Canary Seed 

8.000 lbs. Rape and Hemp Seed at lowest prices. 

4,000 lbs Mangel and Sugar Beet 30c per lb 

1.000 lbs. Blood Beet, for table use 50c per Ih 

1.000 lbs Assorted Turnip 50c per lb 

800 lbs. Assorted Onion Seed 81 per 11. 

Also, a full assortment of Vegetable. Herb ami Flower Seeds 

Also, a large assortment of Fresh 

California Tree Seeds, 

The prices of which we place as follows: 

200 lbs. Abies Douglass! H 50 per It 

Big Tree Seeds, or Washingtouia Gigantea $5 00 per It 

Pis US Insignis tl 50 per Ih 

Cypress Seed S3 50 per lb 

Blue Gum and 20 other varieties of Gum and California 
Tree Seeds. 10,000 Deciduous Shade Trees, from 8 to U feet 
high, at 810 per 100. Samples at store. All kinds of Fruit 
and Ornamental Trees at Lowest Nursery Prices. 

J. P. SWEENEY <Ss CO . Seedsmen, 

409 and 411 Davis Street, San Francisco 



BUY DIRECT! SEEDS, TREES,Etc. 



5 Cents per lb —Egyptian Corn (white and brown) 
Broom Corn; Extra Early Vermont, Snowtlake and Bres- 
see's Prolific Potatoes; Pop-Corn. 10 CtS. per lb— Pearl 
Millet in heads; Sorghum; Evergreen Imphee (for feed); 
Evergreen or Golden and Dwarf Broom-Corn; Golden 
Millet 20 Cta. per lb — Liberian, Kenny's, Amber, 
<Vnseana and Nceazana Sugar Canes; Best Spanish Chufas; 
Pearl Millet in hulls. 40 CtS. per lb —Beet; Mangold 
Wurtzel; Turnip; Chinese Imphee, largest and richest in 
sugar, (See page 250 Report of Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture for 1877). TREES at 5 to 10 Cts. each- 
Chestnut, Walnut, Maples (sugar, red and silver); Catalpas, 
Ailanthus, Fir, Pine, etc. 25 CtS. per lOO— Straw- 
berry Plants, Poplar, Osier and Hop Root Cuttings. 
At i Ct each— Arbor Vita; trees (1 foot high); Prickley 
Comfrey; Early Blackberry, and Panicum Spectabile Root- 
cuttings; pomegranate. Fig and Black Mulberry Cuttings. 

Semi-tropical and other Fruit Trees, CHEA P. 

tSTTrees, Seeds, etc, packed and delivered on cars 
without extra charge, or sent by mail for 10 cts per lb. 
additional. Send for illustrated catalogue free. Address 

W. A. Sanders, 

SANDERS P. O., 

Fresno County, CaL 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds for lbfctU. rich in engravings from 

photographs of the originals, w ill be sent FREE to all who 
apply. My old customers need not write for it I offer 
one of the largest collections of Vegetable Seed ever sent 
out by any Seed House iu America, a large portion of 
which were Brown on my six Seed Farms, full direction* 
for Cultivation on each package. All seed icarranted to 
be both frenh and true to name; so far, that should it 
prove otherwise, / will refill the order gratia. The original 
introducer of the Huhbard Squash, Phinney's Melon, 
Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores of other 
Vegetables, 1 invite the patronage of all ivho are anxious 
to have their Seed directly from the grower, freth, trut, 
and "f the very bent stratn. 

New Vegetables a Specialty. 

JAMES J. H, GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Importers, growers of, wholesale and retail dealers in 



A NEW VARIETY! 

Examined and endorsed by Agricultural Department a 

Washington. 

A Large and Luscious 

HYBRID TOMATO. 

Superior to all other Species, taste and flavor assimila- 
ting orchard fruit. 

This species of Tomato, the Yellow Large and Red 
Medium, eaRh equally delicious in flavor, may be pro- 
cured in packages of about 50 seeds, and will be sent to 
any address on receipt of 25 cents. 

Address SEVEUIN MILLER, 

P. O. Box 394, Davenport, Iowa. 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 
BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We call the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. jt&Trade price 
list on application. 
We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable Ind 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full instructions 
as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO,, 

607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



Thomas A. Cos <& Co., 

Im|K>rters and Dealers in 

Vegetable, Flower, Field, Grass 
and Tree Seeds. 



We wish to announce to country merchants and the 
trade generally that we are ready to supply all descrip- 
tions of Seeds of the New Crop of 1879. 

Special prices on application. 

Vegetable and Flow er Seeds put up in small packets for 
the retail trade. 

FRESH AND TRUE TO NAME. 

We will send the following Seeds, postpaid, on receipt 
of price. Remit by P. O. Order or postage stamps: 
Beets, peroz 10c | Parsnips, per oz 10c 



Caimts, per oz 10c 

Cabbage, j>er oz 25c 

Lettuce, per oz 15c 

Onion, per oz 16c 



Radish, per oz 10c 

Spinach, per oz 10c 

Turnip, \>eT oz 10c 

Tomato, peroz 26c 



We will mail to any address a collection of 20 packet* of 
choice Flower or Garden Seeds for$l. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees at Nursery Prices. 

THOMAS A. COX &. CO., 

409 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

PRINGLE'S 

New Hybrid Wheats, 

Champlain and Defiance, 

Heads 6 in. long— 128 bushels to the acre. 



Illustrated circulars showing different methods of cul- 
tivation by which this and other wonderful yields were 
produced, mailed to all applicants. Price of each variety, 
$2.00 per peek, $7.00 per bushel. Bags containing two 
bushels, $13 00. Prices for larger quantities on applica- 
tion. Trial packages by mail, 1 lb., 40 cts. , 3 lbs., $1.00. 

B. K. BLISS Sc SONS, 

P. O. Box 4129. 34 Barclay St., N. Y. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, M >./.••! ITi: and other Grosses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with al kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON. 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 



j\ GENTS ! READ THIS! 



We will pay Agents a Salary of $100 per 
month and expenses, or allow a large Commis- 
sion, to sell our new and wonderful inventions. We 
mean what we say. Samplo tree. Address 

SHERMAN & CO , Marshall, Mich. 



January 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



43 



Nurserymen. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 
TREES! TREES! 

The attention is called to my large and superior stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, 

Grapevines and Small Fruits, 

Of the most desirable varieties for general cultivation. 
Also many new and rare varieties of 

Japanese Plants, 

Semi-Tropical Plants, 

Greenhouse Plants, 

Bedding Plants. 

New Varieties of 

ORANGES AND LEMONS. 

Italian Olives, Etc. 

The new Catalogue of 1880 is now ready and will be 
mailed to all applicants. 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



LOS ANGELES NURSERY. 

The undersigned will furnish Fruit Trees of all kinds 
at low rates. We offer an unusually large stock of 

Apple, Peach and Apricot Trees, 

— ALSO — 

Orange and Other Fruit Trees, 

Our Trees are free from Disease or Blight of any kind. 



We have 



WOOD'S EARLY APRICOT, 

That bears four weeks earlier than any known variety. 
We also have new Apples and Peaches of much promise. 
£3" Send for catalogue at once. 

MILTON THOMAS, 

Loa Angeles, Cal. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 

516 Battery St., San Francisco. 

Seeds, Trees and Plants. 

We offer for sale the present season the largest and best 
collection of Fruit and < Ornamental Trees ever offered on the 
Paciric Coast, at REDUCED PRICES. Also, 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 

KENTUCKY, AUSTRALIAN and ITALIAN RYE 
CSRASS, RED and WHITE CLOVER, Etc. 

Agent for the 

Nurseries of B. S. Fox. 

43TSend for Price List. 516 Battery Street, San Francisco 



1,000,000' 



New! The Very Best! 

TRUE TO NAME ! 





Nevada City, Cal. 

SPECIALTIES: 

Nuts of all Kinds 

— AND - 

STRAWBERRIES. 



Proeparturiens Walnut. 

[Introduced In California In 1871, by Felix Gillet. 




Proeparturiens Walnut. 

The most precocious oi all son-shell varieties of Walnut, 
bearing even when three years old; hardy; a late bloomer; 
very productive. First bearing trees in California, at 
Felix Gillet's Nursery, fifth crop, 1879. (Full description 
In Descriptive Catalogue.) 

ONE-YEAR-OLD TREES 

Of that new and valuable variety sent to any part of Ca 
fornia and the United States, by mail, FREE of CHARGE 
in packages of two feet; packed in damp moss and oiled 
paper, and guaranteed to arrive in as FRESH a condition 
as when leaving our Nurseries, at the following prices: 
SI per tree for less than half a dozen; §8 per dozen, 

$50 Per Hundred, 
Also, One-Year-Old Late or Serotina, 

— AND — 

JEWELER'S WALNUTS, 

At the above Prices. 



Marron de Lyon and Marron Combale 

CHESTNUTS. 



Strawberry, Raspberry. Blackberry and 
Cranberry Plants. 

Strawberry Plants.— The Essex Beauty, Crescent, 
Cinderella, Forest Rose, Gleudale, Jucunda, Monarch of 
West, Langforth Proline, Triompbe d' 'Gaud, Wilson *-l- 
bftny. 

Raspberry Pt.ants.— Cuthbert Early, Early Proline, Re- 
liance, Pride of the Hudson, Braudywine, Herstine, Phila- 
delphia Red, Clark, Henrietta, Hornet, Belle de Fontenay, 
Delaware Bristol. 

Blackberry Plants — Deering Seedling. Early and 
the most productive of all. I will give satisfactory proof 
that these Berries hav« realized S750 per acre. It paid more 
than twice as much as the old varieties; also the Early Clus- 
ter, the Vina Seedling, Kittatinuy, the Mammoth Cluster, 
Missouri Mammoth, Dorchester and Lawton. 

Cranberry Plants.— The Cherry Cranberry Vines at 
$10 per 1.0U0, by mail 64 cents more. 

I will sell to responsible parties on time, part cash, 10-acre 
field of Cranberry vines under cultivation. Can be seen at 
the place. Send fur Catalogue. 

H. NYLAND, 
Boulden Island, San Joaquin Elver. 



Phylloxera-Resisting Vines. 

Vineyard proprietors desiring to plant American Grape 
Vines, which resist the attacks of the Phylloxera, 
either as Grafting Stock, or for direct production, which 
proves to be the only salvation and means of reconstruct- 
ing the destroyed Vineyards of France, will do well to 
address BUSH & SON & MEISSNER, 

Bushbergf, Jefferson Co., Mo 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

(Established 1868.) 
For sale at reduced prices, a general assortment of 
Fruit Trees and Small Fruits; also choice Ornamental 
Shrubs, Roses, etc. A limited supply of Cook's Seedling 
Apple, one and two years old. Catalogue and list of prices 
furnished on application. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



Italian and Spanish Filberts. 

MEDLAR (Monstrueuse.) 
BLACK MULBERRY (NOIR OF SPAIN.) 

23 Varieties of English Gooseberries. 

FRENCH, ENGLISH and DUTCH STRAWBERRIES. 

French Ever-Bearing Raspberry. 

FORTY VARIETIES OF GRAPES, Etc, Etc 
[«t3TSend for Descriptive Catalogue and Price ListlES 

FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 



A MAG NIFICENT FRUIT 

THE JAPANESE PERSIMMON 




SEVEN BEST VARIETIES— Alt, Grafted 



Fruit grown at San Rafael, Cal., 10 Inches In 
circumference, 
i, 2 and 3 year old trees for sale. 



HENRY LOOMIS, 

320 Sansome St. San Francisco. 



1879-80. 

W. R. STRONG & CO.. 

.Field, Garden, Lawn and Tree 

SEEDS. 



Our stock is FULL, FRESH and RELIABLE. In these 
essential particulars we claim to be unsurpassed. We 
have largely increased our list of varieties by importations 
from the best growers In the F,ast and Europe. We make 
specialties of 

ALFALFA, RED CLOVER. 

Timothy, Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass, 
HUNGARIAN GRASS, MILLET, 

Mesquit Grass, Lawn Grasses, Etc. 

Also, DUTCH FLOWERING BULBS of every descrip- 
tion. Catalogue mailed free on application. We also do a 

Wholesale Commission Business, 

Handling all kinds of California and Tropical, Green and 
Dried Fruits, Nuts, Honey and General Merchandise. 
All orders promptly attended to. Address 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 
6, 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



Santa Clara Valley Nursery, 

B. S. POX, Proprietor. 

I offer for sale this season a large general assortment of 
Nursery stock, 

FRUIT TREES, SMALL FRUITS, 
Shade and Ornamental Trees 

— AND — 

PLANTS, ROSES, ETC. 

Apple and Pear Seedlings 

AT REDUCED PRICES. 



Also the M7R0B0LAN PLUM STOCK, which does 
not sucker. 

To parties buying largely I offer Special Inducements. 
Address . B. S. FOX, San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 

516 Battery St., San Francisco. 



SHARPLESS 

[SEEDLING, 

Miners' 
Great Prolific 

AND 

Glendale, 

The BEST New 

Strawberries. 
Many other New 
and all the old 
favorites. 

RELIANCE, 

Cutbbert, 

PRIDE OF THE 

HUDSON, 

HERSTINE, 

Highland Hardy 

And twenty o'her 

varieties of 
RASPBERRIES. 

Fine Plants, low prices. Send for Catalogue. Address 

C. M. SILVA & SON, 

Newcastle, Placer County, Cal 




100,000 

AUSTRALIANGUM TREES. 

First-Class Plants. 

Sixto 12 inches high, transplanted into boxes, in good 
condition for transportation. Price, 86 to $12 per 1,000. 

JAS. T. STRATTON, Agent, 

Corner 12th Street and 9th Avenue, 

Brooklyn, Alameda Co., Cal 



JAMES HANNAY'S NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 
I offer for sale at low prices a well assorted stock of 
one-year-old 

Apple, Pear and Cherry Trees. 

Also a large stock of Apricot, Peach, Pear, Cherry and 
Plum, in tho dormant bud, for $60 per 1,000. Address 

JAMES HANNAY, San Jose, Cal. 



B. KOHLER, 
Florist and Nurseryman, 

St. Helena, Napa Co., Cal., 

Will send Grape Cuttings of tho principal varieties grown 
n St. Helena District, Napa Valley, to any part of the 
United States at Moderate Charges. 
^"Correspondence on Viniculture invited. 



TAKE NOTICE! 

To those contemplating planting ORANGE and LEMON 
Trees, I would recommend only the Best Varioties of 

THORNLESS TREES. 

Cataloguo containing full particulars furnished free on 
application. Address THOS. A. GAREY, 

P. O. Box 138, Los Angeles, Cal 



HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

San Jose, Cal. 

I offer for sale this season, a large and well assorted 

stock of 

Fruit, [Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

My trees are WELL GROWN and HEALTHY, and of the 

Best Known Varieties. 

JOHN HANNAY. 
Succcessor to Hannay Bros,, 
San Jose, Cal. 





1880 

Will be mailed free to all applicants, and to customer* without 
ordering It. It contains four colored plates, 600 engravln|rs, 
ahout 200 paees, and full description, prices and direction, for 

S anting 1500 varieties of Vegetable and Flower Seeds, Plant!, 
oses, etc. Invaluable lo all. Send for It. Address, 

D. M. FEKRY & 00., Detroit, Mich. 



River Bank Nursery. 

The undersigned offers .'or sale the present season a 

fine stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 
EVERGREENS, SHRUBBERY, 

Green-House Plants, Palms, 

ORANGE TREES, TUBEROSE BULBS, ETC. 
Also, a large and fine assortment of Roses. 

A large stock of "MONARCH OF THE WEST" Straw- 
berry Plants, one of the best market Berries, especially 
for light, sandy soils. 

L. F. SANDERSON, - San Jose, Cal. 

Comer of Twelfth street and Berryessa road -one block 
from terminus o. north side horse railroad. 



THE DINGEE & CONARD GO'S 

ISEAUTIFUL. EVER-BLOOMING 




We deliver STRONG POT ROSES for Winter 
Bloom and Fall Planting, eafrly by nail, at all 
post-offices. Five Splendid Varieties, your choice, 
all labeled, for »1 ; 13 for 8i ; 19 for $3 j 20 for 
$4; 35 for $3; 75 for $10; 100 for $13. Send 
for our New Gutile to Rose Culture, and 
choose from over 500 Finest Sorts. Our Great 
Specialty is growing and distributing Roses, 
THE DINGEE * CONARD CO., 
Ko8e-Growers,WESi Grove, Chester Co.,Pa. 



Mountain View Nursery, 

Near Cemetery, Oakland, Cal. 

Is the Largest Rose Nursery in the State. 

Our collection comprises the best named varieties Our 
prices the cheapest. Strong Plants, for «1; 26 for $4; 
100 for S15. 100,000 Blue and Red Gum Trees.vcrv cheap. 
All kinds of TREES, SEEDS, PLANTS and SHRUBS, 
ORNAMENTAL, SHADE and FRUIT TREES at Lowest 
Prices. Before purchasing elsewhere please send for Rose 
Catalogue and price list, mailed free. 

P. J. KELLER & CO., 

Oakland, Cal. 



Fisher. Richardson & Co.'s 

SEMI-TROPICAL NURSERIES. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

FIRST PREMIUM received for three successive years for 
Best liudded Orange Trees We have all tho varieties, both 
native and foreign, We have the GENOA LEMON, thorn- 
less, an early and heavy hearer. 

We grow and furnish all kinds of deciduous fruit trees at 
the lowest rates. ££TCatalogues sent promptly on application. 



Pajaro Valley Nurseries, 

WATSON VILLE, CAL., 
Has forsalc this season a general assortment of all kinds 
Of FRUIT TREES, SH ADE and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
FLOW ERING SHRUliS, ROSES, etc. 

Thirteen varieties of oTKAW BERRIES and nine varie- 
ties of RASPBERRIES- all to be sold at tho lowest mar- 
ket rates. For catalogue and price list address 

JAMES WATERS, Prop'r, 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 



Los Gatos Nurseries. 

I offer tho trade this season a Larok and gknkhai. 

AS80RT.MF.ST of 

Fruit Trees and Small Fruits. 

My trees aro healthy, stalky and well grown. Prices 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal. 

A FITTING GIFT FOR THE 

Holidays ! 

ONE HUNDRED CHOICE ROSES, 

Distinct varieties, of vigorous growth, correctly named, will 
bo furnished from our large collection for 820. 

Also a large general coliec'.ion of Nursery Stock at corres- 
ponding figures. Address 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, 

S8th Street (near) San Pablo Avenu e, Oakland Cal. 

ri= • Superior Wood and Motal Engrav- 

l 3 nPTZWlTis? '"g, Electrotyping and Stereotypy 
«1— I Iq I U' ■■■Q'lng done at the office of theMmiNO 
and SoiiNTirio Prksb, San Francisco at favorable rates. 



THE PACIFI 



RAL PRESS. 



[Jsyiuary 17, 1880. 



Governor Perkins' Inaugural Address. 

Continued from Paof. 37. 

we inherited the evils of a different system. 
Vast tracts, measured not by acres, but by lea- 
gues, of the best lands, had been granted to 
private individuals and secured to them by 
treaty. However much the public prosperity 
would be promoted by division and sale of these 
large tracts to actual settlers, I know of no mode 
by which they can be divided and sold without 
the consent of the owners. 

The State could not exercise her right of emi 
nent domain, and condemn them, for it would 
be an appropriation of private lands for private 
purposes; something unknown under our system 
of government. This evil must be left to time 
for its eradication. We can have no law of 
primogeniture and entail; therefore, the evil 
will not be perpetual. The fluctuation of busi- 
ness enterprises, the certainties «f taxation, 
and the laws of inheritance will in a few years 
divide and subdivide these great possessions. 

The new Constitution requires that cultivated 
and uncultivated land of the same quality and 
similarly situated, shall be assessed at the same 
value. This, with equal taxation prevailing to 
such an extent that the owner of his leagues of 
land shall be assessed the same value per acre as 
the owner of 100 acres, providing the land is of 
equal quality, and the few will soon realize the 
fact that it is not profitable to monopolize the 
lauds of the country. As to the large bodies of 
public lands within our State still remaining the 
property of the United States and of the State, 
that can be cultivated without large expendi- 
tures for irrigation and reclamation, I am in 
favor of such disposition of them only as will 
provide for their conversion into homes of not 
exceeding 160 acres for actual residents thereon. 

But while 1 consider the policy of taxing un- 
cultivated lands equally with cultivated lands 
of the same quality to be not only a step in the 
right direction, but one of the most important 
reforms in the new Constitution, yet the carry- 
ing out of this important trust will devolve upon 
the Assessors of the different counties and the 
State Board of Equalization; and if they faith- 
fully perforin the duties assigned them there is 
no doubt in my mind that the immense tracts 
of uncultivated lauds now held for speculative 
purposes will soon be a matter of history. 

It is estimated by the United States Survey- 
or-General, that there is yet in this State about 
forty millions of acres of public lands unsur- 
veyed. Our Senators and members of Congress 
should be requested to urge Congress to make 
the necessary appropriation to have these lands 
surveyed, and conveyed to actual settlers only, 
as it can but conduce to the encouragement of 
immigration to this State of intelligent, thrifty 
and sturdy farmers from other States and coun- 
tries, to come and settle in a State which pos- 
sesses such unbounded resources. I shall be 
pleased to give my hearty co-operation and con- 
currence to any legislation which favors a policy 
of conveying our public lands to actual settlers 
only, and the discouraging of holding large 
landed estates. 

Education. 

The public system of education will demand 
at your hands much earnest and careful consid- 
eration. The framers of the Constitution of our 
State declared a general diffusion of knowledge 
and intelligence to be essential to the preserva- 
tion of the rights and liberties of the people. 
Whatever power governs the schools, shapes the 
intelligence of the generation. The destinies of 
a republic rest upon an intelligent suffrage, 
and the intelligence of the suffrage depends 
mainly upon the public school system. Th'e 
changes in the system made necessary by the 
new Constitution presents an opportunity of a 
general review of the existing system, and such 
■wise reconstruction and improvement as experi- 
ence may have suggested, or patient and earnest 
consideration may develop. A republican gov- 
ernment will always be a perfect reflection of 
the true character of its people, and if we would 
attain that "righteousness which exalteth a 
nation," and avoid that "sin which is a reproach 
to any people," we must become, in its best and 
truest sense, an educated people. Liberty will 
not decay so long as government is controlled 
and directed by virtue and intelligence, and in 
a State like ours, where the people are the 
source of governmental power, generel educa- 
tion is the only means by which we may hope 
to transmit the free institutions under which we 
live in full vigor to succeeding generations. To 
neglect or abandon our system of public educa- 
tion is a surrender to the ignorance and vice 
which usurp the reins of government when 
virtue and general intelligence are weakened or 
decay. Educate our people, and the liberties 
we enjoy will remain unshaken by the assaults 
of insiduous usurpations and undiminished by 
the flight of time. 

The State University is the crowning glory of 
our educational system. The new Constitution 
wisely provides for its continuation as a public 
trust. By the terms of that instrument its 
government is to be perpetually continued in 
the character prescribed by the Organic Act, 
passed March 23, 1808, and the several Acts 
ameudatory thereof. It is now subject only to 
such legislative control as will insure compliance 
with the terms of its endowments. It is further 

firovided that the funds derived from the sale of 
ands donated to the State by the Government 
of the United States shall be invested as directed 
by the Acts of Congress, and the interest accru- 
ing shall be devoted to the maintenance of a 
College of Agriculture, where such branches of 



learning as relate to scientific agriculture shall 
be taught. It will be the high privilege of this 
Legislature to devise the necessary details of 
legislation by which the object of the original 
grant or donation to this State shall be carried 
into execution, and I am happy to believe that 
this responsible duty will be esteemed a sacred 
privilege, and the obligations imposed will bo 
discharged with that conscientiousness a true 
appreciation of the moral grandeur of the sub- 
ject inspires. 

Conclusion. 
At the threshold of the administrative duties 
into which by these ceremonies I am being in- 
ducted, I am conscious of a most earnest desire 
to discharge them as in the high court of truth, 
honor or justice. To achieve the distinction of 
an honorable position in the State may be the 
goal of self-love and pride; to rise equal to the 
high prerogative by the conscientious discharge 
of its duty is the more worthy aspiration of am- 
bition. For the brief term I shall enjoy the 
honors and bear the responsibilities of this 
exalted office, I trust that my every thought 
shall be directed to the welfare of the State, 
and my every effort devoted to the promotion 
of peace and prosperity, tho establishment of 
good government and the advancement of Christ- 
ian civilization. 



Legislative Committees. 

We print below the names of the members of 
standing committees in both houses of the Leg- 
islature. As these committees have special 
charge of the subjects apportioned to them, we 
give the membership that any of our readers 
having matters to bring to their attention may 
be enabled to address the proper parties. By 
reference to the list of legislators, published in 
our issue of Dec. 27th, the full name and resi- 
dence of each legislator may be ascertained. 
The first named in each case is the chairman of 
the committee: 

Senate. 

Military Affairs— Dickinson, Pardee, Conger, Glasscock, 

Nelson. 

Mines and Mining—Neumann, Watson, Burt, Pool, 

Ryan. 

Public Buildings— Baker, Hill, Hudson, Harlan, Kelly. 
Swamp and Overflowed Lands— Johnston, Brown, 
Rowell. Cheney, Langford. 
Public Morals— Burt, Chase, Johnston. 
Printing— Hill, Unwell, Gorman. 

Roads and Highways— Brown, Burt, Harlan, Langford, 

Kane. 

State Library Lampson, Hittell, Johnson. • 

State Prisons— Watson, Nye, Scars, Lampson, Moreland, 
Langfnrd, Kane. 

Irrigation, Water Rights and Drainage— Johnson, Wat- 
son, Rowell, Neumann, Brown, Pool, Satterwhite. 

Fisheries and G»me— Carlock, Pardee, Wendell, Cheney, 
Classcock. 

Elections— Neumann, Sears, Johnson, Zuck, Nelson, 
ayan, Anderson. 

City and Town Governments— Hittell, Dickinson, Pardee, 
Zuck, Chase. 

Agriculture — Johnston, Harlan, West, Langford, Glass- 
cock. 

Claims— Traylor, Davis, Enos, Pool, West. 

Commerce and Navigation— Dickinson, Traylor, Nye, 
George, Hyan. 

Contingent Expenses— Zuck, Carlock, George, More- 
land, Nelson. 

Corporations— Sears. Johnston, Traylor, Harlan, Kelly, 
West, Pool. 

County and Town Governments Wendell, Rowell, 
Zuck, Satterwhite, West. 

Education— Davis, Watson, Hill, Baker, Moreland. 

Engrossed Bills-Cheney, Carlock, Lampson, George, 
Nelson, Glasscock. 

Enrolled Bills— Hudson, Burt, Anderson, Chase, Kelly, 
Corman. 

Federal Belations— Baker, Cheney, Davis, Enos, Satter- 
white. 

Finance— Pardee, Johnson, Traylor, Cailock, Brown, 
Conger, Ryan. 

Hospitals— Rowell, Lampson, Hudson, Anderson, Gor- 
man. 

Judiciary— Nye, Wendell, Hittell, Johnson, Davis, 
Dickinson, Satterwhite, Moreland, Enos. 

Assembly. 

Agriculture— Chamberlain, Chandler, Carr, Hersheyi 
Frazer, Bennett, Walker. 

Mining, Agriculture and Mechanics' Art College— York, 
Mulholland, Brown of Sonoma, Frink, Bass, Anthony, 

McDade. 

Claims— Merry, McComas, Finlayson, Downs, Bruner, 
York, Burns. 

Commerce and Navigation — Finlayson, Cuthbert. Ward, 
Camron, Goffey. 

Corporations Brown of Yuba, Felton, Young, Merry, 
Chamberlain, Gorley, Dimond, Cooper, Garibaldi. 

Counties and County Boundaries — Stanley, Urown, 
Brusie, Gorlay, Ward, Sherbum, Bennett, Messenger, 
Picket, Gaffey. 

Culture and Improvement of theGranc — Adams, Leach, 
Dal Valle. Camron, Felton, Mathews, Wasson of Ventura. 

Education— Wasson of Ventura, Leadbetter, Adams, 
Fox, Morse, Green, McComas. 

Elections— Camron, Merry, Estee, Tyler, Frazer, Braun- 
hart, McCarthy. 

Enrollment— Brooks, Hardy, Spencer, Coleman, Mc- 
Carty. 

Fish and Game— Leach, Estee, Mcintosh, Burns, Hynes, 
Ward, Sherburn. 

Federal Relations— Mulholland, Durham, Streeter, Mc- 
Carty, Coleman, Spencer, Sayle. 

Indian Affairs— Hardy, Hynes, Levee, Mathews, May- 
bell. 

Internal Improvements— Chandler, Nelson, Coleman, 
Leadbetter, Mulholland. 

Irrigation, Water Rights and Drainage— Downs, Brown 
of Yuba, Young, Del Valle, Fox, Sweetland, McCallion. 

Mileage— Estee, Hershcy, Carr of Yuba. 

Mines and Mining Interest— Wasson of Mono, Young, 
Nelson, Desmond, Walker, Mulholland, Josselyn. 

Public Buildings and Grounds— Bruner, Spencer, Frink, 
Leadbetter, McGuire, McDade. Sinon. 

Public Expenditures and Accounts— Watson, York, 
Leach, Brusie, Carr of Sacramento. 

Public Lands— McComas, Bennett, Green, Hardy, Morse, 
Watson, Chandler, Anthony, Stoddard. 

Public Morals— Bennett, Braunhart, Corcoran, Maybell. 

Public Printing -Young, Cooper, Wasson of Mono, 
Spencer, Sayle, Carr of Sacramento, Bruner. 

Retrenchments— Coleman, McCarthy, Waston of Ven- 
tura, Stanley, Green. 

Roads and Highways— Dimond, Downs, Stanley, Nel- 
son, Harris, McCallion. 

State Hospitals— Durham, May, Josselyn, Cook, Harris. 

State Library— Carr of Sacramento, Young, DuBrutz. 

State Prison—Tyler, May, Estee, Brooks, Carr of Sacra- 
mento, Ler.ch, Lane, Mctluire. 

Swamp and Overflowed Lands —Felton, Camron, Adams, 
Chandler, Bruner, Corcoran, Mathews. 

Ways and Means— May, Morse, Leach, Downs, Brooks, 



Brown of Yuba, De Valle, Cuthbert, Coffmsn. 
Forestry - Brusie, Messenger, Mcintosh, Sweetland, 

McDade 

County and Municipal Government— Streeter, Frink, 
Ware, Camron, Carr of Yuba, Felton, McCarthy, McDade, 

Stoddard. 

Labor and Capital — Green, Brown of Sonoma, Du- 
Brutz, Cook, Maybell, Streeter, Finlayson, Chamberlain. 



" THJ Poultry News."— Mr. Weston P. 
Truesdale, of San Leandro, Cal., has begun the 
publication of a journal, devoted to poultry and 
kindred interests, which is called The Poultry 
Ntu-x and Thoroughbred Stock Gazette. It 18 
the publisher's intention to issue a journal 
which will prove of great local value, as the 
poultry papers of the East do not wholly meet 
conditions prevailing here. By a printer's mis- 
hap the first issue of the Poultry News con- 
tained fewer pages than was intended. We 
wish the new journal such success as it may 
deserve. 

Knob Hill Poultry Yards. — As may be 
surmised from his advertisement, Mr. T. D. 
Morris, of Sonoma, has moved his poultry es- 
tablishment to a new site, and has extended his 
facilities for breeding. He has made extensive 
importations of the choicest stock since last 
spring, and these, together with his original 
strains, make his resources ample for supplying 
the active demand which his stock has secured. 
We trust he will ere long give us a good de- 
scription of his material and methods. 

Not Forest Land. — In a correspondent's let- 
ter last week the types had an allusion to 
" forest" land elsewhere selling higher than the 
best in Cucamonga colony. It should have been 
poorent land elsewhere, etc. 



List of U. 



S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



[From Official Reports for the "Mining and Scientifl 
Press," Dewey & Co., Publishers and U. 
S. and Foreign Patent Agents. ] 

For the Week Ending December 30, 1879. 

2-23,102. — Oil Separator- C. Bennett and P. Bumham 
Silver City, New Mexico. 

223,028.— Chuck-Hook— W. M. Blain, Salinas, Cal. 

223,1 4 — Machixk toR Tarrino Wire Ropr— R. Cotter, 
Virginia. Nevada 

223,032. — Filly Plate - C. Cremer, Consumnes, Cal. 

223,187.— Railway Chair J. R. Sullivan, San Rafael. 

223,082.— Hay Unloader J. Tyler, Milford, Cal. 

J'j:(.2o:{ Vehicle Axle E. A. Wible. Folsoin, Cal. 

7,788.— Medicinal Compound — Trademark— Dr. Val. 
Sechncr, S F. 

2,172.- Chocolate— Label— E. Guitlard, S. F. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents funiished 
by Dewey it Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



OUR AGENTS. 

Oi-r Friends can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence ami encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. Tharp— San Francisco. 

B. W. Crowell — California. 
A. C. Knox— Pacific Coast. 
S. V. Bi.akksler — California. 

G. W. McGrew. — Santa Clara county. 

J. B. Bachblder.— Shasta County, Cal. 

James Rooers- Oregon and Washington Ter. 

Tiios. H. M'annino — Nevada, Idaho and Montana Ter. 

Capt. W. H. Seamens— Arizona. 

M. P. Owen— Santa Cruz County. 

II. B. Hali.ktt -Los Anureles County. 

Pkrlky P. Kii.rournk -Sacramento County. 

M. B Starr— Contra Costa county. 

P, M Variikn -Alameda Co., Cal. 

C. A. McMahon Butte Co., Cal. 
W. B. Ti rner -California. 

J. W. A. Wrioht — Merced, Tulare, Kern and Fresno 
counties. 



We arc under obligations to Messrs. Dewey* Co., 9. F., 
for acopy of the "Pacific Rural Handbook," by Charles 
II Shinn The book embraces ISO original pages, and 
contains a series of brief and practical essays and notes 1 
on the culture of trees and shrubs, adapted to the Pacific 
( oast; also hints on farm and household economy, it 
contains valuable suggestions on laying out grounds, im- 
proving soil, irrigation, wind-breaks and hedges, fruit 
trees and small fruits, shade trees, shrubs, the vegetable 
garden, flower garden and lawn, seeds and seed planting, 
cuttings, etc. The book is substantially bound in cloth, 
and sent posti>aid for $1. Address Dewey & Co., No. 202 
Sansomc St., San Francisco — Kern County Gazette. 

The Riverside Hoise is pleasantly located in thecenter 
of the town in Riverside Colony, San Bernardino Co. It 
is a new two-story brick building, containing some 40 
rooms. Health-seekers and other visitors to this most 
favored climate will find good boarding accommodation, 
at favorable rates. For further information address the 
proprietors, Cunningham & Moody, Riverside, San Ber- 
nardino Co., Cal. 

Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, amone which is Prof. Gruber*8 great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 

Dr. DeWitt Clinton Moore's lecture on "The Science 
of Health Conservation, or the True Healing Art," may 
be had by applying at No. 8 Ellis St., S. F., or by mail by 
inclosing a three-cent stamp. 

Sample Copies —Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending It 
circulation. We call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 

Extra Copies can usually be had of each issue of this 
paper, if ordered early. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 



Nora —Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not Intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 14, 1880. 

There has been another uneventful week, with slow 
trade in nearly all branches. At' home and abroad the 
Wheat market has been about at a standstill, the only 
sensation being the excitement attending the immense 
Grain speculations at the East. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 



Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 



Cal. Average. 



10s -.l.iii- 

10s 8d<ails 

10S -.1 (lis 

10s 8d(gUs 

10s '-.I (ll< 

10s 8d@lls 





Club. 


7d 


lis 


6diails 


lOd 


u 


lis 


5d@lls 


lOd 


6d 


lis 


&d(glls 


lOd 


6d 


lis 


■ 1 .(IN 


lOd 


6d 


lis 


6d<allB 


9d 


H 


lis 


6d@lls 


9d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows : 
Average. Club. 

1878 12s 7d@12s lid 12s 10d@18s Sd 

1878 0s — @9s 4d Us 8d@ 9s 8d 

It 80 10s Sd@lls &d lis 5d@lls 9d 

The Foreign Review. 

London. Jan. 13 — The Mark Lane Exprttt, reviewing 
the British Grain trade for the past week, says: In 
consequence of the comparatively favorable weather, fann- 
ers have been actively engaged with arrears of sowing. 
Consequently threshing was somewhat neglected, and de- 
liveries of Wheat at the principal markets have dimin- 
ished. The condition of the majority of offerings, how- 
ever, was so bad that millers would scarcely look at 
samples. Sales have been few, and only dry lots main- 
tained prices. The bulk of the business in Mark Lane 
consisted of purchases by country millers of hard, dry 
foreign Wheat as a substitute fur or mixture with. English. 
Business in Mark Lane has been depressed, as, in view of 
America's large Burplus, buyers were content to satisfy 
immediate requirements, and in consequence of a weaker 
feeling on the part of holders they have been enabled to 
do so on rather easier terms Buyers appear to attach lit- 
tle importance to the great speculative movement in 
America, judging from the present apathetic state of the 
Grain trade, and the fact that stocks at the principal ports 
in the United Kingdom are considerably in excess of those 
at the same time last year. While the quantity on pas- 
sage exceeds 225,000 quarters, it is improbable that hopes 
of American speculators will be just at present realized. 
Stocks of Maize in this country are unusually small. The 
price, however, has fallen 3s per quarter in a fortnight, 
doubtless owing to the practically unbounded stock in 
America. Oats rather favored sellers, in consequence of 
coin|>aratively light imports. Arrivals at the ports of call 
were moderate, and the trade was decidedly quiet. Wheat 
declined Is to Is 6d per quarter. Wheat for shipment was 
quiet, buyers still holding off, though some sellers are 
offering at Is to Is 6d per quarter decline. Sales of Eng- 
lish Wheat last week were 3,075 quarters, at 46s 2d per 
quarter, against 37,400 quarters, at 39s 7d per quarter, for 
the corresponding week last year. Imports into the 
United Kingdom, during the week ending Jan. 3d, were 
1,282,794 cwta of Wheat, and 320,453 cwts of Flour. 
Freights and Charters. 

The engagements reported since last Wednesday have 
been as follows: Ship Samuel H'atte, 2,035 tons, Wheat 
to Liverpool, Havre or Antwerp direct, £2 17s 6d; Cork, 
(J. K., £3 10, lay days. British ship Minuter qf Marine, 
1,082 tons, Wheat to Cork for orders, £2 5s, prior to ar- 
rival. British bark Cape Clear, 880 tons, Wheat to Cork, 
U. K.,or Havre, £3 7s 6d. British bark Havilah, 495 
tons, Wheat to Cork, or Havre, £3 10s. Bark Jamet A 
Wright, 033 tons, Wheat to Liverpool, £3 2s 6d. 
Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

New York, Jan. 10. —Markets generally are quiet, as 
usual at the beginning of the year, but there are indica- 
tions of an active revival after balance sheets of the past 
year have been completed Breadstuffs are dull, weak 
and lower, in absence of export or speculative demand. 
Provisions are dull, and outside of options nothing is do- 
ing. Prices are wholly nominal. 

Ciiicaoo, Jan. 10.— The same unusual condition of prices 
remains the feature on the Board of Trade, and the enor- 
mous aggregate of Grain in the elevator in Chicago, and 
points outside the city and along its tributary railroads, is 
growing larger daily, until at present there is hardly room 
in any elevator for the diminishing receipts that mark the 
latter days of this week. The total of receipts exceeds the 
shipments of Grain by nearly 1,250,000 bushels. During 
the week the New York clique have been from day to day 
"milking" the market. This was more marked on 
Wednesday, when, after Wheat had declined nearly 3c, 
Baker a. Co. , the agents of the Keene ring, hopped in, and, 
loading up with a few hundred thousand bushels of Febru- 
ary Wheat, so astonished and scared the short interest that 
the next day the market more than recovered, and the 
talk of 81 50 per bushel was louder than ever. One thing 
is certain, there must be a continental rise or a break be- 
fore long. Outside the huge moneyed clique, who control 
the market now, everybody on the trade seems to regard 
a break as certain. It is claimed that Keene, Hatch, 
Dows and the other manipulators regard the situation 
with indifference. They know that if a break occurs there 
will be a tremendous rush to ship the Grain, and they 
will make on the advance in transfer stocks, in which they 
are largely concerned, more than they lose on the decline 
in Grain. If, on the contrary, they find themselves able 
to keep prices up, they will eventually force the European 
markets up and the railroad stocks. The farmer is the in- 
dividual wno suffers the greatest injury from this state of 
the market. He sees the high prices quoted, and yet 
when he offers his wares for sale is met with the discourag- 
ing answer that the elevators are full, and that there is no 
place to store his Grain, even if he delivers it. Provisions 
were buffeted to and fro with generally firmer prices and a 
better feeling, but no market. Closing February prices: 
Wheat, *1.29i; Corn, 41Jc; Oats, 36Jc; Pork, «13 50; Lard, 
$7.72J<S7.75. Closing cash prices: Wheat, 91.28); Corn, 
40c; Oats, 35c; Rye, 80c; Barley, 84c; Pork, 913.40. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Nsw York, Jan. 10.— Wool is quiet, it being yet too 
early for an active demand. Prices, however, are very 
firm. Sales of California: 110,000 lbs Fall, 22@28c; 76,000 
lbs Lamb's, 83@87c; 10,000 lbs Spring, 33@36c; 8,000 lbs 
scoured, 73@77Jc. 

Boston, Jan. 10.— The Wool market during the past 
week was firm, and the demand from manufacturers good. 
There was a large number of buyers in the market, but 
transactions were restricted by the firmness and indiffer- 
ence of holders. Full prices continue to rule. Sales of 
Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces, X, XX and XXX and 
above at 49@55o; Michigan XX and No. 1 at 47@&Sc; Wis- 
consin X at 48c; New Hampshire and Illinois fleeces at 
46@65c; delaines and combing, coarse, fine and medium, 
at 45C<t55c; Georgia at 44Jc; Kentucky at 43@46c; Terri- 
tory at 20(tf40c; Texas at 27«t35c; unwashed and unmsr- 



January 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



45 



cbantable fleeces at 27@40Jc; super and X pulled at 45@ 
46c; scoured at 41@75c; Spring California at 32@42c; Fall 
do, at 22@37c; tub-washed at 52Jc. Total sales of the 
week, 2,611,800 lbs, of which 1,327,800 was domestic. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 13.— Wool is in improved demand; 
prices firm. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 



Artiolbs. 



Flour, quarter sacks. 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Wkkk. 


Wbek. 


Webk. 


Webk. 


Dec. 24. 


Dec. 31. 


Jan. 7. 


Jan. 14. 


60,792 


35,027 


20,464 


38,111 


299,742 


127,710 
11,467 


201,342 


172,704 


20,716 


4,737 


20,289 


8,907 


1,585 


1,562 


2,252 


3,954 


1,627 


8,335 


2,301 


i.v.n 


14,352 


1,849 


' 953 


16,865 


17,391 


9,802 


10,805 


954 


964 


1,228 


1,206 


104 


24 


102 


3 


29 




63 


14 




926 


1,005 


487 


686 



BAGS— Jute Bags are quiet. Spot prices are 10@llc for 
standard hand sewed. Owing to the advance in Cotton at 
the East there has been a sharp rise here in Flour Sacks, 
as shown in our price list. 

BARLEY— General range of prices is unchanged. We 
note sales of 930 sks good Bay Brewing, Oakland delivery, 
at 90c; and 1,000, 400 and 300 sks good Coast Feed at 72$c 
per otl. 

BEANS— There is no change in Beans, except that the 
top price for Butter Beans is $1.30. 
BUCKWHEAT — Unchanged. 

CORN— Sales are few and old prices are maintained. 

DAIRY PRODUCE — California fresh roll is a shade 
lower, and nothing hut fancy brands to special customers 
go above 26c per lb. Cheese is unchanged. 

EGGS— The general market is lower, say about 26c to 
28c; but some lots of choice sorted bring 30c. 

FEED— There is no change either in Hay or Millstuffs. 

FRUIT— The staples are now Apples and Oranges. The 
latter are coming in more freely from Los Angeles, and 
the price has dropped on the average. There are still 
some choice lots sold above quotations. In Dried Fruit 
there has been an advance in Apples, Pears and Plums, as 
shown in our price list. 

FRESH MEAT — Beef and choice Milk Calves are higher. 
Live Hogs have dropped Jc on the extreme price. 

HOPS— Sales are few, and a lower range of prices is 
quoted by dealers. These may be found in our table be- 
low. The New York market for the week ending Janu- 
ary 3d is reported by Emmet Wells, as follows: 

Those who have looked for an early improvement in the 
trade in January are likely to be disappointed; for, until a 
reaction takes place in London, and fresh orders come in 
for export, we do not see any show for a revival of busi- 
ness. Quotations: New Yorks, new crop, choice, 38@ 
40c; do do medium, 34@36c; do do low fair, 30@32c; 
Eastern, do, 30@38c; Wisconsin, do, 30u*38c; Yearlings, 
7@18c; Olds, all growths, 4@10c; Pacific Coast Hops, new, 
35(*40c; do do, olds (nominal), 7@12c; Bavarians, 50@65c 

LIVE STOCK— The following sales are reported to us: 
2.403 Sheep in Santa Barbara, excellent stock, $2.50 on 
the ranch; 1,870 Sheep, $2.50, to be kept till fat; 680 
Ewes, Lambs and Wethers, SI. 50, delivered in San Fran- 
cisco; 500 Wethers, fair condition, Colusa county, $2.25; 
900 Hogs at 3J(§3Jc per lb; 57 carloads Nevada Cattle, 
price not stated; 5 carloads Calves, $15 each; 900 Ewes 
fair, at $2.25, in San Francisco; 1,500 fat Wethers. Lucky 
Baldwin's ranch, $2.87J; 900 Sheep in Fresno, year's wool 
on, $3.12}. 

OATS — A few sales have been made at former prices. 

ONIONS— There is no change. 

POTATOES— The best Potatoes, from nearly all the best 
r egions, now bring 85c per ctl. Sweets have advanced to 
75c@$l per ctl. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Poultry is unchanged. Wild 
Ducks of all kinds are about 25c lower per doz. 

PROVISIONS —The list is without change. 

SEEDS— Hemp and Timothy are higher. Kentucky 
Blue Grass and Red Top are 5@3c lower, respectively. 

TALLOW— Refined Tallow has advanced Jc per lb. 

VEGETABLES— Carrots are selling a little better. Mar. 
rowfat Squash has advanced to $10@12 per ton. 

WHEAT— Some No. 1 Shipping has been sold at $2.05, 
which is a little better than a woek ago. As a rule, how 
ever, the market has been lifeless, and transactions few. 
We note sales of 50 tons choice White Australian Milling 
at $2.05; 160 sks choice Milling at $2.02}; 100 tons fai 
Shipping at $I.92J; 150 do poor do, and 200 ctls Coast, &[ 
$1.90; 300 do off grade at $1.85. 

WOOL— Prices are nominal, as the stocks of most deal 
ers are cleaned up. A review of the Wool trade of the 
year may be found on page 34 of this issue. 



RETAIL GROCERIES. ETC 

Wedn 



Butter, California 

Choice, tt) 25 

Cheese 18 i 

Eastern 25 i 

Lard, Cal is 

Eastern 20 

Flour, ex. fain, bbl8 00 

Corn Meal, lb 2* 

Sugar wh. crshd 12j 

Light Brown 

Coffee^ Green 23 

Tea, Fine Black... 50 

Finest Japan.... 55 

Candles, Aduit'e. . 15 i 

oap. Cal 7 i 



esday m., January 14, 1880, 

Rice 8 @ 12 

Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 50 @2 00 
Oan'd Oysters doz2 00 (83 50 
Syrup, S F Gold'n 75 @1 02 
Dried Apples, lb . . 10 @ 

Ger. Prunes 121(5 

Figs, Cal 9 <§ 

Peaches 11 @ 

Oils, Kerosene 50 @ 

Wines, Old Port. ..3 50 §5 66 

French Claret 1 00 (52 50 

Cal, doz bot 3 00 @4 50 

Whisky, O K, gal. .3 50 <»5 00 
French Brandy.. ..4 00 @8 00 



BAGS AND BAGGING. 

JUBBINO PRICES.l 

E8DAY M., January 14, 1880 

Eighths 4 @ 

Hessian. 60 Inch — @] 

45 inch 9 @10 

40 inch 9 <ti \ 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 3J lb..— ®4. 

4 lb do. 475(555 

Machine Sewed 45 @~ 

Standard Gunnies....— 
Bean Bags 6 J 



L „ Wedn 
En$ Standard Wheat. 10 '(111 
California Manufacture. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.-10 @11 

£*36 10}@1H 

22x40 _ §n| 

23x40 _ @i 2 J 

24x40 _@13 

Machine Swd, 22x36. — «rll 
Flour 8acks, halves.... 8 @11* 
Quarters 6 <si 61 



M14J 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co.j 

SA.N Francisco, January 14. 3 r. 

BiLVut, i par. 

aouUt ° Bajw - 890@910. Silvxb Bars, 10@18 oent die- 

iaF X ?5 ANQ11 ? n , S e T, York - M - on London bankers, 49J@ 
doUar^Mlwf* 1 : ^ aT9franM * a "**! Mexi&n 

London Consols, 97 5-16; Bonds (4%), 106*. 

QuiOMliYiH. In 8. F., by the flask, lb, 39*, 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

r WHOLR8ALB. 1 

Wednesday m., January 14, 1S80. 



16 



274 



BEANS A PEAS. 

Mayo, ctl 1 10 @1 25 

Butter 1 25 @1 40 

Castor 3 25 @3 50 

Pea 1 25 @1 40 

Red 1 10 @1 30 

Pink 95 @1 05 

Sm'l White 1 12'-ai 25 

Lima 6 00 (<?6 50 

Field Peas, yellow. 1 37 @1 50 
do. green.. 95 Ml 00 
1CUOOM COKN. 

Southern 1J@ 

Northern 2»@ 

CHICCORY, 

California 4 @ 

German 61@ 

DAIRY PRODUCE. ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, tt) 25 @ 26 

Fancy Brands 27 <g 28 

Pickle RoU 22'@ 24 

Firkin 18 @ 224 

Western 12>@ 15 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, tt).... 14 @ 
N. Y. State — @ 

EGOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz. ... 26 @ 

Ducks' — @ 

Oregon — @ 

Eastern, by expr'ss. — ® — 

Pickled here — (5 — 

Utah — <a — 

EEED. 

Bran, ton 16 00 «*17 00 

Corn Meal 22 50 ij*23 50 

Hay 7 50 @12 00 

Middlings (op22 00 

Oil Cake Meal. ..34 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 <g 50 

FLOUR. 
Extra, City Mills . 6 124(36 624 
do, Co'ntry Mills 5 25 .55 75 

do, Oregon 5 25 (55 50 

do, Walla Walla. 5 75 @6 124 

Superfine 3 50 @4 25 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 64@ 

Second 5 @ 

Third 34® 

Mutton 44@ 

Spring Lamb 6 @ 

Pork, undressed... 38(8 

Dressed 5 & 

Veal 6 @ 

Milk Calves 6&@ 

do choice... 7 @ 8 
GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 70 @ 77 j 
do, Brewing. . . 85 @ 97' 

Chevalier 1 50 m 75 

do, Coast.. 1 00 @1 20 

Buckwheat 1 25 @1 35 

Corn, White 95 & 974 

Yellow 95 @1 00 

Small Round.... 974@1 02J 

Oata 1 00 @1 35 

Milling — (5l 50 

Rye 1 10 (5l 25 

Wheat, No. 1 2 00 @2 05 

do, No 2 1 924ml 974 

do. No. 3 1 70 (*1 75 

Choice Milling.. — @2 05 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 20 @ 204 

Wet salted 9 @ 10 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, tb 22 J@ 254 

Honey in comb.. .. 15 @ 18 

do. No 2 12J(g 15 

Dark 10 15 

Extracted 10 @ 12J 

HOPS. 

Oregon, 32J@ 35 

California, new . . . 324(5 374 

Wash. Ter 30 @ 32* 

Old Hops 8 @ 124 

NtfTS-JobblnK. 

Walnuts, Cal 10 <a 14 

do Chile 8 (9 9 

Almonds, hd shl ft. 8 (ct 10 

Softsh'l 1740 20 

Brazil 15 @ 16 

Chestnuts. Italian. 25 @ 324 

Pecans 16 (± 17 

Peanuts 8 @ 9 



Filberts 17 @ 18 

ONIONS. 

Alviso 40 @ 7! 

Union City, ctl.... 75 @- 87] 

San Leandro — @ — 

Stockton — @ — 

Sacramento River. 40 (3 7i 

Oregon — @ — 

Red — (5 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma. ctl 60 (3 P5 

Touiales 60 @ 85 

Humboldt 65 S 85 

34 Cufifey Cove 60 @ 85 

I Early Rose, sk 30 >a 45 

4J Half M'n Bay.new 35 



Alvarado. red 50 (3 85 

Jersey Blue 85 (5 874 

Sweet 75 (fll 00 

POULTRY A «AMK. 

Hens, doz 5 09(3 7 00 

Roosters 4 50@ 6 50 

Broilers 4 50@ 5 00 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 6 00(3 7 00 

Mallard 2 50(88 3 00 

Sprig 1 25(5 1 50 

Teal 1 00(5 1 25 

Widgeon 76@ 1 00 

Geese, pair 1 75(3 2 25 

Wild Gray, doz.. 2 50(5 3 00 

White do 1 00,5 1 25 

Turkeys 14 ®— 16 

do, Dressed 16 @— 18 

Snipe Eng 1 25 (3 1 50 

do. Common .... — @ 56 

Quail, doz — @ 1 00 

Rabbits 50 @ 1 00 

Hare 1 50 (3 2 00 

Venison — ® 

PROVISIONS. 

Cal. Bacon, H'vy.tt) 84@ 9 

Medium 9 @ 

Light 9 (3 

Lard 84@ 

Cal. Smoked Beef 84(3 

ShoulderB, Cover'd 6*(3 

Hams, Cal 94@ 

Dupee's — (5 

None Such — @ 

WhittaKer — @ 

Royal 144@ 

Reliable — @ 

Palmetto 131ft* 

H. Ames k Co... 144(5 

Armour — @ 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 6 (3 

do, Chile 5 (3 

Canary — (5 

Clover, Red 16 & 

White 50 @ 

Cotton — @ 

Flaxseed 2}@ 

Hemp — @ 

Italian Rye Grass 30 (3 

Perennial 30 @ 

Millet, German ... 12 (3 

do, Common . . 7 (5 

Mustard, White... 3 @ 

Brown 14@ 

Rape „ 3 <fb 



Ky Blue Grass. . 

2d quality 20 @ 

Sweet V Grass. . . . — w 

Orchard 20 @ 

Red Top _ @ 

Hungarian 8 @ 

Lawn 30 (3 

Mesquit 15 @ 

Timothy — @ 

TALLOW. 

Crude, tt> 9} @ 

Refined 74 @ 

WOOL. ETC. 

FALL. 

San Joaquin and S. Coast. 





13 


«t> 


15 




U 




IB 




It 


@ 


18 


Northern. 












@ 


30 




20 




23 


Oregon, Eastern . . . 


27 




30 




28 


% 


32 


do. Lamb 


30 


(3. 


39 


Mendocino & Hum- 








boldt 


28 


@ 


30 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

IWnOLBSALB.l 

Wednesday m.. January 14, 1880. 



1.', 
24 
10 
8 

5 

13 
22S 
10 

9 (3 11 
4 (d> 5 
15 (5— 17 
124(5 13 



FRtnT MARKET. .Blackberries.. 

Apples, box — 40 @ 1 25 Citron 

Apricots, box (3 — — I Dates 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 (3 5 00 

Blackb'ries, ch'st @ 

Cherries, ch'st. . . — — @— — 

Citrons, Cal., 100 <3 

Cocoanuts. 100. . 2 50 (3 4 00 

Crab Apples @— — 

Cranberries, bbl.10 00 @14 00 

Currants, chest.. (3. 

Figs, box @ 

Gooseberries.... (g 

Grapes, bx r @ 

Damascus . . . . (3 

Muscat @ 

Isabella @ 

Conlehon — 70 <5 1 00 

Tokay @ 

Limes. Mex 5 00 @ 6 50 

do, Cal, box... 1 00 (3 1 50 
do, large, box. 3 00 (3 5 00 
Lemons, Cal M.10 00 (320 00 
Sicily, box ... . 8 00 (310 00 

Australian.... (3 

Nectarines, bsk. ($ 

Oranges, Cal M.15 00 <tt40 00 

do. small.... @10 00 

do, Tahiti... & 

do, Mexican 20 00 (130 00 Chile Peppers, bx 

Peaches, bsk & Cucumbers, bx.. — ftp- 
do. Mountain. (5 [Egg Plants, bx. . (5— 

Pears, bx — 75 (3 1 00 Garlic. New, lb. .— 6 (3— 

W. Nells 1 25 (5 2 25 Green Corn 



— <3 
23 @ 
9 (3 

Figs, pressed ... 6 @ 

do, loose 4 @ 

Peaches 11 @ 

do pared ... 18 @- 

Pears, Blicrd 9 (3 

do, peeled. . . 9 (3 

Plums 

Pitted 

Prunes 

Raisins, Cal, bx 2 00 (3 2 25 
do, Halves... 2 25 (3 2 50 
do, Quarters. . 2 50 (3 2 75 

Eighths 2 75 @ 3 00 

Loud'u Lay'rs bx 2 50 (5 2 75 
do. Halves.. 2 75 (5 3 00 
do, Quarters 3 00 (5 3 25 
do, Eighths. 3 25 (3 3 50 

Malaga 2 75 (5 3 00 

Zante Currants.. S & 10 

VEGETABLES. 
Asparagus, box..— — (3— — 

Beets, ctl — 50 @ 

Beans, String. .. (3— — 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 40 (3— 60 

Carrots, sk — &— 40 

Cauliflower, doz 30 (3 50 



Seckel 

Pineapples, doz. (5 6 00 

Plums, box (3 

Pomegranates tb @ 

Prunes, bsk — (5 — 

Quinces, box — 25 @ 50 

Raspb'ries, ch'st. (3 

St'wberries. ch'st (5 

dri»:d fki it. 

Apples, sliced, ft) 7 @ 10 



LEATHER. 

TWHOLBSALB. I 

AVednesday. m.. January 14, 1880. 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 22 (O 29 

Light 20 24 

Jodot, 8 Kil., doz 48 00 (*50 34 

11 to 13 KU 45 00 (<V57 00 

14 to 19 Kil 61 00 ("73 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 65 00 (<i70 00 

Cornellian, 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 (<r«7 00 

Females, 12 to 13 KU 63 00 @67 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 (rf76 00 

Simon Ullino, Females, 12 to 13 KU 58 00 (c'02 50 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 ("70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 (»74 Oil 

Simon, 18 Kil 61 00 (363 00 

20 Kil 65 00 (n 07 00 

24 Kil 72 00 «'74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00 or40 00 

Kips. French, lb 1 00 (3 1 35 

Cal. doz 40 00 6§60 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 (n"15 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 ft* 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all oolors, doz 9 00 ft* 13 <«) 

For Linings 6 90 ftrlO 50 

al. Russet Sheep Linings 1 , (rf> 4 50 

oot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 & 

BGood French Calf 4 00 ft* 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 5 00 ft* 5 25 

Leather, Harness, ft) 35 (3 374 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 10 ftf72 00 

Skirting, tt> 33 <S 37 

Welt, doz 30 00 «/50 00 

Buff, ft 19 (3 18 

Wax Side 19 @ 18 



Green Peas, lb . . ft? 

Lettuce, doz 10 (3 

Mushrooms, lb.. — (3 

Parsnips, lb *lQt~ ^ 

Horseradish 6 ft*— 8 

Rhubarb lb @ 

SquaBb, Marrow 

fat, tn 10 00 (312 00 

Summer, box.. @ — • 

Tomato, box.. 



do, quartered. 6 (3 61 Turnips, ctl — 40 ft*— 90 

Apricots 19 (3— 18 I White ft?— 50 



LUMBER. 

Wednesday M., January 14, 1880. 



CARGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, M 14 00 

Surface 24 00 

Rustic 24 00 

do, No. 2 18 00 

Flooring 24 00 

do. No. 2 17 00 

Beaded Flooring 28 00 

Refuse 20 00 

Half-inch Siding 20 00 

Refuse 16 00 

Half-inch Surfaced 24 00 

Refuse 18 00 

Half-inch Battens 16 00 

Pickets. Rough 11 00 

Rough, Pointed 12 50 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 

Shingles 1 76 



REDWOOD. 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Pickets, Rough 15 00 

Pointed 16 00 

Fancy 22 50 

Siding 20 90 

Surfaced & Long Bjadcd30 00 

Flooring 29 00 

do, No. 2 17 00 

Rustic, No. 1 29 00 

do, No. 2 18 00 

Battens, lineal ft 

Shinnies M 200 

PIHiF.T SOUND PINE 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fencing 18 00 

Laths 3 60 



Commission Merchants. 



CHAS. RYHNER, 

(Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange 

GENERAL COMM SSI0N MERCHANT. 

— Dealer in — 

FLOUR, UrtAIN, FEED AND PRODUCE. 

216 Davis Street, 

uctw cen Clay and Commercial, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 
Consi imicnts of all kinds of Produce solicited. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rkvkrrnck.— Tradesmen's National Ban*. N T • Ell 
wanirer & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed- Sacra 
mento, Cal. : A Lugk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ' 



Frank Naumah. 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francibco.— Week ending January 13, 1880. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST RAROMKTRR. 



Charles Nauman. 

C & F. NAUMAN & CO., 

Wholesale Commission Merchants 



Jan. 7 


Jan. 8 


Jan. 9 


Jan 10 


Jan. 11 


Jan. 12 


Jan. 13 


29.938 


30.190 


30.057 


30.327 


30.449 


30.415 


30.287 


29.769 


30.028 


29.830 


29.991 


30.374 


30.300 


30.111 




MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TIIRRMOMETRR. 




59 


56 


57 


a 


54 


1 4S 


54 


40 


46 


48 




40 


41 


43 






MEAN 


DAILY HUMIDITY. 






75 


71 


84.3 


56.3 


70.3 1 68 


66.7 






PREVAILING WIND. 






S 


W 


sw 


I NW 


N 


1 N 


1 N 






WIND — MILR8 TRAVELED. 






164 


279 


281 


1 302 


228 


1 77 


| 158 






STATE OP WEATHKR. 






Cloudy 


1 Fair. I Cloudy | Clear. 


1 Clear. 


I Clear. 


Clear. 




RAINFALL IN TWRNTT-FOUR HOURS. 




.24 


.12 


1.03 


I .03 






1 



GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, POULTRY 
EGGS, GAME, ETC. ' 

227 & 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 

^■Consignments Solicited, "ffij 
, 



Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1879. 10.84 in. 



Mining & Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 



PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveatsfiled expeditiously 
Patent re-issues taken out; Assignments made and re- 
corded in legal form; Copies of Patents and Assignments 
procured; Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assignments re- 
corded in Washington; Examinations ordered and re- 
ported by Telegraph; Rejected caseB taken up and Pat- 
ents obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions ren- 
dered regarding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent Solicitin 
Business promptly and thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inventions of this 
coast, and long practice in patent business, enable us to 
abundantly satisfy our patrons, and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The ablest and most experienced inventors are found 
among our most steadfast friends and patrons, who fully 
appreciate our advantages in bringing valuable inven 
tions to the notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals— thereby facil 
itating their introduction, sale and popularity. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 
Office— 202 Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine, S. F. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. O. II. STRONG. 



KNOB HILL POULTRY YARDS, 

Sonoma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

THOS. D. MORRIS, 

Breeder of all the leading varieties of Thoroi ohhreh 

Land and Water Fowls. 

The greatest variety on the Pacific CoaBt. Eggs in 
season, and warranted to carry safely any distance. 
/rS-SATISFACTlON GUARANTEED. Price list free. 



Stationary, Portable and Self-Propelling 

STEAM ENGINES 

For all puriiOHCB. 

Pony and Standard Saw Mills, Grist Mills 

AND MACHINERY. 

A Complete Outfit for Saw and Grist Mills 

Of any required capacity, bjth60ld reliable mann'acturcrs 
and contractors. «t*tc what is wanted. Cimil.ru fn-i> 
COOPER MAM I'ACrilRING CO., Mt. Wnmn, Ohio. 



MONEY!! 

$5,000 to $50,000 Ready' to Loan 

On Mortgages of first-clans Farms in Monterey, Santa 
Cruz, Santa Clara and San Mateo counties. Address tb 
Real Estate EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal 

Mkyrick & Co., Insurance and Money Brokers and Agent: 



— AND DEALERS IN 




BUSINESS 

COLLEGE, 
S 4 Post Street 
NVir Kenrny, 
&in F rancwo. Cal. 

The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and ex|>erionced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
Buch broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
structions given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and ts system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Department.— Ladies will he admitted for in- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telegraphic Department. — In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at tho College, 24 Post 
street, or addreBS for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College. San Francisco, Cal. 



CHEAPER YET! 

Tension Sewing Machines! 

A large number of nearly new genuine SINGER 
WHEELER & WILSON, HOWE, WEED, WILSON 
G ROVER & BAKER, DOMESTIC, etc., will be sold very 
cheap, many as low as 810. These Machines were taken 
in exchange from families for the "AUTOMATIC" or 

NO TENSION MACHINE. 
Wilcox & Gibbs' S. M. Co., 

124 POST ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
No. 361 Twelfth Street. Oakland, Cal. 



ASSESSMENT NOTICE- 

The California Fruit Growing Association. 

Location of principal place of business, San Francisco. 
Location of works. El Dorado county, California. 

Notice is hereby Kivtn. thai at a inri-tinn of tin' Directors, 
held on the 24th day of November, 1879, an assessment (No. 
10), of $4.00 per share was levied upon the capital stock of 
the Corporation, payable immediately in United States Kold 
coin, to the Secretary, at the otlice of the Company, 041 Sac- 
ramento strewt, San Francisco. 

Any stock upon which this assessment shall rrmaiti unpaid 
on the 8th day of January. 1830, will be delinquent, and ad- 
vertised for sale at public auction; and unless payment is 
made before, will be sold on Monday, the 2d day of Febru- 
ary, 1880, to pay the delinquent assessment, together With 
costs of advertising and expenses of sale. 

I), A BROWS, Secretary. 

Office 641 Sacramento Street 

POSTPONEM ENT -The day of delinquency of the ahovo 
assessment is postponed to Thursday. February 5th, 1880. and 
the day of sale to Monday, March 8th. ls^n |:y order of tho 
Board of Directors. D. A. BROWN, Secretary. 

JOHN SAUL'S 

Catalogue of New, Rare and Beau- 
tiful Plants 

Will be ready in February with a Colored Plate. It is full 
in really good and Beautiful Plants. —New Dracuonas; Now 
Crotons; New Pelargoniums; New Roses; New Geraniums; 
denial is, etc , with a rich collection of fine foliates and 
other Greenhouse and Hot house Plants, well grown and 
at low prices; free to all my customers; to others, 10 els., 
or a plain copy free. Catalogues of Seeds anil Roses free. 

JOHN SAUL. Washington, D. C. 



STOCKTON 

ifJTf telegraph Institute 

U/'JU-J LUt'dd 

NORM IX SCHOOL. 

Open day pnd evening for rf/? 
both si xes. Expenses 1crhC//j„ y,/y> ^7 s 

II, > no- 1, all Ho- usual \j ' '■ 1 V V 

rates. Excellent board in p 

private families from $sto (10 per month. Ad- 
dress, for College Journal and Circulars, 

v. r. clarke. Principal, Stockton, Ca.. 



jiQ.pajjo Floral Autoirraph Album. Illustrated with 
TlO Birds, ScrollB, FernB, etc. >vers Elegantly Glided 
Also, 47 Select Quotation*. All lf>c. postpaid. Stamps 
taken. Agts. wanted. G. W. Boccinsdcs, West Haven, Ct. 

Cfl Elegant Perfumed Cards, Chromo, Motto, Lily, Etc., 
DUUa, Gift with each pack If M Hmitii f 'llnlonvlll,. ft 

YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
Ton Cents. STEVENS BROS. . Northford.'Conn 



Cft Perfumed, gilt edge ft chromo Cards, Inelegant oase, name 
JU Is gold, lOo. Atlantic c.vnn Co . E. WaUingford, ct 



PENSIONS. $ 



Ercry wouml or Injury, btmi 
. oli-n I or nnv .1, ■ . entl- 
olJkrol dig lm« war lo 
i pennon. A 1 1 DtOftOBI by th« 
iry 18711, baita buck nl nolo of dlMDalfS "r drtlh 
01 ibo MldllT, All otilllM >!iuul<l apply »t onu. Tlioumndt 
wboafeaow ilniw loir peniloni are mlltlcd lo in lumaM, Sol- 
diari and widow, of Ibe wnr of 181 J. nod HutaawU •alltlM 
lo n«n.looi. Fret In nil cn«c» only (10. Bounly Jrtt du. tn 
Iboutnndi. Snrnplo ©>py CiTizsr* SoLoiua fro-:, bvnd two utampi 
forncw lawi, t . ami Inttructioul to 

Col. N. W. FiTZGEKAi.D, U. S. Claim Att'y 

Box 588, Wuihington, L>. C 



Dewey &Co{^ e s l?. f Patent Ag'ts 



46 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 17, 1880. 



Agricultural Articles. 



THE FAMOUS 



Spring Tooth Harrow. 




Manufactured and Bold on the Pacific Coast only by 

Van Gelder. Batcheior & Co., 

902 K St., Sacramento. 

THE GRANDEST ACHIEVEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL 
IMPLEMENTS ! 

The Most Perfect Working ' 
Harrow in Use! 



It can be BMflj adjusted to run at any depth from one 
to eicht inches, and is thereby adapted to all varieties and 
conditions of soil. The nroad teeth smooth the surface, 
filling furrows and other depressions; cut up and destroy 
vegetation and cover grain to any desired depth Their 
oscillating motion thoroughly pulverizes the eaith, and 
being made of the best Oil-Tempered Spring Steel they 
piss over HUM stems or other obstructions as easily as 
those of a hay rake. 

It is not liable to clog with trash or clods and seldom 
gets dull. They do the work of a harrow or cultivator, 
and will save one-half the expense of putting in a crop. 

Anyone who has an orchard or vineyard cannot afford 
to do without them. See one operate and be convinced 
before buying any other. 

For descriptive circulars and price list address the 
manufacturers. 

Correspondence solicited. 



The Famous " Enter urise." 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS. 

Pumps & Fixtures 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always give sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft » ith 
double bearings forthe crank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating, 
with no c<»il spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in goojoruer now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON &. KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., 401 Market Street. 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 





Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
In Stockton, in 1870 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
fn the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
Shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and moBt desirable Gang Plow In the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



The Boss Pruner. 

Patented Jan. 8, 1878. 

ENTIRELY NEW! 

Works on a cog principle. Smallest size cuts one inch, and 
largest size two inches in diameter. Has >»een thoroughly 
tested, aud given perfect satisfaction. Sold by 

GEORGE LARKIN, 

Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



SUB-IRRIGATION. 





-FOR- 

Orcliards, Vineyards, Small Fruits, Alfalfa, 
Lawns, Vegetables, Etc. 

The Asbestine System consists in conducting the water in concrete pipes laid below reach of 
the plow. . 

It saves from three-fourths to nine-tenths the water used in surface irrigation. 

It is under perfect control, and can be applied wherever irrigation is needed. 

The surface remaining dry there is no need of Summer Cultivation, either before or after 
irrigating. 

The soil is never excessively wet and cannot bake, but remains moist, loose and at a nearly 
uniform temperature, promoting a long-continued Summer's growth. 

Anything which the soil lacks as plant food (manure, lime, etc.,) can be easily, directly and 
economically applied in liquid form; the pest of the vineyard — phylloxera — cau thus be easily 
reached. 

No grading is necessary, as the system works perfectly on hillsides and undulating land. 
Roots cannot pet into the pipe, neither can it tuck mud — difficulties never overcome by any 
other system of sub-irrigation. 

The pipe is made continuously with a recently patented machine which makes and lays it in 
the trench, following all the undulations and curves. 

Water is not kept in the pipes; but is applied about twice a month. 
Three men will easily lay 1,200 feet of two-inch pipe in 10 hours. 
This system and machines used are fully protected by U. S. Patents. 

Our pipe machine makes the cheapest and best tile drain known, and is especially valuable 
for making and laying pipe for conducting water from springs, out of canyons, etc. 

For further information, circulars, etc., address WILSON & BROWEII, General Agents for 
California, Sacramento, Cal., or 

Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Co., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



Prescott House. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francesco. 
O. F. BECKER, Proprietor. 



43rFree Coach to the House 




PETER SAXE & SON, 

IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF 

THOROUGHBRED LIVE STOCK 
Horses, Catt'e, 
BERKSHIRE 

Hogs and Pisrs,] 
— and — 
SHEEP. 

We can fill orders at anv time for the best families of PURE BERKSHIRES. "SHORT HORNS," and "JERSEY* 
or "Al.LiKKN !.', ' (\,t!l.-. .I.U'KS ;ui.l Ml l.KS. Spamih and French MERINO, H'sWoLli and SHROPSHIRE 
SHEEP. tsTAU at moderate prices, and perfectly pedigreed. Importing to and breading on this coast has been a 
Specialty with us for the past ten years. SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

Pkter Saxk, ) 

H Polk saxk. ) Address 520 Bush Street. San Francisco, Cal. 




BUTTER COLOR 



WELLS, IUCHARDSON & CCS 

PERFECTED 

I'ivrs Butler Chi' uilt-rdto color the year round. The largest Butter Buyers recommend its use. Thousands 
ol Dairynv-n r ly IT IS PISitl'KCT. A*k your dnurtrist or merchant for it : or write to ask what it Is, what It 
.v.-N. .ho uses It. whi r.; t.> t,-. t it. WKM.S, JtlCa'AltDSON & CO.. Proprietors, Burlington, Tt. 



f*n Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed & Chromo Cards, name cf\ Perfumed, Snowfiake, Chromo, MottoCards, name in 
Va in goldand jet, 10c. Canton Bros., Clintonrille, Ct I QUgoldand jet 10c. O. A. SPELsa, E. Wallingford.Ct. 




If You Want to Make Money 

By raising any number of Chickens at any season of 

the year without setting hens, procure an 

ECLIPSE INCUBATOR 

(E. A. Samuel's Patent). 

In both public and private trials on this coast as else- 
where, the "ECLIPSE" has proved itself a perfect and 
successful Egg Hatcher. It may be examined and its 
merits proven to customers before they make purchases. 
Write for particulars and circulars to 

G. G. WICKS0N, 319 Market Street. S. F. 

Agent for the Pacific Coast. 



COOLEY CREAMER. 

Supersedes large and small 
pans for Betting milk. 

It requires no milk 
room. It requires capac- 
ity for one niilking'only. 

Impure air, dust or flies 
cannot reach milk set 
in it. 

It makes more butter, 
because it raises all of the 
cream, and the quantity is 
never lessened by unfavor- 
able weather. 

It makes better Butter. It requires less labor. It is 
cheaper. Butter made by this process took the HlollEsT 
Award at the International Dairy Fair, held in New 
York. December, 1S78. and at the Royal Agricultural Ex- 
hibition, held in London, June, 1879, and brings the high- 
est price in all the great markets. 
Send stamp for the Dairyman to 

VERMONT FABM MACHINE CO.. 

Bellows Falls, Vermort. 




ST. DAVID'S. 

FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE. 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 
715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This House is especially designed as a comfortable home for 
jcentlenu'n »»d ladies vixiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms. (.as and running water in each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Kach bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
une of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant fire from 
6 A: M. to 7 P- m Hot and add hatlis, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano— all free to guests. Price 
single rooms |>er night, 50 cts. ; per week, from $2.50 upwards. 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Fi rry, take Omnibus line of street car* 
to corner Third and Howard. 



EATING'S COUGH LOZENGES! 



The Greit British Renudy. There is unquestion- 
ably no other remedy so certain in itseffects. ASTH- 
MA, WINTLK UoUGH, BKtiNCHITIS and DIS- 
ORDBHS of the THROAT alike yield to its influ- 
ence. The highest medical testimony states no 
better cure for these complaints exist (now proved 
by over a half a century's experience.) They contain no 
opium, morphia, or any violent druir. HEATING'S COUGH 
LOZENGES prepared by THOMAS KEATING, London, 
Britain, are sold by all DrufigiBts. 



SITUATION WANTED. 

A Mechanic, 41 years of age, desires a situation on a 
Farm. Wages not so much of an object, for the first six 
mouths, as a wish to remove from the city for the winter, 
and to gain some general information of farm work, be- 
fore going into the farming business for himself. Ad- 
dress, J. SHOEKS. 

No. 639 Mission St.. S. F. 



WANTED ! 

Reliable, competent, active Agents for the sale of my 

Orange and Lemon Trees, 

In all the counties and cities of the State adapted to Citrus 
culture. The best of references required for competency 
and reliability. Address with re'erences, 

THOS. A. GAREY, 

P. O. Box 1S8, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 

Giles II. Gray. James M. Ha vex. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

In building of Pacific Insurance Co., 
Corner California and Leidesdorff streets, San Francisco. 



Agricultural Books. 

Orders for Agricultural and Scientific Books in general 
will be supplied through this office, at published rate*. 



January 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



47 



MONEY 

For ^Farmers, 



FOOD 

For Hogs. 



CHEAP PORK. 

The Brazilian Artichoke, 

Is the oheapeBt and bost food for Hogs, being ahead of any- 
thing in existence for that purpose. 600 to 1.000 bushels to 
the acre. Little trouble. No harvesting. No feeding. The 
Hogs will help themselves if allowed to do so. 

I have eight acres of Artichokes this year, and will furnish 
seed for half the price of last year, when my seed cost me 
25 cents a pound. 

PRICE— I wiU send by Express or common freight, 50 to 
300 lbs. at 3i cents a pound. Over 300 lbs., 3 cts.; 1,000 lbs. 
and over, 2\ cts. ; 3 lbs. by mail for $1. I will send a circular 
with each package giving all information. Send all money 
in draft on San Francisco or P. O. Order on Hollister Post- 
office. 

Winter is the best time to ship Artichokes. Frost does not 
hurt them. 
150 Its. plants an acre. 

For further information send for circular. Address 
J. H. F. GOFF, 
San Felipe, Santa Clara County, Cal. 



THE WILSON ADJUSTABLE CHAIR, 

With 30 Changes of Position. 

Patented n the United States and Foreign Countries. 
BEST CHAIR IN THE WORLD. 




'\DTNG POSITION. 



Same Chair in Cane Seating, very desirable for summer. 

Manufactured of the best of wrought iron and rivets. 
Castors made purposely for the Chair. Everything to an 
exact science. £^*WILL LAST A LIFE-TIME. 

Has been awarded Medals, Prizes and Diplomas for its 
superiority and merit wherever it has been exhibited. 

Orders by mail promptly attended to. Goods shipped to 
any address, O. O D. Send for Illustrated Circular. 

Address the Wilson Adjustable Chair M'fo Co., 
535 Washington St., Boston 




Nathaniel Ourry & Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




SoleJlgents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co.,of Bridgeport. Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
all kinds of GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit. 



The American Exchange Hotel, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 

Is situated on Sansome street, next adjoining Bank of California, and is in the very center 

of the great city. 

Sansome Street is one of the finest and principal business streets in S. F. 

The Hotel is'situated within two blocks of the U. Land Office and U. S. Surveyor General's Office; also within 



THE NEWEST MUSIC BOOKS. 

Arr\ericar\ Ar\them Book, 

With 100 easy anil good Anthems ($12 per doz.) By J. H. 
Tbxxky and A. J. ABUT. Edited by A. N. Jouksok. 
The Anthems arc exceptionally good, and sutHciontly 
numerous to provide two for every Sunday in the year. 

Dow's Sacred Quartets, 

FOR MALE VOICES, by Howard M. Dow. 
Price, 82 00. Per dozen, 818 00. 
This is a fine collection, which furnishes excellent ma- 
terial for bringing out tho talent of the Male Quartets 
that can now be formed In almost every Choir. 

The Deluge. 

NEW CANTATA. By St. Saens. 

Price In boards, |L Paper, 80c. 
This is just tho time to adopt a Cintata for Chorus 
practice, and the Deli'oe has the advantage of good and 
striking music, and impressive words. Not difficult. 

Parlor Organ Instruction Book, 

By A.N. Johnson. Price. 8160. 

A complete easy instructor for Reed Organs, adapted 
exactly to the wants of those who wish to learn both 
easy light music and easy sacred music. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C H. Ditson & Co., 843 Broadway. N. Y 




IMP 

Hill 

iiili 



ttkn 

liiiiiniiiM 
IttttttttiflB 

/kM ERICANCKCH N G E 



P. Jonbb. J. Thompson. 

JONES & THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Hay, Grain and Feed. 

Also, Store and Sell on Commission at 

Reasonable Rates. 

COUNTRY CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED, and will 
receive prompt attention, and returns forwarded as soon 
as sales are made. For further particulars address as 
above, 

1535 Mission St.. San Francisco. 




Libei al advances on consignments. 

Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch Supplies furnished 



CARD. 

The undersigned having purchased the business of the 
Marin and Sonoma County Land Office, and recognizing 
the necessity for a radical change in the matter of con- 
ducting it, have made arrangements to carry it on upon 
a basis and principles such as must insure satisfaction to 
our patrons. No shading descriptions permitted; all 
guaranteed. LINGLEY & BEATTY, 702 Market street. 

Refer to Hon. C. Palmer, Hon. C. Clayton, R. McElroy, 
Esq., L. Shore, Esq. 

N. B.— All descriptions of farms and city and Oakland 
property for sale and exchange. L. & B. 



two blocks of the City Hall, Supreme Court and all the District Courts; within two blocks of the Postnffice and 
Custom House. Allfplaces of amusement are convenient to the Hotel. Street cars for all parts of the city pass the 
Hotel every minute. 

THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL 

Having been recentlyl renovated and refurnished throughout is in every respect the BEST FAMILY HOTEL 
San Francisco. It has_Two Hundred Rooms, well ventilated and neatly furnished, and being easy of access, fire-proof 
and sunny is decidedly the Hotel for comfort and convenience for the traveling public. 



— OFFICE OF THE — 



FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

FEB.TTVLA.1T GT7AXTO 

First-Class for Fertilizing. 



Apply at the office of 
JOHN PARROTT, - 414 Montgomery St. 



Putah Creek Poultry Yard. 

Plymouth Rocks and Brown Leghorns, bred from the 
best imported strains, offered cheap for the next six 
weeks to reduce stock. 

MAMMOTH BRONZE TURKEYS, the best in the State, 
all last spring's hatch, bred from the finest imported 
stock, offered for sale cheap. For price list address 
MRS. L. E. McMAHON, 

Dixon, Solano Co., Cal. 



the DEAF HEAR 



THROUCH THE TEETH! 

J PERFECTLY, all Ordinary Conversation. 
Lectures, Concerts, etc., by M£W Clin 
to the Nerve* or Hearing, tv » wonderful Ne 
entitle Invenllon.THE DENTAPHONE. 
For remarkal.le pilMlC lest« OO Hie l»c»r-also on 
the l»cuf ami l>umb- See New York Herald, I 
Sept. ('/,,-. ,r,,m Standard. Sept. 27. etc. It | 
dlMnliicfM all Ear-trumpets. Size or an or. 
dlmtry Watch. Semi for our FREE yamphlet. Addrcan 

AMERICAN DENTAPHONE CO.. 2SJ Vine St., Cinrlnnall.OUW 



I 



I 



JOHN ROGERS &. SONS, 

GENERAL STOCK AND SALE YARD, 

Corner Market and 3th Sts., San Francisco, 

HORSES and MILCH'COWS sold on commission. Also, 
dealers in HAY and GRAIN. 

Parties consigning Stock or Grain to us can rely upon 
prompt sales and quick returns. 





T PUB 






L 



MERRY, FAULL & CO., Proprietors. 
TO OWNERS^F LIVE STOCK! 

We are prepared to receive on Consignment, CATTLE, SHEEP aad HOGS, charging mod 
erately for killing, delivery and guarantee, and making advances to shippers on receipt at our 
Yards, which are supplied with every convenience. We assure our customers a 

SQUARE DEAL and FULL MARKET PRICES 

For their product, and invite their inspection of our facilities, which are the best on the Pacific 
Coast. We shall be pleased to give all information in our power as to Market Prices. 
Please address our 

Principal Office, No. 125 & 127 California Street, San Francisco. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are catciclated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrius 
have adopted A NE W LABEL, bearing their Signature 

thus t 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ash for LEA &• PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
&c, &c; and by Grocers and Oilmen throv-hout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS <te CO.. San FranclBCO. 



ROOMS TO RENT. 

Elegantly Furnished, and with Gas and 
Hot and Cold Water in Every Room. 

A PLEASANT LOCALITY and REASONABLE TERMS 

At 1031 Market St., San Francisco. 



Comb Foundation. 



Any sizo sheets and any quantity, 40 conts per pound 

Feeders, 50 cents each. 

Sample Simplicity Hive, $3 00. Address 

RUFUS MORGAN. 

Born-rdo, San Diego Co., Cal 



II. COOKE. R J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

US' Communications Promptly Attendod to. TSi 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cooki & Okkoory. 



PLEASANT SUMMER READING. 

THE NEW PENELOPE 

— AMD — 

Stories of Calitbrnia Life. 

By MRS. F. F. VICTOR. 

The hest delineations of Western charactor and incident 
ever produced on this coast, Aleuts wanted for this popu- 
lar work. Easy sales and large commissions. Address 

MRS. F. F. VICTOR. 

721 Market St. , S. F. , Bancroft's Building, top floor. 

PRICE, $2 00. 



A Card to Grangers and Farmers. 

HAY, GRAIN, HORSES and CATTLE. 

The undersigned in now prepared to receive and ri -11 Hay, 
Grain, Horses and Cattle that may be consigned to him at 
the Highest Market Rates, and will open a trade direct with 
the consumer without the intervention of middlemen. He 
also asks consumers of Hay and Grain and Stock buyers to 
co-operate with him. and thus have but nut- coniinisnioii be 
tween producer and buyer. Address 8. H. DEPUY, No». 11 
and 13 Bluxome St., San Francisco. 



TRADE 




HARK, 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.00 per gallon For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER. BELL <Ss CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. F 



SEND 



THE 



FOR 
SI. 50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 principal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases ami hooks. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAFEL, 
Homcoopalhie Pharmacy, San Francisco. 



CARP FISH FOR SALE 

— BY — 

LEVI DAVIS, 

At Forestville, Sonoma County, California. 

IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By A J. [Kino. Tho latest work on tho Apiary, 
embodying accounts of all tho newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for |1. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome Street, S. F. 



48 



THE PACIFIC BURAL PRESS. 



[January 17, 1880. 



SPECIAL OFFERING OF SEEDS, TREES, PLANTS, ETC. 



Apple Trees, 4 to 6 ft 88 per 100 

Almonds. to 8 ft Slo " " 

Apricots, 1 year §15 " " 

Nectarines, 1 year $20 " " 

Peaches. 1 year $12.50 " " 

Pears, 4 to 6 ft 81G " " 

Plums and Prunes, best for Drying, 1 year $15 " " 

Cherries, 4 to G ft '. $16 " " 

Quinces, 3 to 5 ft $15 " " 

Persimmon — Japanese — Grafted $18 " " 



Olives, 2 to 3 ft S25 per 100 

Oranges, Mediterranean $75 '* " 

" Dwarf Chinese $50 " " 

Japan Plum, fine fruit, extra large trees $9 " doz 

Hreeder Apricot, fine for Table or Drying $15 " 100 

Royal Gooseberry, Spineless, fruit large, free from 
Mildew, heavy and constaut bearer; fruit brings 

highest price .?10 " " 

Knglish Walnuts, 7 to 9 ft, twice transplanted $25 " " 

Magnolia Grandiflora, open ground plants, 1 ft $25 " " 



I Muscat of Alexandria Grape Cuttings, excellent for 

llaisins, warranted true $6 per 1,000 

Malaga Muscatella Grape Cuttings, for Haisins, 

true $12.50 " " 

Emperor Grape (new) Cuttings, excellent fruit, and 

the best keeper or shipper $15 " " 

Chile Alfalfa $4.50 per 100 lu& 

" " extra clean $6 " '* "' 

Cal. " Various Grades at Lowest Market Kates 

Bone Meal and Bone and Meat Fertilizer, pure, at $40 per ton. 



A large stock of Flowering Bulbs. Flower and Vegetable Seeds. Grasses. Clovers. Garden Stakes. Trellises, Rustic and Wire Hanging Baskets. Fancy Pottery. 

Lawn Mowers, etc., comprising the most varied and extensive stock to be found on the Pacific Coast. 



!R,. J". TZE^UZln^BUXjIL, & CO., 



$g^=*Catalogues ready Feb. ist. 



419 and 421 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Baling 

Fencing 

Telegraph 

Telephone 

Galvanized 



WIRE 



Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 1 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 





Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens of the 
following varieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Liprht Brahmas, Buff, White and 
Partridge Cochins, White and Brown 

Leghorns, Dorkings, Polish, 
Hamburgs, Plymoutn Rocks, Game 
and Sebright Bantams, Bronze Turkeys, 
Pekin, Aylesbury and Bouen Ducks. 
42TSafe arrival of Fowls and Eggs Guaranteed. "64 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

aSTFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box 1771. San Francisco. Cal. 



THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 




AND 

EGGS 

Guaranteed 



UNLIMITKD 

RANGE. 

Healthy Stock 

116 ACRES 

Dovoted to the 
Business. 



LANG3HAN8. I now breed this justly celebrated 
Fowl. Send 3c. stamp for price list and circular describ- 
ng the different breeds I keep. Incubators. 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 
/farPamphlct on Breeding, Hatching, Diseases, etc., 
adapted especially to Pacillc Coast, sent for 15c. 



STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Annual Meeting of the above Society for the elec- 
tion of a President and t hree Directors, will be held at 
the Pavilion, on Tuesday, January 20th, at 2 o'clock p. u. 
8uch other business as properly comes before the meeting 
will be transacted. II. M LARl'E, President. 

I. N. Hoao, Secretary. 

This paper Is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chaa. Eneu Johnson & Co., 609 South lOtb 
St., Philadelphia & 59 Gold St.,N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 120 
Sutter St., S. P 



- F* . Silvester, 



CO 

Q 



IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



r 
o 

m 



2 Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc % 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 



In large Quantities and offered in Lots to suit Purchasers, Q 



GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES. 



C/3 



Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington Street, San Francisco. 




TATUM & BOWEN, 

Sole Agents for the follow ing Machinery, which is entirely 
diffirent from any other: 

Strnrns M'f? Co.'s Pacific Saw Mill Machinery, 
BALL PATENT VALVE, 

Saw Mill, Automatic and 

Corliss Engines and Boilers, 

R. HOE k CO.'S PRINTING MACHINES, and 
CHISEL TOOTH SAWS. 

Farm For Sale. 

On account of departure for Europe in May, I offer for 
sale, on easy terms, my well known farm, situated 1£ miles 
west of Los Angeles City limits, on the Cahueiiga county 
road, containing 320 acres of best quality valley land, suitable 
for all kinds of Tropical Fruit and <_irapes. as well as for the 
cultivation of Wheat and other cereals. The improvements 
consist of nearly two miles of substantial board fence, ordi- 
nary dwelling house, large barn, granary and other out- 
buildings, with about 500 assorted Fruit Trees, including 
Orange, Lemon and English Walnut, all bearing. Ornamen- 
tal Trees, (irapes, and 5 acres Alfalfa, together with a full 
set "f farming implements, such as Header. Flows, Harrows. 
7 Wagons. Steam l'ump. etc. Nine Hornes and Cults and 
15 head of Cattle. The location as to climate is unsurpassed, 
and frost almost unknown. Living springs and well water in 
abundance a few feet from the surface Title. V. H. patent. 
For a gentleman's home or for speculation no better oppor- 
tunity Ifi offen d I « ill sell the above described property, all 
included, for $15,000-1 cash, balance in 5 years with 77, per 
annum interest Apply on the premises, or by letter, to 

1VAR. A. WE1D, V. O. Box 852, Log Angeles, CaL 




Without Ql : i .* ifie Cftp. < 

flr« U>« Cap without *|>ir>. 
&ing ths Top. A go-Jil toy 
for girla or boj«. beat, 
po*tp*id, for &i ceuu. 

K. T. Allen. 515 Market 
Street. San Francisco. 
Km porter of Firearms and Ammunition of every description. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS. 

Zinfindel, Charboneau, Golden or German Chassclas, 
Johannisberg and Franklin Ricsslings, 85 per 1.000. 
Muscat, Gordo Blanco and Seedless Sultana, $10 per 1,000 
Address H. W. CRABB, 

Oakville, Napa Co., Cal. 



CALIFORNIA 
SUGAR REFINERY, 

Cor. Brannan and Eighth Sts. 

Office, 215 Front Street. 

This Company manufactures all grades of 

HARD AND SOFT SUGARS. 

And a Superior Quality of Syrup known as 

DIAMOND S 



Supplies only Exporters and Jobbers. 




Sheep Ranch 

FOR SALE. 



IN ANDERSON VALLEY, 

Two miles from Christine P. O., Mendocino Co., Cal., 

Containing 1.520 Acres. 

Good title. WtO feneed and well watered, with good 
house, barn and out-buildings. Good Apple, Peach and 
Cherry orchard. 200 Acres good plow land. About 900 
good Sheep. 

PRICE, $16,000. 

For any further particulars enquire at the ranch, or of 

RUBL STICKNEY, 

Little Rivor, Mendocino Co., Cal. 



BERKSHIRES A SPECIALTY. 




60 



Chromo. perfumed. SnowflakeftLacccardi,nameon all 
10c. Game Authors, 15c. Lyman 4 Co., CllntouTllle, Ct 



My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs arc admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 
18th and A Streets, Sacramento City, CaL 



"Abel Stearns Ranchos," 

CENTER OF LOS ANGELES VALLEY, 

Embracing: Anaheim, Westminster, Arteein, 
Orange Grove, Etc., 

Within the Artesian Well Belt. 

Hundreds of flowing Pipe Wells. Water sear the sur- 
face. Rivers on two sides; ever-flowing creek through 
the tract. Front on the ocean. Transportation and 
passage by steamships or railroad. 

S. P. R. R. THROUGH THE TRACT. 

23 Hours from San Francisco. 

The unsold land for sale or lease in sections or 

fractions, by 

ALFRED ROBINSON, Trustee, 

120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 

Or apply to WM. R. OLDEN, Anaheim, Cal., or con- 
cerning Westminster Colony, to KEY'. ROBERT STRONG, 
Westminster, Cal. 

Terms, one-fifth cash, balance on interest at 10%. Send 
for Circulars and Maps. 



Sawing off a Log, 
Easy and Fast, 




Our latest improved sawing machine cuts 
off a 2-foot loc; in 2 minutes, A $IOO 
PRESENT wul be given to two men who 

can saw as much in the old vray.as one man 
can with this machine. Circulars sent free. 
W. Giles, 741 W. Lake St., Chicago, ILL. 
CAUTION. —Any sawing machine having a seat for 
t v c operator, or treadles tor his feet, is au infringement 
on our patents, and we are prosecuting all infringers. 
So Beware who TOO bit or. 

JOHN WHALEBONE. 

A FINE BLOOD BAY 

Thoroughbred Stallion For Sale. 

Pediohee of 

ALICE MAY. 

Out of Alice May hy Nor fall, 5 years old 8th of June. 1879. 
Is well broken to harness and shows a naturally fine trot with 
good s|>eed. Will he sold at a bargain, or can be bad by a 
good responsible man to stand for the reason on halves. 

Bay Mare— Foaled February. 18o7. by Noodbnm. 1 Dam 
Peggy Rlngold. by Rtngold. by Boston 1 Dam Little Peggy, 
by Cripple, by Medock, by American Eclipse, by Durock. 
;i Dftm lVKgy Stewart, by Cooks or Hlackburn, Whip by Imp. 
Whip. 4 Dam Mary Bedford, by Duke of Bedford. 5 Dam 
by imp. Speculator. 6 Dam by imp. Dare Devil. Noodburn, 
bay horse, by Lexington, by Boston. 1 Dam Heads I Say. by 
Imp. Gleucoe. 2 Dam imp Heads or Tails, by Lottery 

Krninu, bay horse by Norfolk, by Leiiugton. 1 Dam Moss 
Rose, by imp Knight of St George. J Dam imp. Melrose. 
Address A BILZ. Pleasautou. Alameda County, Cal. 

MENZO SPRING, 

Manufacturer of 
THE BEST IMPROVED 

ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 

Office and address, 

9 Geary St., San Francisco 

(Junction Kearny k Market). 

All kinds of 
ARTIFICIAL LIMBS REPAIRED 
with SKILL and DISPATCH. 
tS~ Send for free Circular. t'i i 





PRICES REDUCED I 

Muller's Optical Depot, 

135 Montgomery St., near Bush. 

Specialty for SO years. Established S. -F. 136S. 
Country Orders Atteudeif to. 




Volume XIX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 24, 1880. 



Number 



The Body of the Sun. 

The event of the total eclipse makes it timely 
to allude to the condition of affairs in the body 
of the sun, as nearly as can be learned by dis- 
tant contemplation. The engraving on this 
page shows the idea of the condition of the sun 
which was gained 
by an Italian as- 
tronomer in 1635, 
and it is quite an 
interesting fact 
that, although 
modern observa- 
tion of eclipses 
has been much 
more accurate 
and instruments 
for observing so 
greatly improv- 
ed, the ideal 
sketch which this 
Italian made 
nearly 250 years 
ago, is still in 
many points 
quite in accord 
with the photo- 
graphs of the so- 
lar protuberances 
as now obtained 
during total 
eclipses. 

We have not 
space to enter at 
length into a con- 
sideration of the 
condition of the 
body of the sun 
and its environ- 
ment. The sub- 
ject has wrapt 
the thoughts of 
the mostacute as- 
tronomical phil- 
osophers and ob- 
servers, and to 
catalogue their 
beliefs would fill 
a whole paper. 
But in order to 
get some inter- 
pretation of the 
turbulent mass of 
incandesence as 
shown fn the'en- 
graving, let us 
agree for the 
moment, with a 
modern writer, 
that the sun is 
made of the most 
combustible ma- 
terial ; that it is 
surrounded by a 
coating of flames 
from 2,000 to 4,- 
000 miles high; 
that these flames 
are iu constant 
agitation, and 
here and there 
send up flakes 
much taller than 
the rest. As a 
supporter of com- 
bustion, the sun 
is surrounded by 
an atmosphere, 
visible to us dur- 
ing an eclipse, 
nearly half a mil- 
llion miles high, 
and therefore its 
•ntire probable 
hight, including 
its invisible portion, must be two million 
miles. In this atmosphere float immense clouds, 
some are 80,000 miles high, and some 800,000 
miles in breadth, which clouds may be regarded 
as the smoke and vapor of the great conflagra- 
tion. The body of the sun below the flames is 
a molten mass in which chemical action is tak- 
ing place, and which, like our ocean, is disturbed 
by general and special currents. On this great 
shoreless ocean float, hsre and there, dark look- 



ing spots, which are solidified portions, and 
which melt again by the intensity of the heat. 
The heat and light of the sun, as we perceive 
them, are appropriate products of such a confla- 
gration. 

It will be seen that the sketch of the old It- 
alian observer does not agree in all respects 
with the review we have given, but he saw 



before the Academy of Sciences on Monday 
evening, Prof. Davidson said: "It is impossi- 
ble to describe the magnificence of the sight 
that the eclipse presented. Huge masses of red 
flames burst out above the upper surface of the 
sun, one-twelfth or one-fifteenth of its entire 
diameter in size, from 40,000 to 50,000 miles in 
hight. The lower limb of the sun produced a 




IDEAL SKETCH OP THE BODY OP THE SUN BY AN ITALIAN A8TRONOMER, IN 1635. 



what he believed were volcanoes, and so pic- I broken jagged line of rose-colored, intense flame, 

1 extending around a third of the sun's circum- 
ference, above the apparent disk of the moon, 
and covering millions of miles in area. The 
flames were visible for one or two seconds after 
the re-appearance of the sun, a rather unusual 
phenomenon. 



tured them. It is now held that the vast 
masses of flame which appear beyond the more 
fixed corona are the result of disturbances in 
the solar atmosphere rather than eruptions of 
something like volcanic nature, as the Italian 
believed. Whatover may be the controversy 
concerning methods, the facts of the nature of 
the sun's body, which we gainjby observation, 
are grand beyond description. In his address 



The will of Frank Lcslis is to be oontested by 
his son. 



Naturalized Weeds in South Australia. 

We have received from Dr. Richard Schom- 
burgk, the distinguished director of the Botanio 
Gardens at Adelaide, a copy of a phamplet is- 
sued by him on the "Naturalized Weeds of Aus- 
tralia," in which the foreign pests which have 
gained ground 
there are enu- 
merated. One 
cause of the ex. 
tensioD of for- 
eign weeds is to 
be found in the 
extent of unoc- 
cupied ground, 
which is alone 
sufficient to ac- 
count for the pre- 
dominance and 
migration of so 
many of the 
worst European 
weeds. Some of 
these, as the 
cockspur, the 
Bathurst bur, the 
Scotch thistle, 
the variegated 
thistle, the stink- 
aster, the sheep 
weed, and tho 
Cape dandelion, 
already cover 
immense tracts 
of pasture land, 
and extend fur- 
ther and further, 
to the destruction 
of nativeherbage. 
Notwithstanding 
that thousands of 
pounds have been 
expended, legis- 
lation has not 
succeeded in ex- 
tirpating the 
most trouble- 
some of intru- 
ders — viz., tho 
Scotch thistle 
and B a t h u r st 
bur, the burs of 
which aro so 
dangorous to the 
sheep from their 
fastening them- 
selves in the 
wool so firmly as 
to be removed 
only with diffi- 
culty, seriously 
depreciating its 
value. It re- 
mains to be seen 
whether the al- 
tered circum- 
stances of 
the acclimatized 
weeds, which 
seem to be so 
favorable to their 
growth, will 
prove permanent, 
or, by an over- 
stimulation, a 
change be gradu- 
ally effected in 
the constitution 
of the intruders, 
bringing about 
degeneracy and 
subsequent e x - 
tinction. Butsnch 
an influence is not 
yet observable, 
for they extend 
further and further, and grow just as lux- 
uriantly in the districts whonce they 
spread as far back aa from 18 to 25 
years. Grasses from other countries have 
also become domiciled in South Australia, which, 
no doubt, have materially improved the pasture 
near the coast. But not only weeds and grasses, 
but also cultivated garden plants, perennial and 
annual, begin to spread and become acclimatized 
in pasture land. 



50 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 24, 1880. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, oplnlonBof correspondents.— Eds 

View of the Eclipse from Table Mount- 
ain, Fresno County. 

[Written for the I'kkss by J. W. A. W.J 
The Table mountain of Fresno county, very 
similar in every way to its namesake in Tuol- 
umne county, is located about a mile and a half 
east of Millerton, former county seat of Fresno, 
and a mile in the same direction from old Fort 
Miller. Its northern base extends to the south 
bank of the San Joaquin river, at the point 
where that stream makes its exit from the 
mountains proper into the foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada. In all its parts — for though extend- 
ing on a general level for several miles north- 
west and southeast, it is somewhat divided on 
top by denudation, though to no great depth — 
its upper surface is on a general level, embrac- 
ing eight or ten square miles in area. The hight 
of this elevated mesa land above the old fort, 
whose strongly-built adobe houses and the sur- 
rounding land — now the property of Judge 
Hart — rest in a well protected nook on its north- 
eastern ba3e, is some 1,100 or 1,200 feet, and at 
least 400 feet more above the sea. 

Like the Tuolumne Table Mountain, 
It is capped at several points with more or 
less shattered columns of dark brown trap 
or basalt, such as exists in few places in 
California. This feature, and its extremely 
flat surface, make it a conspicuous ob- 
ject from many points on the San Joaquin 
plains. From its northern points, a remarkably 
tine view is had of the river at least 12 miles 
westward, as its broad and glittering waters 
hasten in their winding course through low bot- 
tom lands bounded by high bluffs to the vast 
level valley to which it gives its name. The 
view to eastward is still wilder, and truly 
grand, as the eye follows the stream for ten 
miles above Millerton, in its oddly serpentine 
course in a deep gorge where the river bed is 
quite 1,000 feet below you, until it is lost to 
view among the higher ridges which rise as if in 
terraces, one above another, until from 50 to 55 
miles distant the great summit ridge of the Si- 
erras is distinctly seen, its passes over 10,000 
feet high, its peaks over 13,000, all alike at this 
season covered with a dense white sheet of 
snow, that extends far down among the pine- 
clad sides of the lower ridges. 

Prof. Davidson having shown in his valuable 
paper on the total solar eclipse of January 11th 
that 

Its Central Line 
Would pass directly over Millerton, your cor- 
respondent selected one of these points of Table 
mountain from which to view the various inter- 
esting phenomena of so rare an event 
as a total eclipse of the sun. This 
choice was made especially, that the attrac- 
tions of fine mountain scenery and a good view 
of the movement of the dark shadow of the 
moon, fromsouthwest to northeast over some 1 15 
miles of its course from crest to crest of Coast 
range and Sierras, might be added to the usual 
features of such obscuration of our source of 
light and heat. 

On Time, as They Always Are, 
The sun and moon began the performance, at 
Table mountain, not far from 2h. 50m. The 
total eclipse occurred about 3h. 57m. ; the end 
about 5h. 4m., or a few minutes after sunset, 
for we distinctly saw that the northern limb of 
the sun was slightly eclipsed to the left as it 
sank below the Coast range mountains which 
here bound the western horizon and have 
about twice the altitude of our point of obser- 
vation. 

By 3:40 p. M. the darkness had so increased 
that the whole scenery of mountain and valley 
was covered with that greenish light peculiar to 
solar eclipses, and a few minutes later all 
shadows gave out a weird appearance, fringed 
apparently with a faint halo. The lowing of 
cattle on the surrounding hills gave evidence of 
the usual impression on them. 

At last an intense darkness over San Joaquin 
valley to the southwest showed that the line of 
totality had reached there. All at once 

A Broad Spot of Inky Blackness 
Rested a few seconds on the Coast range mount- 
ains and then began its steady sweep across 
the plains toward us. The glimmering reflec- 
tion on the river's glassy surface, which con- 
tinued to show faintly in the preceding twilight, 
suddenly disappeared and the moon's dark 
shadow was upon us. On both sides of the 
penumbra, a dim twilight appeared, brighten- 
ing gradually towards the north and south. 
The impression produced by this regularly mov- 
ing shadow can never be lost through life. The 
stillness was profound. Not a breath of air was 
stirring, but the atmosphere was evidently 
chilled. The thirty-five seconds of totality 
allowed but little time for observations. But 
there was the dark round figure of the moon, 
surrounded by a beautiful corona, uniform in 
width and brightness, and reminding one in 
tint of the 

Whiteness of the Electric Light. 

Next we looked for the five planets that were 
to be visible. There were Jupiter, Saturn and 
Mars, to eastward in the order named, the first 
perhaps 35° from the sun; the second some 50"; 
the third 75' or more. But to westward where 



Mercury and Venus were to be seen, enough 
white clouds had formed to obscure the field of 
vision, and we could see none but the three 
planets named — evidence of a rather hazy at- 
mosphere. Indeed, immediately after sunset, 
the sky was suddenly overcast with dark clouds 
which would have entirely hidden the eclipse, 
had they come an hour or two earlier. No 
sooner did the narrow, distinct, not flickering 
line of the sun appear on its lower limb, than 
wo could see the dark shadow move rapidly 
eastward, across the mountains, until it passed 
over the snowy summit and was lost to view 
forever. Slowly, as 

The Genial Light and Heat of Old Sol 
Had left us, it returned to its normal condition, 
before sunset, to the evident surprise of ani- 
mated nature, and certainly to the delight of 
man. Thus ended one of those grandest phe- 
nomena of nature, such as is rarely seen more 
than once in a lifetime by any one human being. 
It is worth recording, that the naked eye re- 
vealed no indications whatever, from our point 
of observation, of the coruscations of light and 
other phenomena, known as Baily's Beads — a 
fact no doubt to be accounted for by the ex- 
treme calmness of the atmosphere at the time 
and place, as suggested by Prof. Davidson. 

It is to be hoped that our well equipped as- 
tronomers were able, from their high point of 
observation in the Santa Lucia mountains on 
the coast, to arrive at a nearer solution than 
ever before of the existence or non-existence of 
the Vulcanites, and similar problems of interest 
in their exact and instructive science. 



TjjE plELD. 



Burbank Potatoes. 

Editors Press: — I saw a piece in the Press, 
a few numbers back, requesting potato raisers 
to report concerning their potato crop. Three 
years ago I received one dozen eyes of the Bur- 
bank Seedling. Last year I raised 30 sacks; 
this year I raised 400 sacks. I consider them 
the finest potatoes I ever saw. They are a good 
early potato, of the finest flavor, produce well 
and keep well, and are of good size. Planted 
in May, they will keep perfectly sound and firm 
until the next May. I planted this year the last 
of May. The ground was very dry when I 
planted, and remained so through the season, 
therefore my potatoes this year are not so large 
as they were last year, and more small potatoes. 
I will send you a sack of them by the next Sat- 
urday's steamer. I will send it to Hixson, Justi 
& Co., 403 Davis street. I also send youjin the 
top of the sack 20 pounds of potatoes I supposed 
to be a sport from the Burbank Seedling. I 
never noticed any of them until this year. The 
potatoes look very much like the Burbank, 
but they are much larger and the tops are very 
different. They grow perfectly upright, about 
two feet and a half high, and have a very small 
white blossom, and ripen about six weeks or 
two months later. They came np scattering all 
over the patch. I have separated them from 
the others, and have about ten sacks of them. 
I want you to give your opinion of them. I 
also send ten sacks of Burbank Seedlings to 
Hixson, Justi & Co., for sale. 

Wariiam Easley. 

Santa Paula, Ventura Co., CaL 

[The potatoes are a very good sample of the 
Burbank. This variety has achieved a most 
enviable reputation, both here and at the East. 
The "sport" is an interesting one. We shall 
plant the seed, and observe the growth as com- 
pared with the Burbank. — Eds. Ppess.] 



Concerning Cultivation for Wheat. 

Editors Passs:— "below I send you a proposition for Mr. 
Ashburner. Please send it to him and then publish it 
with his answer, for the benefit of those who take an in- 
terest in progressive agriculture. 

Mr. Ashburner, to prove to you and those whodoubtthe 
reality of my "new-fangled ideas," as you call tbeni, 1 
will have two acres of good land prepared for wheat — one 
with my plow and the other with a turning plow, not to 
be plowed less than six inches deep, and as much deeper 
as you may direct. Both shall be sown at the same time, 
with the same kind of wheat. You select anyone of the 
Past Masters of the Orange that you choose to be the 
judge and superintend the matter from the plowing to the 
threshing, sacking and weighing. If the acre prepared 
with my plow does not yield more wheat than the one 
plowed with the turning plow, I will present you with a 
silver cup not worth less than $25, with suitable inscrip- 
tion, as an acknowledgment that the present way of plow- 
ing is better than my proposed way. If you fail to produce 
more than mine, then you present me with a similar cup 
with proper acknowledgment. — J. R. Bums, M. D. , Santa 
Rosa, Cal. 

Editors Press: — It is now so long since I re- 
ceived from yon Dr. Simms' proposition that he 
will by this time consider himself discourteously 
treated. For certain reasons, herein stated, I 
could not entertain the idea of accepting his 
challenge to grow a certain quantity of wheat 
on land plowed "not less than six inches deep," 
against land worked with his "non-turning 
plow;" the theoretical principles of which are 
undoubtedly correct, as I believe in keeping 
the surface soil on the surface for the benefit of 
the seed bed fully as much as Dr. Simms does. 

The principal reasons for my not accepting 
his challenge are: 1. The lateness of the sea- 
son. 2. The prescribed depth of not less than 
six inches for plowing my part of the ground. 
Six inches, as a rule, is about twice too deep to 
plow for wheat in ordinary seasons, especially 
when the seed is to be Bown immediately after 
plowing. On some lands, unless the contrary 



has been proved by practice, turning up fresh 
soil from a depth of six inches would be dele- 
terious to the healthy growth of most plants, 
without the soil having been for some time sub- 
jected to the action of the atmosphere, as in the 
case of summer-fallow, etc. 

"How do you get such a fine seed bed?" said 
one farmer to another. "I work the first plow- 
ing thoroughly with harrow and roller, and 
then turn it over and work the other side," was 
the simple but effective answer. 

The plow, the harrow and the roller have 
been, and are likely to be, the chief and leading 
field implements in preparing a seed bed. 
Other inventions may and have come to their 
aid, but not to supersede, as yet. 

As regards growing wheat, if Dr. Simms will 
turn to page 233 of the Rural Press, Oct. 11, 
1879, he may read under the heading of "A 
Visit to Baden Farm," in reference to the sub- 
ject: "This beet ground is in a fine state of 
tilth, and is not plowed again for the wheat, but 
the seed is harrowed in ' (should have read, 
"cultivated in and then harrowed"). 

I have just put in a lot in this way, not only 
on beet land, but on some stubble land that was 
dry-plowed; had a good harrowing to kill the 
weeds that started with the first rains, and now 
the seed has been worked in with a cultivator, 
working to the depth of two or three inches (ac- 
cording to the condition of the soil, as to lose- 
ness), then thoroughly harrowed. 

I hope that Dr. Simms will charitably con- 
clude from the above that for me to accept a 
challenge to grow wheat directly upon land 
plowed six inches deep would be something like 
attempting to disprove of what I practice. 

Robkrt Ashburner. 

Baden Farm, San Mateo Co. , Jan. 17, 1880. 



The Value of Cheese as an Article of 
Food. 

We extract from the Dairy- Farming Magazine, 
edited by Mr. J. P. Sheldon, the following re- 
marks as to the nutritive character of cheese as 
compared with butchers' meat: "Pound for 
ound, cheese contains more nutriment than 
utchers' meat, and it may to advantage be used 
instead of it, and especially so, as they may 
both be called 'animal food.' Flesh is of course 
more nearly than cheese a perfect food, though 
less so than milk. If it were possible that there 
should be no waste of food in the animal econ- 
omy, a ponnd of flesh would produce a pound of 
flesh on him who ate it. More than this it 
could not do; but a pound of cheese being 
stronger and more concentrated, would pro- 
duce, by simply absorbing water, more than a 
pound of flesh. It is consequently, even if they 
are the same price in the market, the cheaper of 
the two; for, still further than flesh, it adds to 
the value of less nutritious kinds of food with 
which it may be consumed. The following 
statement of percentages will illustrate our 
meaning more clearly. 

Flesh Fat 
formers, formers. 

1 lb. of cheese 24.0 31 

* do. bread 5.S 37.0 

29.0 88.0 

2 lbs. of flesh-meat . 28.8 60.8 

"It will be seen that the pound of cheese and 
the half-pound of bread are aotoally richer in 
both flesh and fat formers than the two pounds 
of flesh-meat are, wjiilst the proportions of those 
substances are in better combination in the 
former than in the latter." 



Co-operative Dairy Work in Alsace.— The 
London Farmer says that at the instance of the 
Muhlhausen Industrial Society, a body which 
has already done good service in introducing 
many improvements for the benefit of the less 
wealthy classes of the locality, the farmers of 
the neighborhood have formed themselves into 
a union for the purpose of supplying pure dairy 
produce direct to the consumers without the 
intervention of middlemen, and their unneces- 
sary profits. In this manner they will receive 
a better price for their goods, while the con- 
sumers will obtain their supplies at a less cost 
than that demanded by shopkeepers, who have 
to make a profit for themselves. - At present 
about 100 farmers have joined 'this associated 
dairy, taking up among them 453 shares, each 
share representing a holding of five cows, and 
being paid for in the sum of 100 marks. Every 
member must semi in at least 20 liters of pure 
milk daily to the central station. From time to 
time samples of milk will be taken direct from 
the cowsheds of the members, for the purpose 
of comparing it with the milk they send in to 
their central dairy, and at least twice a month, 
on days not previously determined, the milk 
supplied by each contributor will be rigidly ex- 
amined. In addition to new milk, the company 
purposes to supply butter-milk, cream, fresh 
butter, fresh soft cheeses, whey, etc., of the 
best quality at the lowest remunerative prices. 



Adulteration of Lime Juice. — It is said 
that the lime juice sold in London and in Aus- 
tralia has been found so adulterated with sul- 
phuric acid that it is injurious instead of whole- 
some as lime juice is in its natural state. This 
adulterated juice purports to be from the South 
Sea islands. If the exporters thence do not 
stop such operations there may be a good chance 
for price enough to make pure California lime 
juice a profitable product. 



Ho*vr ,c d L T*K E ' 



Pomology in California. 

At our request, Dr. Strentzel has kindly fur- 
nished us for publication a copy of his report as 
Chairman of the Committee on Fruits of Cali- 
fornia, submitted to the American Pomological 
Society at the session of 1879. It is as follows: 

In compiling the biennial report of the Fruit 
Committee for California, to avoid a repetition 
of former statements I have confined myself 
mostly to facts having a universal bearing on 
fruit culture as exemplified here, which derive 
their importance from new conditions of climate, 
soil and commercial relations, and the demands 
of consumers. To meet thoBe demands we must 
resort to the 

Propagation of New Varieties 
Perfectly adapted to our requirements, the 
means at our command being the discovery of 
chance seedlings, hybridization, and the restora- 
tion to pristine vigor of old cultivated varieties. 

The raising of seedlings is apparently sur- 
rounded by favorable conditions: Extra size of 
fruit grown in virgin soil in a warm climate, 
many varieties being commingled; the seedlings 
coming early into bearing; and, withal, great 
care aud alertness of our nurserymen to observe 
favorable indications of future development. 
Still the success in that line is not commensurate 
with our efforts, aud few acquire notoriety or 
gain extensive planting. The most noteworthy 
of them, the Early May peach, begins to bo 
superseded by the Alexander. Some others 
claimed as valuable require a longer trial to 
establish their merits. Among apples we have 
a "Skinner" of excellent flavor, but deficient in 
size and lacking the red cheek now in reqaest. 

Bernard Fox's seedliug'pears, once under your 
observation, are kept secluded for further trial. 
Another of our extensive nurserymen in the line 
of pears is disappointed. He took seed of many 
choice varieties, selected the most promising 
seedlings, considering the growth of the stock 
and foliage, from a nursery of over 200,000 trees, 
transplanted them carefully and attended to all 
their wants, but they prove themselves most in- 
corrigible wildings. 

No superior grape seedling is yet brought to 
notice. Thus our efforts are more contracted, 
and point to artificial hybridization as a shorter 
cut to originate not only new but valuable vari- 
eties. 

Regarding the 

Deterioration of Old Varieties, 
It is. manifest that many unfavorable conditions 
will have such tendency. A given variety is 
subjtcted to great climatic changes, often suffers 
from want of nourishment and proper pruning, 
from over- bearing and drouth, from injury by 
insects — all of which are conditions which not 
only check the growth of young wood, but in- 
jure the constitution of propagating germs, and 
this is transmitted from generation to genera- 
tidn by the use of scions, either grafted or 
budded. This is further augmented by the use 
of unsuitable stocks. The seedlings of sweet 
and bout varieties, stout and slender growers, 
summer and winter varieties, are u .-■••! indis- 
criminately for nursery stock, and the result 
must be unfortunate. It appears as if the efforts 
of many nurserymen were concentrated on sup- 
plying the ever-increasing demand for fruit trees 
at the lowest price and in unlimited numbers. 
Happily, almost all so disseminated factory trees 
are short lived, and soon make room for new 
plantings. 

Export Demand for Fruit. 

The impetus given to fruit culture by the in- 
creasing export demand, also for dried and 
canned fruit of the best kinds, exercises a salu- 
tary influence by limiting the number of varie- 
ties raised for certain use. Thus our nursery- 
men can better confine themselves to the propa- 
gation of a few choice, instead of an endless num- 
ber of indifferent kinds, of which it is exceed- • 
ingly difficult to keep up the identity or true 
original name. 

The long extent of our sea coast, favored by 
a mild, equable and humid atmosphere, the arid 
interior plains modified by the intervening 
spurs of traversing mountain ranges in their cli- 
matic and atmospheric peculiarities, with a 
great diversity of virgiu soil, admit of profit- 
able and successful culture of indefinite number 
of varieties. Each finds a desirable home, if 
the selection is guided by experience. This 
makes it a difficult task to classify the merits 
of any except on general principles. The de- 
maud is for large-sized fruit, rosy cheeked, 
bright, acid apples; Bartlett and \\ inter Nelis 
are pre-eminent among pears; Black Tartarian 
and Holland Bigarreau are favorites among 
cherries; several varieties of prunes, Coe's Gold- 
en Drop and Yellow Egg plums are in demand. 
Many other fruits receive close attention. Olives 
and nuts are extensively planted. The Japan 
persimmon is on trial in nearly every orchard, 
and the beauty of its large glossy foliage and 
peculiar color of fruit will secure for it an abid- 
ing place. 

The Citrus Family 
Requires more than a passing notice from the 
importance it begins to assume in our national 
economy. The unsurpassed beauty of a well- 
formed orange tree with its ever-living foliage, 
star-decked and dotted with the golden fruit, 
corrective of many ills that flesh is heir to, 



January 24, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS 



51 



justify any remarks which may have a tendency 
to promote its universal culture through the ex- 
tent of our land. Although restricted in orchard 
culture to certain well-defined localities, as a 
house-plant it should find a place in almost 
every nook hallowed by aesthetic taste for plants 
and flowers. It propagates with extreme ease 
from seed, bearing fruit more or less true to 
kind. There are persistent, laudable efforts 
made to introduce the best foreign varieties, 
but so far with indifferent success. The im- 
ported trees are of stunted growth, the fruit 
very often inferior in size and flavor; heuce 
arose the mooted question as to seedling versus 
grafted oranges. 

Many of our seedling trees producing fine- 
flavored fruit have been propagated from by 
grafting and budding, but those worked-over 
trees also are frequently a failure. Yet this 
only shows the necessity for further investiga- 
tion, because some of the grafted trees make a 
luxuriant growth, come early into bearing, and 
the fruit is of the most desirable, rich and uni- 
form quality. It is not to be wondered at that 
an orange tree whose natural range extends into 
the tropics, without one icy embrace through 
life, in an atmosphere teeming with moisture, 
and with its roots imbedded in the richest mold 
to unknown depths, should demur to the hard 
change of being transplanted into adobe soil 
with impervious sub-stratum of cold clay, where 
the summer winds are often hot and arid and 
the airs of winter bitingly cold; and should at 
last simply dwindle to death. But yet there is 
a remarkable vitality and almost human adapta- 
bility under unfavorable conditions, that makes 
it possible to extend the culture of the orange 
through the temperate zone with commensurate 
success. Unfortunately the cupidity of man 
has baffled this beneficent provision of nature 
by inhuman treatment. With the first demand 
for the tree, enormous numbers of seedlings 
were grown — far beyond present requirements. 
They remained several years in the nursery 
rows and were then grafted or budded with 
foreign kinds, or those grown here accredited of 
choice quality, and every effort was made to 
stimulate excessive growth. When required 
they were taken up roughly in squares of adher- 
ing soil six to ten inches in diameter, as much 
in depth, bundled up in canvas and transmitted 
to their destination. Thus transplanted, if 
receiving great care by mulching, shading and 
copious watering, they emitted new rootlets to- 
wards the surface and made a promising 
growth; but a canker was eating at the vitals, 
the cut end of the tap root, often one inch and 
more in diameter, seldom emitted new roots or 
healed over, but a dry-rot extended slowly up- 
ward from the wound, rendering it only a mat- 
ter of time for the trees to perish. These are 
the causes of decay plainly visible. It is not 
because the trees are budded or grafted, but 
because being shorn of roots when transplanted 
they cannot repair the mutilation. The lesson 
is: Plant only young, full-rooted orange trees. 
Other Fruits and Plants. 

Several kinds of semi-tropical fruits, such as 
guavas and others now on trial, appear well 
adapted to our climate. Mr. G. P. Rixford, 
indefatigable in his efforts to introduce new 
varieties of commercial value, finds the Pistachio 
nut and Jujube tree doing well, and the Japan- 
ese chestnut apparently superior in size and fla- 
vor to the Italian. The Martinique and Chi- 
nese dwarf bananas are a measurable success 
throughout the warm belt in our State. All 
such enterprises of experimenting with foreign 
fruit are the more commendable, as they seldom 
pay the expenses of a first trial, and are fre- 
quently benefactions bestowed on fellow-man in 
a most disinterested manner. 

Many other rare fruits and plants are on trial. 
Last summer there was a magnificent specimen 
of the Victoria Regia lily in bloom in the con- 
servatory of the Golden Gate Park in San Fran- 
cisco, where a few years ago were to be found 
only sand dunes of the moat incorrigible kind, 
but now become a delight for our population; 
and as one of the pleasant signs of the time", a 
comforting assurance to our neighbors that we 
axe not entirely depraved. 

Grapes and Grapes Products. 

The fruit crop for the season is very abun- 
dant, with prices very low, giving a great im- 
petus to canning and preserving operations. 
The grape crop, as regards quantity, does not 
come up to early anticipations, being in some 
localities injured by spring frosts, cold winds 
spreading the oidium in low places, and a few 
scorching hot days burning the exposed bunches. 
Still, in most of the vineyards, there will be a 
full average. The preparation of raisins and 
making of wine is on a healthy increase, and 
must eventually advance the State to the front 
rank as a wine-producing country, if the inci- 
dental protection heretofore extended to that 
industry is not checked by ill-advised legisla- 
tion, that would be more detrimental to the 
vigneron than the dreaded phylloxera, which 
here is apparently confined to sandy or exhausted 
soil, and will be counteracted by the facilities 
for grape culture being so widely extended, fa- 
vored not only by the climate, but by the great 
extent of cheap, fresh land, eminently adapted 
for viniculture, ready to be taken for the asking 
and converted by common industry and perse- 
verance into thriving garden tracts. All desir- 
ing to do so can plant the fig tree and the vine, 
and enjoy the fruits of their labor — sand-lot 
oratory to the contrary notwithstanding. An- 
other climatic peculiarity favoring the wine in- 
terest is beginning to be appreciated: the great 
expense of deep and large cellars for the making 
and keeping of wine is now shown to be super- 



fluous, wooden or adobe storehouses of cheap 
construction above ground are all that is re- 
quired to store the product to ripen and make it 
ready for market The expensive cure for the 
grape oidium, and other fungoid growths and 
insect pests, promises, judging from analogy, to 
be superseded by the cheaper and more efficient 
process of washing the vine and dormant buds 
with a solution of " bluestone " (sulphate of 
copper). 

Progress of Horticulture. 

In conclusion, it must be gratifying to every 
pomologist to notice an increasing desire for the 
dissemination of choice fruits to be within the 
reach of all. Modes of culture are closely 
scanned and the products artistically prepared 
for the taste of consumers, but this would be 
all in vain if not assisted by unrestricted com- 
mercial relations — the outlets of trade are widen- 
ing, broadening. 

The ramifications of the modern railroad and 
steam navigation systems bound in one com- 
munion by the telegraph, make the rapid and 
available exchange of thought and supply of 
our wants one of the predominant traits of 
modern civilization. How could it be other- 
wise possible to utilize the vast productive ca- 
pacities of a young State on the confines of the 
old civilization ? Sunburnt and arid California 
within a generation has gained the ability to 
supply distant nations with their daily bread, 
to clothe them with soft wool, to refine their 
gustatory pleasures with delicious fruit, to 
cheer them up with generous wine; and in 
time all we can raise will be readily absorbed 
by the hungry mouths of foreign nations. It is 
criminal to withhold that boon from the suffer- 
ing poor of human kind, when it only depends 
on the Legislatures of the States and the Union, 
exercising their duty in controlling the exac- 
tions of public carriers. While a carload of 
barley is transported for 8100 a given distance 
at a fair profit to the carrier, why should a car- 
load of fruit be charged for the same service 
•8000 and more. J. Strentzel, 

Chairman of the Fruit Committee for Cal. 



Notes on Trees for Roadsides. 

George H. Beach, of Napa county, in answer 
to a request for information, gives the St. Hel- 
ena Star the following notes on trees for shade: 
First, we have to consider what the tree is 
wanted for; whether on the road-way, street, a 
pent-up little garden, or a two or three-acre 
homestead with the residence set well back. 
One condition calls for very different kinds of 
trees from another. One condition would call 
for shade trees which would partake especially 
of the ornamental; another, shade and ornamen- 
tal; a third, for shade or utility solely; the 
other for beauty. Whether a rapid growth be 
desired, or the highest effects of art without re- 
ference to time. Whether they are to be planted 
singly, or together in masses. 

A shade tree, if shade simply is the object, 
should have a widely-spreading head, abundant 
leaves or dense foliage. If a deciduous tree, it 
should bud out early in spring, and retain its 
leaves late in the autumn. It should be free 
from unpleasant odors, and liability to attack 
by disease or insects. All fruit trees are objec- 
tionable as shade trees. Who would select a 
Lombardy poplar for a shade tree ? The honey 
locust has too tine a foliage and is not sufficiently 
dense. The odor of the ailanthus is unpleasant, 
even sickening to some. The buttonwood is too 
slow of growth and is really unhealthy. The 
Pride of China is a very beautiful tree, gets out 
early in the spring, and holds its leaves clear 
into the heaviest frosts, say middle of Decem- 
ber, in this climate; but the numerous berries 
falling for a whoie month is an objection. The 
cypress, as we prune it, is not a shade tree, is 
but ornamental. The pine is too large and un- 
comely in a very small garden; is well adapted 
to large grounds. The gum is the most rapid 
grower of all, and stands drouth better than 
any other species we know of. But these can- 
not be neglected. They must be headed down 
•very year, for five or six years, or they grow 
up one single stem, and become so top-heavy 
that they topple over in the first hard blow after 
a heavy rain. The acacia is, if closely pruned 
the first three or four years, a good shade tree, 
combining beauty. Our domestic live oak when 
caught in the right location is a first-class shade 
tree. The maple in moist locations is excellent. 
Some of the ash trees are quite desirable. The 
elm is the king when it gets its age. Its slow 
growth is its only drawback. The pepper is an 
experiment here in our valley, but in San Ber- 
nardino I have seen them 70 feet tall, and 
spreading 54 feet, at the age of 12 years only. 
This, however, must be supported by tall, strong 
stakes for the first five or six years, as the stem 
is of a very succulent nature; and until it over- 
comes this, it must be well staked, say for four 
or five years, to prevent the arching over of the 
top. I have some eight or ten, some in my 
grounds, some out on the walk, that are now 
four or five years old. I plucked the seed my- 
self from a friend's tree in Vallejo. All the 
pepper trees now being sold here are from that 
pocketful of peppers brought by me and pre- 
sented to Mr. Kohler, our nursery man here. 
My peppers are my pride. When in its prime, 
to me it is the compeer of the elm. Its 
limbs are gracefully pendulous, without the 
mournful association of the weeping willow. 
The real old New England horse chestnut for a 



low, dense shade, ranks high; but the climate 
may not be well adapted. The English walnut 
is a first-class shade tree when mature if prop- 
erly trained. The American arborvitie is in large 
grounds very desirable — its slow growth being 
against it, were one of my age about to Bet 
trees for his own enjoyment. The black walnut 
is too dirty looking in fall and winter to be tol- 
erated in small grounds. The mountain ash 
and laburnum are very ornamental, combining 
partial shade. 

It is by no means in the majority of cases that 
trees are planted for the mere luxury of the 
shade they afford, or their utility in screening 
disagreeable objects. They are valued for the 
effect they have on the landscape, the beauty 
they exhibit in their forms, the cheerfulness 
that dwells in their foliage, the gayety that 
bursts from their blossoms, the contrast they 
make with each other. These are points which 
few can well master without long experience 
and careful study. 

The effect to be produced by trees should be 
partiularly well studied. The object must never 
be lost sight of. Pleasure, in its broadest sense, 
is generally the main object. This is only to be 
derived from a perception of the beautiful. 
Unity, harmony and appropriate fitness are the 
essential elements of beauty. To these the 
planter's efforts must turn. 



PiscicJlyJ^e. 



Our State Fish Fairoing. 

From the biennial report of Hons. B. B. Red- 
ding, S. K. Throckmorton and J. D. Farwell, 
Fish Commissioners, we extract the following 
items relating to the progress of pisciculture in 
this State: 

There is reported an increasing public inter- 
est in fish culture and in the efforts of our 
Commissioners to continue the supply of valu- 
able food fish in our waters. The destruction 
of fish during their seasons of reproduction, in 
defiance of law, once thought to be but a venial 
legal offense, is beginning to be considered a 
serious crime. As population increases, and 
railroads and other means of transportation are 
extended, there is a larger demand for fish; 
this is met by an increase in the numbers of 
fishermen, by extending the area of the fishing 
grounds, and by improved processes of capture. 

Salmon. 

One-half of the annual appropriation placed 
at the disposal of the Commissioners is ex- 
pended in the hatching of salmon eggs and 
placing the young fry in the tributaries of the 
Sacramento river. From the organization of 
the Commission, and including the year 1879, 
there has been hatched and turned into the 
Sacramento river, 13,150,000 young salmon; 
these, added to the natural supply, have been 
sufficient to make them as numerous in the 
river, during their seasons, as they have been 
at any time since so large an area of their 
spawning beds was destroyed by the operations 
of mining. If there could be a faithful observ- 
ance of the law that prohibits the catching of 
salmon during the close season; if the fish could 
have the river free from nets during these six 
weeks, and be allowed in peace to reach their 
spawning grounds, there would be no necessity 
for an increased appropriation, even if canning 
establishments were doubled and fishermen 
multiplied in the same proportion. During the 
close season, August 1st to September 15th, no 
salmon were publicly exposed for sale in the 
markets, and outwardly the law seemed to be 
observed, but we have reason to believe they 
were caught and privately brought to San 
Francisco at night, and were served at hotels 
and restaurants to all who would call for them. 
The canning establishments ceased to purchase 
and tin salmon on the 1st of August, and, so far 
as we are advised, faithfully observed the law, 
but it is reported that many of the fishermen 
did not stop netting, and that more than 100 
tons of salt were sold in San Francisco about 
the 1st of August, and shipped to by-places on 
the sloughs and islands of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin, to be used in salting salmon dur- 
ing the close season. This illegal fishing is done 
at night, and the fish are taken before daylight 
to temporary shanties for salting and smoking, 
hidden in the wilderness of sloughs and tule 
islands. We have no means to prevent this 
violation of the law, and find but little disposi- 
tion to assist on the part of the Justices of the 
Peace and Constables in the vicinity, who hold 
office by the votes of men who violate the law. 

The close season is now too short'. Salmon in 
large numbers, with eggs fully matured, were 
on sale in the San Francisco and other markets 
from September 15th to the 1st of October, and 
yet we learn efforts will be made at the coming 
session of the Legislature to still further reduce 
it, or to change it to a time when there are no 
fish coming in from the ocean, or perhaps to 
completely abolish it. 

The annual hatching of 2,500,000 of young 
salmon, and their distribution in the sources of 
the Sacramento, appear to keep the supply in 
the river equal to that of former years notwith- 
standing the increase in the number of sea lions 
protected by law, the increase in the nets and 
fishermen, and the erection of additional can- 
ning establishments. 

White Fish. 

Through the kindness of Prof. Baird, U. S. 
Fish Commissioner, there Las been received 



from Lake Michigan, as a donation, nea 
1,000,000 eggs of this most valuable food ti 
The first lot of 300,000 were placed near the 
stove in the car and were killed by the heat on 
the jouiney. The second lot arrived in good 
condition, and were successfully hatched out at 
the State hatching-house, San Leandro, and 
were distributed as follows: To Lake Tahoe, 
Donner lake, and lakes at summit of Sierra, 
200,000; Eagle lake, Lassen county, 225,000; 
Tulare lake, 100,000; Mark West creek, 10,- 
000; San Jose Water Co.'s reservoir, 10,000; 
Lake Chabot, 20,000; total, 565,000. 

Some of the previous importations of these 
rish, planted in Tahoe, Tulare and Clear lakes, 
have thrived, and a few mature fish are reported 
as having been caught in each of these lakes. 
All of these bodies of water will, without doubt, 
within a few years, be stocked with this valu- 
able fish. Mr. J. G. Woodbury, in charge of 
the State hatching-house, found that by pound- 
ing to a jelly the flesh of the common salt-water 
crab, the young white fish would eat and thrive 
upon it. He kept 50,000 on this food for more 
than two months. This discovery is of much 
interest, as it enables the young fish to be kept 
for some time, and thus distributed to stock 
mountain lakes that are inaccessible during the 
winter months. 

Shad. 

In June, 1S7S, there were received from Prof. 
Baird, U. S. Fish Commissioner, from Havre 
de Grasse, 115,000 young shad; these were 
placed in the Sacramento river, at Tehama, 
where all previous importations have been 
planted. The State has now received from the 
U. S. Government, and by our own importa- 
tions, in all, 400,000 of these fish. There can 
be no doubt they find congenial homes in Pa- 
cific coast waters, and are thriving and produc- 
ing their kind. 

Schuylkill Catfish. 

In 1874, the Commission imported from the 
Raritan river, and placed in lakes near Sacra- 
mento, 74 of these valuable fish. They have in- 
creased to millions and furnish an immense sup- 
ply of food. They have become so numerous 
that they are as regularly on sale in the city 
markets as the most abundant native fish, and 
are sold at about the same prices. They thrive 
in our rivers and lakes, and in the still-water 
sloughs of our plains, as well as in the brackish 
sloughs in our tule lands. They appear to be 
equally at home in lakes on the mountains and 
in artificial reservoirs in th» valleys. Many 
farmers who have natural ponds on their farms, 
or who have surplus water from wind-mills and 
have made artificial ponds, have stocked them 
with this excellent fish. The produce of the 
few fishes of this species, imported in 1S74, now 
annually furnishes a large and valuable supply 
of fish food to people in the interior of the 
State. Since last report the Commission have 
distributed 39,000 of these fish to public waters 
to stock rivers, ponds and reservoirs, in the 
counties of Butte, San Joaquin, Yuba, Sonoma, 
Ventura, San Diego, Sacramento, Placer, El 
Dorado, Alameda, Colusa, Yolo, Sutter, Ne- 
vada, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, Modoc, Los An- 
geles, Solano, Mono, Mendocino and Lassen. 
Land-locked Salmon. 

In January, 1878, there were received from 
the United States' hatching-house of Grand 
Lake Stream, Maine, 50,000 eggs of the land- 
locked salmon. This fish is found in a few lakes 
in the northern part of the State of Maine. In 
structure they are the same as the Atlantic 
salmon. 

As they are natives of the cold lakes of 
Maine the most appropriate places for the dis- 
tribution of the young fish would be in our 
mountain^akes; but, for the purpose of testing 
their fitness to thrive in warmer waters, a por- 
tion were also distributed to takes in the valley 
and on the coast, as follows: Donner lake and 
other lakes near the summit, San Francisquito 
creek; Espenosa lake; Tulare lako; San Leandro 
creek and lake; Arroyo laguna, near Sunol; 
Reservoir at Alms House, S. F. ; Echo Lake, El 
Dorado county. 

Brook Trout. 

In January, 187S, and in January, 1879, we 
received from Wisconsin and New Hampshire 
70,000 eggs of the Eastern trout. The young 
fish were hatched at the State hatching-house, 
San Leandro, and were distributed as follows : 
Streams in Santa Barbara county; North Fork 
of the American, Prosser creek and Truckeo 
river; Kaweha river, Tulare county; Carmel 
and streams in Monterey county; Btreams in 
Alameda county; San Leandro creek, Alameda 
county; Russian river and Sulphur creek, 
Sonoma county; Santa Rosa and Mark West 
creeks, Sonoma county; streams in Santa Cruz 
county; streams in San Mateo and Santa Cruz 
counties; Alameda creek and tributaries, Ala- 
meda county; Calaveras creek and small streams, 
Alameda county; North Fork of American, 
South Yuba and tributaries of Truckee river; 
Yosemite valley. 

Of the trout eggs of California trout procured 
from McCloud river, the young fish were dis- 
tributed as follows : Russian river and tribu- 
taries; Santa Rosa and Mark West creeks; 
Santa Cruz, Aptoa creeks, etc. ; Alameda creek 
and tributaries; streams in Santa Clara county; 
streams in Santa Cruz county; San Lorenzo 
creek, Alameda county; streams in Alameda 
county; streams in Santa Cruz and San Mateo 
counties; streams in Santa Clara and Monterey 
counties; Yosemite valley; San Gregorio and 
Pescadero creeks; Tuolumne river. 

The few Dolly Varden trout that were hatched 

[COSTTNUID OK PAOK 58,] 



52 



THE PACIFIC BUR AL PRESS. 



[January 24, 1880 



Correspondence cordially Invited from all Patrons for toil 
department. 



. The National Grange. 

Eighth Day. 
Bro. Lang, of Maine, presented the report of 
epecial committee on the 

State of American Agriculture. 
Worthy Mauler;— Your Special Committee, 
raised "to take into consideration the state and 
condition of American agriculture, and to re- 
port such measures and policies as in their 
judgment will tend to afford relief from the 
weights, hindrances and difficulties that may 
beset it, and to suggest such methods as will 
restore to American farmers greater prosperity, 
and promote their political and material wel- 
fare," have given the subject such consideration 
as opportunity and circumstances allowed, and 
present the following report: 

Agricultural progress has never been more 
rapid than within the last decade. The modes 
of agriculture have beeD vastly improved. The 
invention of labor-saving implements and farm 
machinery has multiplied the powers of farm 
labor, and accelerated the forces of production. 
In that period the increase of raw production 
has been augmented. The appliances and facil- 
ities for profitable farming are in the hands of 
every farmer, and the highest degree of agricul- 
tural progress is exhibited in the marvelous 
abundance of harvests. From 1875 to 1878 the 
amount of newly-settled lands in the United 
States was 18,755,115 acres. The tendency is 
towards the increase of raw production, and the 
new methods of cultivation upon all farming 
lands give additional and enlarged powers of 
production. From these additional resources 
agriculture yields a larger annual wealth, and, 
taking a general view of its progress, it might 
be accepted as evidences of a general prosperity 
among those who are engaged in its fields; but 
when applied to the individual farmer the re- 
verse is presented. Surrounded with such ad- 
vantages, and, notwithstanding the stupendous 
efforts of the agricultural people to keep abreast 
with the onward march of other trades, occupa- 
tions and employments, farm capital and labor 
receive less remuneration than equal capital 
and labor employed in other departments of 
life. 

American farming is growing less profitable 
and less encouraging. In a country possessing 
so many facilities for cheap production, this 
discouraging aspect of agriculture must be and 
is the result of other than natural causes. The 
annual additions of wealth under the enlight- 
ened system of agriculture are enormous, but 
from the unequal divisions of the profits of la- 
bor and unjust discriminations made against it, 
the enlistments of property show that the farm- 
ers of the United States are not prospering. 
While it is rapidly extinguishing all debts and 
restoring an equilibrium to the currency of the 
country, its votaries are deprived of a just share 
of the rewards of their toil. Capita! concen- 
trates to make corners and form rings to fix 
prices. Transportation companies are allowed 
to make and unmake prices at will by their un- 
just and discriminating tariffs and freights. 
Subsidies and taritrs are created to protect 
other industries to the prejudice of agriculture. 
Commerce is shackled. American productions 
are denied the markets of the worftl through 
partial and restrictive laws. Agricultural 
property is made to bear an unequal and undue 
proportion of taxation to afford exemptions and 
privileges to other industries. Monopolies are 
permitted to assume power and control and 
exercise prerogatives and privileges justly be- 
longing to sovereignty. Encouraged by legis- 
lation and stimulated by power they have 
grown dictatorial and imperious in their de- 
mands, unrelenting in their exactions and cruel 
and unmerciful in their impositions. Society 
lias become extravagant and is now a heedlees 
spendthrift of the painful earnings of labor. 
Government has become proud and autocratic, 
while her toiling laborers are humiliated in 
their poverty. States are lavish and prodigal 
with the people's money. Cities and towns 
grow rich at the expense and impoverishment of 
the country. Laws are ingeniously formulated 
to make justice tardy and thus tend to en- 
courage crime and disorder. In view of the 
well-established fact that the productive in- 
dustries must bear the burdens of society, chief 
among which is agriculture, the natural nurs- 
ing mother of all the occupations, trades and 
professions of our people, it is found that it is 
over-taxed and over-burdened with unneces- 
sary, unjust, unequal and flagrant impositions, 
that a just sense of right would transfer to 
where they justly belong. The farmers of 
America have -on all occasions shown them- 
selves to be a patient and enduring people, and 
further submission to wrong and injustice will 
be a sacrifice of manhood' and exhibition of 
cowardice. Stirred with a just sense of right 
and supported by the integrity of our purpose, 
the National Grange of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, in the name and interests of the farm- 
ers of the United States, sternly demand — 

1. That the Department of Agriculture shall 
be made an Executive Department, and the 
Commissioner a Cabinet officer. 

2. That the Agricultural Department shall be 



sustained and supported by annual appropria- 
tions commensurate with the importance of the 
great and permanent industry it represents.. 

3. That commercial treaties shall be made 
with all foreign countries, giving to American 
products equal and unrestricted intercourse 
with the markets of the world. 

4. That governments be administered in a 
cheaper and simpler manner, consonant with 
the conditions of the people. 

5. That a more rigid economy in the expen- 
ditures of public moneys be re-established. 

6. That the laws shall be plain and simple, 
to the end that justice shall be speedy, crime 
punished and good government maintained. 

7. That the creation or allowing of monopo- 
lies to exist is in violation of the spirit and ge- 
nius of free republican government. 

8. That the tariffs of freights and fares over 
railroads and all transportation companies shall 
be regulated, and all unjust discriminations in- 
hibited by law. 

9. That taxation shall be equal and uniform, 
and all values made to contribute their just 
proportion to the support of the government. 

10. That the revenue laws of the United 
States shall be so adjusted as to bear equally 
upon all classes of property, to the end that ag- 
riculture shall be relieved of the disproportion 
of burdens it bears. 

11. That the patent laws of the United States 
be so revised that innocent purchasers of patent 
rights shall be protected, and fraudulent ven- 
dors alone held responsible for infringements of 
rights and violations of law. 

12. That a system of elementary agricultural 
education shall be adopted in the common 
schools of the country. 

13th. That we are entitled to and should have 
a fair representation in the legislative halls of 
the country, chosen from the rankB of the 
farmers. 

Emphatically asserting our unalterable deter- 
mination to support and maintain these princi- 
ples, we demand that they shall be incorporated 
in the laws of the country for the protection of 
American agriculture, and invoke the aid of the 
farmers of the United States in their support, 
regardless of party affiliations and party man- 
dates. To follow the dictation of party influ- 
ences whilst our earnings are spirited away, and 
our families beggared, is a degradation and sac- 
rifice that cannot longer be endured. • 

With manly dignity we boldly declare our 
rights aud interests, and with unwavering devo- 
tion will maintain and defend them on all occa- 
sions, and this warning is defiantly thrown to 
the world.— W. W. Lang, V. E. Piollet, D. T. 
Chase, T. H. Harwell, A. B. Franklin, Com- 
mittee. 



Stockton Grange. 

Bro. Phelps, of Stockton Grange, favors us 
with an account of the installation last week, 
as published in one of the local papers. We 
condense from the report as follows: 

Dr. Grattan called the meeting to order for 
work in public. The installation ceremonies 
were conducted by I. C. Steele, Worthy Past 
Master of the State Grange, assisted by Amos 
Adams, Worthy Secretary of the State Grange. 
Past Master Steele delivered an eloquent and 
forcible address upon the condition and for the 
good of .the Order, and his long practical famil- 
iarity] with the duties of the highest office of the 
organization qualifies him to speak intelligently 
of its workings and to mako suggestions for its 
benefit. He counsels unity of purpose, activity 
and earnestness in sustaining the principles of 
the organization, and harmony and good will 
among the members. 

The installation ceremonies were highly inter- 
esting and the obligations assumed by the offi- 
cers are solemn and calculated to impress their 
minds with a strong sense of personal as well as 
official responsibility. 

» An excellent address was delivered by Sister 
W. D. Ashley, from which we quote these para- 
graphs : 

Through the year now rolled into the sea of the ages> 
death has passed us hy. The even flow of our lives has 
moved calmly and prosi»erously on. In it have we gained 
no new ideas tu lighten and brighten the sameness of our 
daily toil? Have we met and talked of the ways to utilize 
force and economize time; of the workings of nature in 
our crops, walking daily hy her never-failing streams of 
knowledge and caught no cry stal drops in our cups of ex- 
perience'.' 

Surely wc have gathered some grains of gold from the 
crucible of argument, for we are not wholly unthinking, 
careless, absorbed in self. Planning, toiling, struggling, 
all for pelf, but willing to enrich each other with the hard- 
earned wisdom of experiment and observation. May the 
new year, now yielding its days of satisfying delight and 
frustrated hopes, give us new energy and inspire us to 
higher culture. We want plain talks of the things that 
make up the comfort and profit of our lives, the perma- 
nence of our Government and the good of posterity. Let 
us carefully watch our legislators in their work of inter- 
preting and adjusting our new organic law, affecting so 
many industrial and political interests. Let ua hope our 
public schools will be preserved in their present efficiency. 
Some of the members in our Order prefer to bo the audi- 
ence. As an audience they are valuable, but the useful- 
ness and existence of this society depends upon the work- 
ing of every member. Co-operation is the keystone bind- 
ing this arcli of brotherhood with its sure benefits. 
Armed with the good principles of the Grange, we need 
more concurrent action, zeal, and that charity which 
springs from a living faith in God and his requirements. 
What if we do wear old clothes and work hard, our homes 
are fixed in the reliable earth where we can save and with- 
stand the fiercest financial storm. 

Previous to the opening of the meeting, a 
table, extending along the hall the entire length, 
had been placed on the south side and laden 
not only with the substantial but with the del- 
icacies of the season. If evidence were wanting 
of the skill of women in the art of cookery, it 
was furnished at Pioneer Hall on Saturday by 
the farmers' wives. It was a sumptuous repast, 



and was greatly enjoyed by the members of the 
Grange, their families and friends. Probably 
not less than 100 persons sat down to the feast. 
Taken all is all, it was an occasion of far more 
than ordinary interest, and in point of social 
enjoyment and genuine pleasure, if ever equalled, 
was certainly never surpassed in Pioneer Hall 
or elsewhere in the city. 

Taxation. 

Editors Press: — There are problems to solve 
bearing on agriculture which seem to be of great 
importance. The present Legislature will have 
to grapple with some of them. Taxing land by 
grade will have to be made plain and defined. 
Its effects upon large tracts of uncultivated 
land will be watched with interest. In Europe, 
the effects of individual ownership to large 
domains is now painfully apparent. It is for 
this young Empire to take lessons from these 
great wrongs to ja universal brotherhood. The 
"dog-in-the-manger" policy should be legislated 
against, and a limit placed upon individual pos- 
sessions. We cannot expect to see all social 
wrongs righted in a day, a year, or even a cen- 
tury, but every step we take should be nearer 
the goal of finally acknowledging "The Father- 
hood of God, and the Brotherhood of Man." It 
is somewhat of a hackneyed phrase, but no 
other sentiment will convey the same broad 
principles of a universal reign of justice and 
right. John Taylor. 

Tuolumne Co., CaL. 



Danville Grange. 

Editors Press: — I had the pleasure, with 
the able assistance of Sister Charles Wood, of 
installing the newly-elected officers of Danville 
Grange last Saturday. Although the Grange is 
not in as flourishing a condition as it was at 
one time, and although the prnning knife has 
been vigorously applied, yet it has many 
eariiett members that have no thought of 
giving up the ship, so you can set Danville 
Grange down as one of the live GrangeB of the 
State. 

The farmers in this part of the county are 
well up with their sowing. Some are about 
done while many others are nearly so. The 
ground never was in better condition for sowing 
grain than it is at present, and farmers are 
making the best use of the time possible. 

N. Jones. 

Lafayette, Cal., Jan. 19, 1880. 

Election of Officers.* 

Clarksville Grange, No. 149, El Dorado 
Co. — Election Jan. 3d: Charles Chapman, M. ; 
W. Woodward, O. ; C. P. Winchell, L. ; Joseph 
Joerger, S. ; J. H. Tong, A. S. ; J. F. York, C. ; 
Geo. Carsten, T. ; S. Kyburz, Sec'y; W. John- 
son, G. K. ; Mrs. S. Kyburz, Ceres; Mrs. E. E. 
Winchell, Pomona; Mrs. M. E. Porter, Flora; 
Miss C. Carsten, L. A. S. ; S. Ewer, Trustee. 

Danville Grange, Contra Costa Co. — M. 
W. Hall, M. ; S. F. Ramage, 0. ; S. L. Moore, 
S. ; Charles Wood, L. ; S. L. Wood, A. S. ; R. 
O. Baldwin, T. ; C. E. Howard, Sec'y; J. M. 
Stone, G. K.; MissL. Wood, Ceres; Miss Millie 
Howard, Flora; Mrs. R. 0. Baldwin, Pomona; 
Mis« Olivia I^abara, L. A. S. 

North Bdtte Grange, No. 225. — Election 
Dec. 27th: W. T. Lam, M.; F. F. Clyma, O.; 
H. Luther, L. ; J. W. Hedger, 8. ; C. C. Pat- 
ridge, A. S.; Mrs. H. S. Graves, C; L. D. 
Hedger, T. ; Mrs. M. E. Durley, Sec'y; T. S. 
Clyma, G. K.; Mrs. J. W. Hedger, Ceres; Miss 
M. E. Davey, Pomona; Miss Jennie Thorpe, 
Flora; Mrs. C. C. Patridge, L. A. S.; R. K. 
Stevenson, T. ; Miss A. E. Clyma, Organist. 

San Luis Obispo Grange. — Election Jan. 
10th: Geo. Steele, M. ; W. P. Barnett, O.; J. 
F. Beckett, L. ; A. T. Mason, Sec'y; Levi 
Smith, C. ; L. M. Warden, T. ; D. Mitchell, S. ; 
L. Fowler, A. S. ; Mrs. D. Steele, Ceres; Mrs. 
H. M. Warden, Pomona; Mrs. B. F. Pettit, 
Flora; Mrs. S. M. Johnson, L. A. S. ; B. B. 
Pierce, G. K. 

Washington Grange, No. 228, Calaveras 
Co. -Samuel C. Waters, M.; S. W. Sollars, O.; 
R. D. Wilson, L. ; M. L. Cook, C. ; Nelson Dill, 
S.; Chas. Bamert, Sec'y; Chas. Blyther, T.; 
Mrs. Minerva Holman, Ceres; Miss May Par- 
rott, Pomona; Miss Gertie Holman, Flora; Miss 
Josie Stamper, G. K. ; Miss Rosa Stamper, L, 
A. S. ; W. B. Stamper, Trustee. 

•Secretaries of Subordinate Granges are invited to send, 
for publication, lists of officers as soon as they are 
elected ; also dates of installation. 

Temescal Grange. — On Saturday, Jan. 24th, 
at 11 o'clock a. m., Temescal Grange will confer 
the third and fourth degrees on members elect, 
and install the officers elected for the ensuing 
year, the exercises to finish with a harvest feast. 
Members of Eden, Alhambra and Walnut Creek 
Grangea are cordially invited to be present. — 
Jno. S. Collins, Sec'y Temescal Grange. 

Trade Statistics. — The annual review of the 
trade of the city, as given in the annual number 
of the Commercial Herald, is worthy the atten- 
tion of all readers. It furnishes many data that 
will prove of value to the student of our indus- 
trial progress. 

Chief Winnemucca and party are en route 
to Washington. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

The Alvarado Suoarik.— Cor. Oakland 
Times: I recently visited the Alvarado Beet 
Sugar Factory and found it turning out, as reg- 
ular as clock-work, from 30 to 40 barrels of 
prime white refined sugar a day. The quality 
will compare favorably with the best cane 
sugar. About 60 tons of beets are worked up 
daily, yielding 8% of nice, white refined sugar, 
selling in the San Francisco market for 11 to 12 
cents. Thirty-six carloads of sugar have been 
shipped of about eight tons each. The manu- 
facturers contracted last year with farmers for 
1,100 tons of beets at $4 a ton. They employ 
about 100 men in the factory. They are mak- 
ing a better sugar than has ever before been 
made from beets in the United States. 
BUTTE. 

Activity. — Chico Record, Jan. 17: In every 
direction farming operations are progressing 
with alacrity. The early sown grain that was 
above ground previous to the frosts is looking 
well, and the warm sunshine of the past three 
days has given everything a new start, besides 
allowing plowing and seeding to progress rap- 
idly. The farmer who has made the most of 
the favorable weather in the early part of the 
season in this section is L. H. Mcintosh, who 
has 3,000 acres all cultivated and above ground, 
and looking strong and healthy. 
COLUSA 

Gopheru and Levees. — Sun, Jan. 17: Last 
Sunday morning it was discovered that a gopher 
hole ran through the levee at the Byer's cut, on 
Grand island. An attempt was made to stop it 
by digging down into the top of the levee, but 
it caved in, and a Bluice-head went out. As 
good luck would have it, the river was falling, 
and it was stopped in two or three days. The 
Byer's cut is the place that gave so much trouble 
winter before last. After all is said and done, 
"What to do with our gophers?" is the prob- 
lem of the levee builders. The levee makes a 
dry, comfortable place for their homes, and they 
not only dig through them, but they make in 
them regular burrows. If the bends of the 
river could all be cut off, and a levee made up 
either side of the river wide enough for a road, 
and then the travel placed upon it, there would 
be no more trouble with levee breaking, for the 
gopher will not burrow under a wagon road, 
and if the levee is made wide enough for a road 
there will be but small danger of its breaking. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Frost and Crops. — Gazette, Jan. 17: There 
is much difference of opinion among our farmers 
as to the effects of the freezing weather upon 
the unsprouted seed in the ground, some of them 
holding that its vitality must be greatly im- 
Daired, if not destroyed, and others that it is 
uninjured. The cold weather has certainly re- 
tarded the germination of seed and growth of 
the crop plants, while it has had little or no 
damaging effect on the vitality of the dog-fennel 
and chess seed, which warm growing weather 
will be likely to bring forward in more rapid 
growth than grain plants of checked growth or 
impaired vitality. 
FRESNO. 

Berries. — W. A. Sanders in Republican: I 
have a very early blackberry. It ripens the 
first week in May, being the earliest blackberry 
in the world, to the best of my knowledge and 
belief. I found the bushes loaded with ripe 
fruit on May-day, 1875. I marked them, and 
returned to them the following May, they were 
again loaded, and ripe in advance of all others. 
There were but few of them, so I watched them 
closely, till I could transplant them to my farm, 
here, where they are now growing. They are 
vigorous growers, and immense bearers of large, 
tine-flavored, medium-sized berries. My fail- 
ures with raspberries include Fastolf, Knevitt, 
Franconia, Hudson River Antwerp, Pride of 
Hudson and dozens of others that are a most 
positive failure in our hot dry climate. My 
successes have been few. The Brandywine, if 
you get the genuine, is a success here. The 
Sanders, now on probation, promises success. 
Cuthbert is also worthy of trial. I have it on 
probation. The Mammoth Cluster also grows 
well and bears moderate crops here. But by 
far the best that I have tried is the Gregg. 
When it first came into notice two years ago, I 
gave a half dollar each for some very small 
vines by mail. The yielded a half pint each of 
large, beautiful, luscious berries the first year. 
Since then I have received two spurious lots, 
that weren't Greggs in any respect. But the 
genuine Gregg stands unrivaled, the best rasp- 
berry that I have raised in California. 
KERN. 

Weir across Poso' Creek.— Gazette: The 
Calloway is the main ditch, and it is completed 
to within seven miles of Delano. The work is 
the best done in the county, and the ditch has 
the capacity to carry water sufficient to irrigate * 
all the lands undergoing improvement in this 
section. The weir across Poso creek is com- 
pleted, and is a permanent structure that re- 
flects much credit on the engineer who planned 
it. The weir is 150 feet long. Two solid rows 
of piling, 30 feet apart, are driven down ten feet 
to the hard pan to prevent the water from seep- 
ing below the bed of the creek. Between these 
solid rows are driven six rows of under piles 
about nine feet apart. Along the solid rows 
and these anchor piles are spiked sills, upon 
which the floor is laid and spiked firmly. Upon 



J? 



January 24, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC 



BJ1L PRESS. 



this stands a row of posts nine feet apart which 
support the gates. A floor is laid tightly to 
the top of the braces and the inside is filled with 
sand firmly tamped. Over the sand another 
floor is laid, and upon this latter floor the gates 
stand, and are so constructed as to let the wa- 
ter pass under them when they are raised. 
When closed they hold the water and send it 
down the Calloway canal. The gates are raised 
by means of a roller. There is a heavy levee on 
each side of the creek above the weir. When 
the creek is full of water it will form quite a 
lake for several hundred yards above the weir. 
The Calloway has several branches in the way 
of small ditches. Prom these the land is irri- 
gated through side gates, which let the water 
'flood the sections checked up on either side. 
Everything is so constructed that the irrigating 
can be carried on through all the side gates at 
the same time. The water is controlled by 
drops in the main ditches, and is thus given a 
gradual fall that prevents the washing of the 
banks. 
LASSEN. 

Farming on Sage Land. — Cor. Reno Gazette: 
There is land enough in Honey Lake valley for 
500 farms that would raise 25 bushels of wheat 
or barley per acre, almost every year, if it was 
properly put in. All that is required to pro- 
duce a good crop is to plow deep in the spring 
and then in the fall put in the grain, and a fine 
crop is the result. Some have tried farming 
here on sage land. They would put in a crop 
in the spring, plow the ground four inches and 
a half, harrow it, and trust to providence for 
the future. The result would be about eight or 
ten bushels per acre. They would leave in dis- 
gust. But when the sage land has been tried 
by a farmer that used good farm sense, the 
ground has always paid a good dividend to the 
owner. Of a wet winter, when the snow is 
piled up in the mountains, and the valley is 
thoroughly wet, a good crop is a sure thing. 
Barley and wheat seem to be adapted to this 
particular soil. The proprietors of the Lassen 
mills prefer wheat that has not been irrigated 
to that which has been watered; it is not so 
flinty, and, as a general thing, will out yield 
the latter for flour. If the thousands that are 
homeless, yet willing to work, would secure 
themselves a quarter section of our valley land 
and stay with it, in a few years they could be 
independent. There have been a large number 
of farms located last season, and grain put in 
this year will prove the question of the produc- 
ing qualities of our wild lands. There are a 
few farms lying near Susanville, on which last 
year the smallest yield of wheat was 11 bushels, 
which was spring sowing. The greatest yield 
was 28J bushels, which was on summer-fallowed 
land. All this was on sage land. About one- 
third of the farms in the valley have no water 
to irrigate with, and they wear better than those 
that are blessed with an abundance. Wells can 
be bored, and wind-mills put up for house and 
garden uses. Water is found at a depth of from 
six to fourteen feet, in great quantities, suffi- 
cient for all uses. Enough for all domestic 
purposes and to irrigate a two-acre garden can 
be got by boring 30 feet, using a four-inch auger. 
Vegetables of all kinds grow well, and for flavor 
are unsurpassed. This year ought to be a good 
one for the farmers, as the snow is very deep in 
the mountains, and the valley has got a good 
soaking with rain. The snow at present is 
about eight inches deep. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Zante Currants. — Santa Ana Herald: 
We have seen some samples of Zante currants 
raised by Mr. H. H. Roper, on his place near 
town, and we are led to believe that their culti- 
vation on an extensive scale would prove profit- 
able. Mr. Roper says that they are very pro- 
lific, and in size and flavor are fully up to the 
imported currant. Considering the fact that 
there is in the United States a very large 
amount of these currants used, aggregating 
several hundred thousand pounds annually, and 
that almost the entire demand is supplied by 
importation, we think there is a chance here 
for our farmers and horticulturists to engage 
it a pleasant and profitable enterprise; one that 
would increase in importance as the quality 
produced might justify. We hope that the 
successful experiments of Mr. Roper will in- 
duce others to engage to some extent in the 
cultivation of this fruit. 

Little Damage by Frost. — Express : Not- 
withstanding all the talk about damage to young 
trees from the late frosts, Mr. Richardson, of 
the firm of Fisher, Richardson & Co., who have 
a nursery in the southern part of the city, in- 
forms us that there is in reality little or no 
harm done. He thinks that the budded orange 
sprouts have been nipped back only just enough 
to make them come all the more sturdily next 
ye*r; it is better for them, in fact, than though 
they had been pruned back to the same extent, 
for it preserves the sap in the rest of the wood. 
Then, too, there is a better bargain for pur- 
chasers in the nipped trees, as they are valued 
according to hight. A tree which would have 
brought, before the frost, $1.25, now sells for $1, 
while it is as good for every practical purpose. 
Mr. Richardson says that the limes have really 
suffered, but, as no value is placed upon them, 
the loss is not worth noting. 

Amber Cane. — Anaheim Gazette, Jan. 17: 
Mr. F. A. Gates, of Garden Grove, raised half 
an acre of Minnesota Early Amber cane last 
year, and was so successful that he has deter- 
mined to plant fifteen acres this year. He will 
purchase an improved crusher, and he believes 
that he can find a ready market for all the syrup 
he can make, if by the time the cane is ready to 



be crushed the process of making sugar from 
the cane is not thoroughly understood. There 
is no doubt that sugar can be made from this 
kind of cane. Much of the syrup made a few 
months ago has granulated so that it will not 
run out of the vessel containing it. 

Flour Corn.— Mr. John Taylor, of Anaheim, 
brought with him from Arkansas last year some 
seed of what is known as "flour corn." Mr. 
Gates obtained some of the seed, and brought a 
sack of the corn raised therefrom to Messrs. A. 
Guy Smith & Co., who ground it for him on 
Tuesday. The meal is snow-white, and scarcely 
distinguishable from corn, and is altogether a 
valuable addition to the cereals grown here. It 
is said that it is a common practice in Pennsyl- 
vania, where this kind of corn is extensively 
grown, for millers to mix it with wheat flour, 
and the adulteration is seldom noticed. Mr. 
Gates has seed enough to plant three acres. 

Malvoise. — Mr. Henry Kroeger has cleared 
off the vines from five acres of his vineyard and 
will reset it with Malvoise vines. Mr. Kroeger 
plants this variety because he believes that land 
on which the Mission vine has grown for a long 
time should be reset with a different kind of 
grape. 

Large Purchase of Orange Trees. — We 
hear that Mr. Dana B. Clark yesterday pur- 
chased of Mr. G. D. Compton, of the Co-opera- 
tive nurseries, through D. A. Shaw, superin- 
tendent, 10,000 orange trees for the mammoth 
orange orchard near Sacramento. We do not 
know the names of the parties interested in this 
work, but we are informed that, besides this 
lot, they have already purchased several car- 
loads from Riverside, Orange and this place, 
and Mr. D. V. Waldron is still buying,for them. 
We wish our northern brethren a grand success 
in their semi-tropical undertaking. They are 
certainly fortunate in their selection of a super- 
intendent. They probably could not have se- 
cured a more thorough and practical horticul- 
turist to take charge of the enterprise than 
Judge Clark. He has, somewhat to his own 
pecuniary loss, been one of the most enterpris- 
ing experimenters in semi-tropical horticulture 
that southern California has ever had. 

A Market for Barley. — We have seen let- 
ters from Eastern brewers, to whom had been 
forwarded samples of choice Los Angeles bar- 
ley, who expressed themselves willing to make 
large purchases here. Some of the samples 
were from barley grown in the Centinela belt, 
and we have no doubt grain grown elsewhere in 
the county would receive as favorable an accept- 
ance. Parties who have made figures on the 
basis of the prices offered by the Eastern brew- 
ers and the cost of freight, have satisfied them- 
selves that our farmers can make a good profit 
out of their barley crops if their grain comes up 
to the standard required for brewing purposes. 
SAN DIEGO. 

The Honey Outlook. — Union, Jan. 17: As 
a result of our frequent interviews with bee- 
keepers, we regret to say the prospects of the 
coming season are far from being as encourag- 
ing as previous inquiries had led us to suppose. 
Two great causes combine to render an unpre- 
cedented large crop impossible, even under the 
most favorable conditions of weather, during 
the honey-producing season. First, we may 
mention the condition of the bees, which in 
most apiaries is far from satisfactory; and sec- 
ondly, the heavy and extensive fires of last 
October, which destroyed a very large portion 
of the richest shrubs of the county. The de- 
struction by these fires has been so extensive 
and widespread as to make the removal of 
many of the largest apiaries a necessity. Mr. 
Fox and Mr. Harbison both gave as a result of 
this calamity the following: The heavy rains 
will probably secure an abundant growth of 
annual plants in these burned districts — suffi- 
cient to bring all the surviving hives up to a 
strong and healthy condition. But, unfor- 
tunately, this growth will be matured and 
cease to furnish support for the bees about the 
middle of June, and then, all sage, "wild 
buckwheat" and other shrubs relied upon for a 
crop having been destroyed, there is nothing 
left, and actual starvation must follow, unless 
the bees are removed to new fields, if such can 
be found. At best, it will take several years 
to bring the burned districts back to their for- 
mer condition for bee-culture. Relying, then, 
upon the experience and information given by 
our oldest and largest apiarists, we may con- 
sider the coming honey crop a large one, under 
the circumstances, if the total yield shall reach 
even half or two-thirds that of 1878. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Agricultural Society. — Stockton Independ- 
ent: At the meeting of the San Joaquin Valley 
Agricultural Society there was held an election of 
two Directors, to succeed John E. Moore and 
Fred Arnold, whose terms of office expired 
yesterday. Those gentlemen were re-nomina- 
ted and re-elected without opposition. The 
Society selected Gen. George S. Evans, James 
Cole, G. W. Trahern and L. M. Moss, to repre- 
sent the District Society in the State Board of 
Agriculture. The Board of Directors held a 
meeting Saturday evening and re-elected J. M. 
La Rue Secretary of the Society, D. Briggs 
Superintendent of the track, and Andrew 
Simpson, Treasurer. 
SANTA BARBARA 

The Wool Interest. — Press, Jan. 17: 
The wool clip this year promises wonderfully 
well. The wool on some pelts brought to mar- 
ket, from sheep killed for mutton, is as long 
now as it was at shearing time last year. Prices 
are looking up and offers of 24 cents for the 
spring clip have been refused. 



SANTA CLARA. 

Agricultural Society. — Mercury: At a 
meeting of the Agricultural Society held Mon- 
day afternoon, James T. Murphy was elected 
Treasurer of the society and W. M. Williamson, 
Secretary — Givens George, the outgoing Secre- 
tary, declining to allow his name to be pre- 
sented to the meeting. > L. D. Huntsman, C. H. 
Maddox and B. D. Murphy were appointed del- 
egates to the State convention which meets at 
Sacramento on the 20th inst. 

SOLANO. 

The Straw Levee.— Dixon Tribune, Jan. 
17: Mr. Cooley's straw levee, built to keep 
the overflow of Putah creek away from his 
house, has been very successful. Before the 
overflow occurred the sand had drifted into the 
straw, and the grain sprouted and grew, so that 
the whole was well matted. This, with the 
sediment deposited by the creek itself, is 
enough to turn the water and the levee stands 
like a charm, while the sand levee near the 
same place crumbles away constantly with the 
action of the water. Mr. Cooley claims that he 
has revolutionized levee building. Other par- 
ties owning land near the same place have al- 
ready begun putting up straw levees. 
SUTTER. 

The Debris Question.— Banner, Jan. 16: 
Representative Page has introduced a bill in 
Congress on the debris matter, asking for the 
appointment of a commission of army engineers 
to examine into and report upon the effects of 
hydraulic mining in the State, which we noticed 
last week. Our own Representative, Hon. C. 
P. Berry, has also offered a bill bearing upon the 
subject, and as might have been expected, his 
proposition looks to the immediate benefit of a 
large proportion of his constituents, and does 
away with delay in the application of it. No- 
body knows better than Mr. Berry the useless- 
ness of scientific, examinations of this matter, 
or the necessity for haste in the application of 
any remedy. Mr. Berry has asked for an appro- 
priation of $500,000 for clearing out the Sacra- 
mento and Feather rivers. Of course, should 
this appropriation be granted, it would not end 
the strife between the farmers and miners, a 
thing that can only be done by a radical change 
in the mode of conducting hydraulic mining, 
and keeping the debris out of the streams, but 
properly handled it would purchase us $500,000 
worth of relief from the evil as it now exists. 
This might or might not be of use to us here, but 
at least the experiment could be made at once. 
We are opposed to any more junketing commis- 
sions. The thing has been examined and re- 
examined and smelt over ad nauseam, and the 
question now has pretty nearly got into the 
shape it had with the boy's school committee, 
who had met to determine whether it was more 
desirable to remove the pile of dead cats or 
change the location of the schoolhouse. We 
need no more commissions. 

VENTURA. 

Weather Notes. — Editors Press: The 
year 1879 has bade us a cold farewell, and left 
as mementos for remembrance many a frozen 
plant, and many a withered, blighted tree. Be- 
sides, the fierce floods, caused by the heavy 
rains of December, will long be remembered 
with sorrow by many persons in Ventura: for 
by those floods three of our citizens (one woman 
and two men) lost their lives. In one case a 
mother, while trying to rescue her children from 
their flood-endangered dwelling, was herself 
washed away by the terrible torrent which 
rushed from the steep, narrow canyon above 
their house. Her dead body was found next 
day'in some drift near the ocean; and although 
it was a dark night and the dwelling with the 
sleeping children was swept away by the 
angry flood, the children (two in number) were 
somehow miraculously thrown on some high 
land and escaped without much injury, only to 
realize, when day dawned on their wretchedness, . 
that a few hours had left them motherless and 
homeless. At daylight the almost crazed hus- 
band and father took his shivering children to 
the nearest neighbors, where their immediate 
wants were kindly cared for as much as possi- 
ble. There were two sheep herders stopping at 
the house the night of the disaster, and one of 
them was drowned. A few days afterward, a 
farmer living in the Santa Clara was drowned 
while trying to cross the Santa Clara river; he 
leaves a wife and children to lament his loss. 
But this is the dark side of the storm picture; 
the copious, rain which in the above-named in- 
stances was the indirect cause of diro disaster, 
has at the same time gladdened the hearts of 
thousands with bright prospects of a bountiful, 
happy harvest. The severe front of the 2.1d 
and 24th of December lias worked considerable' 
damage to tender plants and young treeB of the 
citrus family. I have not yet been able to 
accurately ascertain the damage done to various 
orchards throughout the county, but as soon as 
I can obtain full and correct information, will re- 
port the same to the Rural Press. The night of 
December 23d was the coldest of the season: 
at 7 a. m. of the 24th the thermometer indi- 
cated 28° above zero, and that is 3" colder than 
at any-time during my residence of seven years 
at Cliff Glen. The early rains and extreme 
warm weather of last November started or- 
ange, lemon and lime trees into a vigorous 
growth, and for a month previous to the frost 
the dark purple shoots of the capricious lemon 
had been striving to outstrip in growth the 
light green shoots of the fast growing orange. 
But a Btray fragment of climate from Alaska or 
some other Arctic country happened this way on 
the • Hh of December, and nipped the tips of 



many of the shoots of my lemon trees, ana 
stopped their growing for a while at least. But 
my orange trees show no touch of frost, by 
even so much as a wilted leaf or twig, and to- 
day they look as bright and green as they did 
in August last; which goes to prove that a 4'' 
freeze is nothing for a seven-year-old orange 
tree to stand. And now it seems to me if 
farmers could ascertain, through the medium 
of the Rural Press, the exact degree of cold, 
and, as near as may be, the damage done to or- 
ange and lemon trees throughout the State, it 
would show the degree of cold that class of 
trees can endure with safety, and would be of 
great benefit to those who intend to set out or- 
ange and lemon trees in new localities in future. 
— Robt. Lyon, Cliff Glen, Ventura, Cal., Jan. 
12, 1880. 

Digging up Almonds.— Free Press, Jan. 17: 
Alex. Gray, an energetic fruit grower of Santa 
Paula, is digging up most of his almond orchard, 
and planting in their stead apricots and plums. 
Some of these almond trees are several years 
old and were beautiful, thrifty trees. Alex, says 
that the almond as a profitable tree won't do, as 
even a half crop cannot be depended upon, even 
one in two or three years. 



News in Brief. 

The Princess Louise is about to return to 
Canada. 

The School of Design in this city opened with 
43 pupils. 

Russia is still secretly continuing her prepar- 
ations for war. 

Negroes are arriving in Kansas from Texas 
in great numbers. 

The Duchess of Marlborough relief fund 
amounts to £19,000. 

Mayor Kalloch's condition is causing his 
friends much anxiety. 

Gold placers have been discovered near Hop- 
land, Sonoma county. 

Ira Gilchrist, a well-known architect in 
Napa county, is dead. 

Process-servers in County Mayo, Ireland, 
are having a rough time. 

A concordat between Germany and the Vat- 
ican is about concluded. 

The damage in Washington Territory by the 
late storm is placed at if50,000. 

George Bragg was accidentally hung re- 
cently in Douglas county, Oregon. 

An excursion to this coast on a large scale is 
to take place from Boston in April. 

A daring robbery was recently perpetrated 
in broad daylight in a Chicago street. 

Chancellor Hartson was elected on Friday 
last Assemblyman from Napa county. 

The murderer of Jacob Swanger, at Hills- 
boro, Oregon, has confessed his crime. 

In the recent fight with the Montenegrins the 
Albanians lost 45 killed and 60 wounded. 

Silver in London, 523; consols, 97 15-16; 
5% U. S. bonds, 1055; 4s, 107?; 4Js, 111. 

Three persons were killed and twenty injured 
Friday, at Southport, Eng., in a railway colli- 
sion. 

Dr. Congar, of Pasadena, has sold, so far 
this season, 65,000 grape cuttings, chiefly the 
White Muscat, for raisins. 

In the State Assembly it has been agreed to 
refer all bills bearing upon the Chinese question 
to the Committee on Chinese. 

In San Francisco, half-dollars are quoted at 
par; trade dollars, 95 buying, 96 J selling; Mex- 
ican dollars, 96 buying, 96 J selling. 

In the State Senate the question of reference 
of bills to the San Francisco delegation, has 
been decided in favor of the delegation. 

The Republican Legislature of Maine on Sat- 
urday elected and inaugurated Daniel F. 
Davis, Governor, together with the balance of 
the State officers. 

Within the last 13 months 172 bears have 
been killed on the sheep ranch of Hanson, 
Porter & Russ, Humboldt county, and between 
250 and 300 wild cats. 

Spurgeon is still at Mentone in Southern 
France, and so sick as to be frequently troubled 
with attacks of mental despondency. He writes 
occasional letters to his congregation in Loudon. 

Downikvii.le has been blockaded for a week, 
all communication except by men on snow-shoos 
being cut off. It is the most terrific snow 
storm ever experienced since that town was 
settled by the whites. 

Wheat in England. — Tho London Farmer 
has these remarks concerning tho condition of 
the English-grown wheat of 1879 : Tho present 
price of American rod winter wheat — 10 shillings 
above the English average — is an impediment 
in the way of the English farmer. Foreign 
wheat, it is freely said, is rather dear than 
cheap, and 8 pence is rather over than below 
what should be considered a fair price for the 
quartern loaf. Tho disastrous want of quality 
in this year's English produce is to blame for 
this. The country will not put up with inferior 
bread, even when Providence has deprived the 
nation of a good-quality homo crop. In order 
to keep up the standard of quality, the present 
poor crop will not improbably be consumed in 
small bulk through 18 instead of 12 months, dur- 
ing all which period the nation may, and very 
likely will, have to pay to the foreigner a high 
price for his finer-quality wheat. The country, 
in fact, will probably indulge, at an expense of 
several millions sterling, in a luxury which free 
trade has accustomed it to regard as a perpetual 
right and oven necessary, but which no nation 
living on its own grain ever did permanently 
and uninterruptedly look for and oxpeot. 



54 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 24, 1880. 




The Moral Warfare. 



When freedom on her natal day 

Within her wall-rocked cradle lay, 

An iron race around her stood. 

Baptized her infant brow in blood; 

And thro' the storm which round her swept. 

Their constant ward and watching kept. 

Then, where our quiet herds repose, 
The roar of baleful battle rose, 
And brethren of a common tongue 
To mortal strife as tigers sprung, 
And every gift on freedom's shrine 
Was man for bread, and blood for wine! 

Our fathers to their graves have gone; 
Their strife is past— their triumph won; 
But sterner trials await the race 
Which rises in their honored place— 
A moral warfare with the crime 
And folly of an evil time. 

So let it be. In God's own might 

We gird us for the coming fight, 

And, strong in him whoso cause is ours, 

In conflict with unholy powers, 

We grasp the weapon he has given — 

Tho light, and truth, and love of heaven. 

—John 0. Whittier. 



Perils of Pioneers. 

The perils of pioneers have been faced and 
overcome by brave men the world around. 
Those who have resolutely gone to work to 
carve out homes and fortunes in regions not yet 
brought under the rule of peace and civiliza- 
tion, are often entitled to much honor for their 
valor in achieving peace and quiet for those 
who come after them. Many in our own coun- 
try have survived most serious dangers, and both 
to those who have acted in such scenes and 
those who have listened to the thrilling recital 
of them, the following aocount of pioneer life in 
Tasmania will be interesting : 

Mr. James Robertson, a strong sinewy Scot, 
from Badenoch, arrived in Van Dieman's Land 
as a free settler in 1825; he being then just as 
old as the century. He got a grant of land on 
the South Esk river, some 12 miles down 
stream from the present township of Avoca, 
and was living there, unmarried, in one of the 
primitive bush dwellings of those days com- 
monly called the "hut," about three years after 
his arrival. He had two assigned servants, 
well-conducted prisoners, or " Government 
men," as they were usually termed- — one em- 
ployed a3 cook and general servant, and the 
other as shepherd. One day he was out alone 
on the "run" (sheep farm), not far from home, 
when he observed four men carrying firearms 
approaching him. He had heard that a party 
of convicts had taken to the bush, but did not 
know they were in his neighborhood, and sup- 
posed that the men coming towards him were 
constables, till they presented their pieces and 
ordered him "to stand." Being unarmed, and 
one against four, he had no alternative but to 
throw up his hands, in token of submission, 
after the approved fashion. They told him to 
lead on to the hut, which he did, the men fol- 
lowing and covering him with their guns. Ar- 
rived at their destination, they made prisoner 
of the cook, who was a big, powerful fellow, 
slightly lame. This done, one man stood guard 
over the captives while the others rummaged 
the hut and collected everything they thought 
might be useful to them, making up bundles of 
tea, sugar, Hour, and other stores. They also 
turned out Mr. Robertson's wardrobe, and 
dressed themselves in his clothes; ordered the 
cook to prepare dinner for them, and heartily 
enjoyed the meal. Just as they had finished, 
the shepherd came in from the "run," and he, 
too, was made prisoner; and not long afterwards 
Mr. <;ray, a magistrate, whose land adjoined 
Mr. Robertson's— where the well-known estate 
of Vaucluse now is — came along on horseback, 
and was "bailed up" before he knew that he 
was in danger, and his horse appropriated by 
his captors. 

The four bushrangers had now secured as 
many prisoners, and determined to make a 
stark, and to take their captives with them for 
some distance, either to prevent their going off 
to the police-station at the nearest township 
and giving the alarm, or possibly, with some 
ulterior end in view. They tied Mr. Robert- 
son's hands to a strong stick — going from wrist 
to wrist — behind his back, and Mr. Gray and 
the shepherd were fastened together by a wrist 
of each, so that they two had each one hand 
free. 

One of the outlaws was named Howe, and 
was a nephew of a more celebrated desperado 
of the same name, Mick Howe, who some years 
before had been the terror of the Colony. 
Another 'was called Brown, and was a tall, 
strong-looking man, while the names of the 
others my informant had forgotten. The big 
cook was not bound, and him they forced to 
carry an immense bundle composed of the vari- 



ous stores and other articles they had appro- 
priated, while Howe armed himself with Mr. 
Robertson's new double-barrelled gun. The 
whole party now proceeded for several miles 
along the bank of South Esk, the prisoners in 
front, Mr. Robertson all the time planning and 
plotting a way of escape, but seeming to be 
light-hearted and merry, and exchanging jokes 
with his captors. Howe appeared to fancy 
something was wrong; he was suspicious of 
Robertson's unseasonable gaiety, and several 
times proposed to his comrades that he should 
shoot "that blarsted Scotchman;" but to this 
proceeding the others, fortunately, did not give 
their consent. At length they came to a place 
where a boat was moored on the other side of 
the river, and there it was determined to cross, 
the intention being, apparently, to make for the 
Ben Lomond tiers. For this purpose HotVe, 
who had been riding Gray's horse, swam the 
animal across the stream, which was there of a 
good width, and, having tied him to a tree, pro- 
ceeded to return in the boat. 

Meanwhile the captive party were allowed to 
sit down and rest on a fallen tree, apart from 
one another, but near enough to converse, the 
bushrangers being at a little distance watching 
the proceedings of their comrade who had crossed 
the river. Taking advantage of this oppor- 
tunity, Mr. Robertson explained to his com- 
panions in bondage his plan of escape, and ob- 
tained their promise of hearty and vigorous 
co-operation. He had a clasp knife in his coat- 
tail pocket behind, which, as he sat on the log, 
he contrived, pinioned as he was, to get out ; 
and, having with great difficulty opened it, he 
cut the cord which bound him sufficiently to 
allow of his getting his hands free, though in so 
doing he indicted a severe gash on his wrist, 
the mark of which he bore till his death. 

When Howe was seen returning with the 
boat the other outlaws came over towards their 
prisoners, and told them to stand up, which 
they did. They were then all %lose together, 
the bushrangers unsuspicious of any attempt to 
escape. Holding a large horse-pistol at full- 
cock in his hand, Brown, having first looked to 
see if Mr. Gray and the shepherd were securely 
tied, advanced for the same purpose to Mr. 
Robertson, who was then merely holding the 
stick behind his back with his unfettered hands. 
Just as he cams close Robertson shouted his 
preconcerted signal, "Now," at the very top of 
his voice, and at the instant clasped Brown 
round the body, over his arms (the pistol drop- 
ping from his hand), and "downed" him on the 
grass. Taken by surprise, and feeling the 
sinewy arms of the Highlander grasping him 
like bands of steel, Brown cried out "Don't 
hurt me," just as Mr. Robertson planted his 
knee upon him. "Turn on your face then," 
said Robertson, at the same time helping him 
to roll over ; and, then, tearing the black silk 
kerchief from his own neck, he firmly tied his 
prisoner's hands behind his back. In the mean- 
time, at the moment when the warning signal 
had been shouted, Mr. Gray and the shepherd, 
who had each one arm free, had rushed at the 
second bushranger, and the big cook at the 
third, and as soon as Mr. Robertson had finished 
tying Brown, he ran to the asssistance of his 
fellows. Both men were secured, much to their 
disgust and chagrin, their arms taken from them, 
and Gray and the shepherd unbound. Howe 
was now approaching in the boat ; but, seeing 
his late captives on the bank with arms in their 
hands, he pulled away down the stream. Sev- 
eral shots were tired at him, one of which passed 
through his left arm above the elbow ; but he 
escaped for the time, only to be captured a few 
hours later, wounded as described, by a party 
of constables. 

Mr. Robertson and his associates marched 
their prisoners back to the hut, and the shep- 
herd went off with the news to the nearest 
police-station, from whence a detachment of 
constables came and removed the bushrangers, 
£lad to find that the work of capturing such 
reckless villians had been so well done for them. 
Howe was brought in the same evening, and 
next morning all four were marched off to the 
gaol at Lauuceston. Strange to say, the three 
unwounded men escaped from the prison before 
the time fixed for their trial had arrived, and 
again took to the bush, vowing vengeance on 
Mr. Robertson. He applied to the authorities 
for protection, and a corporal and five privates 
were sent to garrison his domicile. This guard 
lay concealed in the house all day, and patrolled 
around at night. But, though the escaped des- 
peradoes "stuck up" many houses in the district, 
and said that at all events they were "going 
to kill that confounded Scotchman," they never 
went near his place. They were afterwards 
again taken, tried for robbing and shooting at a 
man near the township of Oatlands, and were 
all three hung. 

And the brave Scotchman was not killed, but 
lived to a ripe old age, and at a ball on the 
occasion of the celebration of his seventieth 
birthday, danced a reel with all comers, and 
exhausted partner after partner of both sexes 
before he himself gave in. He lived to see the 
colony peacable and prosperous, free from blacks 
and bushrangers, and he died quietly in his bed, 
surrounded by his weeping family, not in a bush 
hut, but in his own handsome mansion, that 
would be an ornament to any street or square in 
the metropolis of England. 

A youno lady in Chicago, when asked by the 
officiating minister, " Will you love, honor and 
obey this man as your husband and be to him a 
true wife?" said plainly, "Yes, if he doeB 
what he promised me financially." , 



The Dripping Rain. 

[Written for the Rural Paiss by Norma Robiksosl] 

Sometimes during the winter season in our 
"sunset land," instead of the loud, angry, 
tumultuous rain, or the monotonous, pattering, 
clattering rain, we have a gentle, dripping, 
dropping rain, that we can scarcely hear or see. 
If deceived by the apparent serenity of the ele- 
ments, we venture forth, our clothing is almost 
saturated before we are aware that rain is fall- 
ing. Though it falls ever so softly on the roof 
and in such minute drops, by listening, we can 
hear an occasional drip from the eaves. 

We have a feeling of security and content- 
ment that we cannot have during a noisy rain. 
We like to imagine the work going on without 
being constantly reminded of the fact by the 
noise it makes; the tiny drops penetrating deep 
into the earth, causing seeds to sprout, buds to 
start, and making little streams ripple joyously 
onward. And looking forward to the effects, 
we can see fields and meadows green with the 
promise of hay and grain ; trees covered with 
new foliage, Mowers blossoming and birds mak- 
ing music everywhere over the rain that has 
come and gone. 

But the boisterous, pretentious rain, that 
comes with a "rush of wind and roar of many 
waters," telling its own great deeds, as it were, 
till us with discomfort and foreboding. For it 
swells the rivers and overflows the valleys — 
often carrying away both house and inhabitant — 
causes landslides, drowns the vegetation and 
leaves a scene of desolation where before the 
land was smiling in plenty and luxuriant in 
beauty. 

When words of tender reproof fall softly on 
our ears, they gently drip into our hearts, sink- 
ing deeper and deeper, causing the flowers of 
love to blossom, and the seeds of good resolu- 
tions to spring up and bring forth fruit sixty 
and a hundred fold. But when storms of harsh 
and angry reproaches beat upon us, they rush 
onward with a mighty uproar, and take with 
them all remorse for wrong-doing and tender, 
charitable feelings, leaving only the memory of 
unkind words. The green growth of forgetful- 
ness might in time cover the desolate heart, but 
repeated storms would then make the ruin 
greater. 

The dripping rain, how softly it falls ! What 
low, tender music it makes in our homes, and 
how sweet the perfume it draws from love's 
beautiful blossoms, faith, hope and charity. 

Pope Valley, Cal. 



Town and Country. — In an address at the 
late New York Dairy fair, Mr. T. Whittaker 
voiced these sentiments: We once heard, or 
read, of a farmer's daughter in the full fresh- 
ness of youth and bloom. When passing along 
the street, a young man exclaimed, " Painted, 
by Heaven; " she turned and said, "Yes sir, 
painted by Heaven. " Then must we say that 
the farmer who stays at home amid health, 
happiness and the purest of pleasures, makes a 
sacrifice, and he who chooses a city life reaps 
all the rewards ? What a fascination there is in 
that word, reward. How few know the price 
paid or realize the reward. Last night I met 
an old friend with whom, not many years ago, I 
took dinner. Then prosperity shone upon him: 
he occupied and owned a $50,000 house with 
plenty of other property. In the course of con- 
versation, he said: " I suppose you know that 
lama poor man?" I said: "No, I have not 
heard of that. " He replied, "it is too true," 
and this is too often the case. After years of 
toil, care and anxiety, there comes a chilling, 
blighting wind which sweeps away all his 
wealth, and buries his long-cherished hopes in 
the ashes of desolation and despair. Farmers, 
I do not say that you have no cares, no sorrows, 
no trials and no obstacles to overcome, but re- 
member, he who has none of these must ever 
fail to attain the true standard of man. Labor 
develops the muscles and gives bodily strength, 
the trials of life develop the mind and every at- 
tribute — the man with these undeveloped is an 
idiot. Then do not let us turn and run from 
those evils of which we so often complain, for 
they are blessings disguised to lead us upward 
and onward to higher attainments, and over- 
coming them all develops our highest natures. 



A "Tearless Victory" Club,— They have 
a young ladies' society with the above name in 
Chico. At a late meeting as reported by the 
Record, an address was delivered by Miss E. 
Wilson, in which the aims of the society were 
thus defined: "The object of ourunion was to es- 
tablish a mutual improvement society for the cul- 
tivation of social and literary pursuits; and, if it 
must be confessed, a desire to prove to our friends 
among the Lords of Creation that girls were 
capable of forming and maintaining a society, 
if not in sustaining an argument. We have 
achieved neither fame nor literary distinction — 
have produced no thesis or learned debate. We 
have simply constructed the ladder which is to 
lead us to a higher womanhood. To-night we 
would adjust the first round, and with good 
will to all and malice to none, ca/ve 'Friend- 
ship 1 on its surface. Will you share it with 
us ? " 



Did you ever notice the fact, that a tramp 
who claims he has a trade, but can get no work 
at it, in the winter is a brickmaker, and in the 
summer a lumberman or ice sawyer ? 



Home. 

A home cannot be made with mortar, nor by 
a master builder. Oh, better the humble cot, 
hidden by trees, in the happy vale of Content, 
than the palace of my lord in aristocratic Bel- 
grave. 

Whenever we pass a cozy little cot, with a 
vine growing over the door and flowers in 
the window, through which we catch a glimpse 
of the happy husband and loving wife, with 
joyous children clambering over them, it sug- 
gests Shakespeare: 

"Verily, I swear, 'tis better to be lowly born. 
And range with humble livers in content, 
Than to be perked in glistening griof, 
And wear a golden sorrow." 

Somehow the idea of home is associated with 
the quiet country, with an humble house far re- 
moved from the dusty thoroughfares where fools 
struggle in the mad race for riches, power and 
place. 

"It stands in a sunny meadow, 
The house so mossy and brown, 
With its cumbrous old stone chimneys, 
And the gray roof sloping down. 

"The trees fold their green arms around it. 
The trees a century old, 
And the winds go whistling through them, 
And the sunbeams drop their gold." 

Somehow our idea of home is associated with 
a pleasant place where we played in child- 
hood; where the loved ones lived and died, 
and around which cluster the happy memories 
of delightful years. 

Home is associated with fields of newly mown 
hay, with bursting buds and beauteous blos- 
soms, with chasing butterflies and searching for 
strawberries. 

No, the skill of all the workmen in the world, 
nor all the decorations of art, will not make a 
home. 



Banged Hair. 

To our sight there is nothing sadder than a 
sane woman with her hair banged. A lunatic 
might be excused for such an erratic style of 
hair-dressing, but how a woman in the full pos- 
session of her faculties, and with the knowledge 
that she has a character to keep up, can wear 
her hair banged, is to us a profound mystery. 

From whence came the style? What origi- 
nated it? Whii set it afloat? Nobody on earth 
can say truthfully that it is beautiful. We 
never heard of its curing the liver complaint or 
the rheumatism. It does not render one any 
more liable to draw a prize in a lottery. It 
does not insure the wearer against being 
drowned, or struck by lightning, or bored by 
washing-machine agents. It does not make a 
tall woman look shorter, or a short one taller, 
or a fat one leaner; and if it is becoming to any 
human, then that face has escaped our notice! 

It will metamorphose the prettiest girl of our 
acquaintance into a monstrosity, and as for its 
effect on a plain woman — may the saints de- 
liver us from seeing it! It sets our teeth on 
edge! It imparts to the average female face the 
most discouraged, done-for-generally expression 
we have ever seen. 

But there! what is the use of conjecturing? 
Fashion is omnipotent; bo is folly, and we do 
not doubt that somewhere in the world, to-day, 
somebody is Baying, "Bangs are so becoming." 
— Exeliange. 



Drunkenness in England. — Dr. Bucknill, in 
his recent work on "Habitual Drunkenness, " 
says: " Of late years the upper class of En- 
glish has become sober, and its growing opinion 
stamps drunkenness more and more as a dis- 
grace; and that some small proportion of its 
members are left behind in the shameful in- 
dulgence of the old vice is certainly not a mat- 
ter of national concern. But they will ruin 
themselves I No doubt, and why should they 
not ? Their possessions will be better placed in 
sober hands, and their undeserved social po- 
sition will be yielded to the advance of more 
worthy candidates, but they will kill them- 
selves ! And this also is more likely than la- 
mentable, especially if they leave no offspring 
to inherit the curse of their qualities. It would 
be a national, nay, a world-wide blessing, if 
alcohol were really the active poison which it is 
so often represented to be, that men who in- 
dulge in it might die off quickly. The French 
have somewhat improved upon pure spirit in 
this direction by the invention of absinthe, 
which causes epilepsy, and Americans, with 
their vile compounds of raw whisky taken into 
empty stomachB, are far ahead of ourselves. An 
American drunkard who sticks to his work has 
a much better prospect of finishing it within a 
reasonably short time than the Englishman. " 



New Music. — By way of New Year's pres- 
ent, Oliver Ditson & Co., of Boston, send us 
three songs. One is a neat song and chorus: 
" Wandering back to the old Home," one a 
ballad of Italian quality by Pinsuti, " Sunset 
on the River," and one is a German gem by* 
Grieg: "Margaret's Cradle Song." There 
comes also "The Mill- Wheel," a whirring mel- 
ody for piano; a tone picture called " Le Chant 
du Cceur, " and a neat 4-hand piece by Merkel, 
called "In Dusky Dale." 

Land steward (to tenant farmer): "Well, 
Giles, what are you going to bow in here?" 
Farmer: "Ain't 'zactly made up my mind, sir) 
but if we could put in a few Btewards and land 
agents — they seem to thrive best on the land 
now-a-days. " 



January 24, 1880.] 



£ PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



5* 



Chaff. 

"Have you ground all your tools, as I told 
you this morning I" said a carpenter to his ap 
prentice. "All but the saw, sir; I couldn't get 
quite all the gaps out of that." 

Lady: "How much is this a yard ?" Clerk: 
"Fourteen and sixpence. It is an elegant ma 
terial — double; it can be worn both sides. If 
you tear one side you've only to turu it on the 
other." 

The just published report of an Irish benev- 
olent society says: "Notwithstanding the large 
amount paid for medicine and medical attend- 
ance, very few deaths occurred during the 
year." 

Wife (to her husband, who is eating a juicy 
roast with great relish) — "For heaven's sake, we 
have both forgotten that this is a fast day !" 
Husband (sulkily) — "You might have waited 
at least till I was through. " 

The subject of conversation at an evening 
entertainment was the intelligence of animals, 
particularly of dogs. Says Smith: "There are 
dogs that have more sense than their masters. " 
"Just so," responded young Fitznoodle. "I've 
got that very kind of a dog myself. " 

"No," exclaimed Mr. Penhecker, "No, 
Madam, I object most decidedly. Once and for 
all I say it — the girls shall not be taught foreign 
languages." "And why not, pray," said Mrs. 
P., with withering sarcasm. "Because," said 
P., with more withering sarcasm, "because, 
Mrs. P., one tongue is enough for any woman !" 
Mrs. Penhecker responded not. — Judy. 

" Honesty the Best Policy. " — Country 
practitioner (surprised at the visit of a notorious 
quack and pill- vender): "Well! What brings 
you here ? Quack (evidently suffering from 
disturbed peristaltic action): "Well, sir, the 

fact is, I feel rather queer, and ." Country 

practitioner: "Then why don't you take one 
of your 'Pearls of Health ?' " Quack: " That's 
just it, sir I I think I've swallowed one — by 
mistake ! " — Punch. 

A boy in the wild West who for the first 
time in his life saw a military company out for 
a drill with fife and drum, gave his mother the 
following account of the business: "A little 
man blowed on his squealin' stick, and a big 
man that stood beside him hammered on his 
thunder box, then the boss man pulled out a 
big, long knife and shook it at the fellers what 
was standin' up in a long row, and they all 
walked off on two legs." 

Domestic Meteorology. — A gentleman lately 
kept the following meteorological journal of his 
wife's temper — "Monday, rather cloudy; in the 
afternoon, rainy. Tuesday, vaporish; bright- 
ened up a little towards evening. Wednesday, 
changeable, gloomy, inclined to rain. Thurs- 
day, high wind, and some peals of thunder. 
Friday, fair in the morning, variable till after- 
noon, cloudy all night. Saturday, gentle 
breeze, hazy, a thick fog, and a few flashes of 
lightning. Sunday, tempestous and rainy; to- 
wards evening somewhat calmer." 

How Long We Are to Live. 

It is not everyone who asks himself this ques- 
tion, because, strangely enough, it is the belief 
of many persons that their lives will be excep- 
tionally lengthy. However, life assurance com- 
panies are aware of the credulous weakness of 
those whose lives they assure, and have there- 
fore compiled numerous tables of expectancy of 
life for their own guidance, which are carefully 
referred to before a policy is granted. The fol- 
lowing is one of these well-authenticated tables, 
in use among London assurance companies, 
showing the expectancy of life at various ages. In 
the first column we have the present ages of 
persons of average health ; and in the second col- 
umn we are enabled to peep, as it were, behind 
the scenes of an assurance office, and gather 
from its table the number of years it will give 
us to live. This table has been the result of 
careful calculation, and seldom proves mislead- 
ing. Of course, sudden and premature deaths, 
as well as lives unusually extended, occasion- 
ally occur; but this is a table of average expect- 
ancy of life of an ordinary mau or woman : 



Age. 

I... 
10.. 
20.. 



40. 



More yrs. to live. 

39 

51 

41 

84 

40 



Acre. 
60. . . 
60... 
70... 



More yrs. to live. 

21 

14 

9 

4 



Our readers will easily gather from the above 
tabulated statement the number of years to 
which their lives, according to the law of ave- 
rages, may reasonably be expected to extend. 

The Hands. — In order to preserve the hands 
soft and white, they should always be washed 
in warm water, with fine soap, and carefully 
dried with a moderately coarse towel, being 
well rubbed every time to insure a brisk circu- 
lation, than which nothing can be more effectual 
in promoting a transparent and soft surface. If 
engaged in any accidental pursuit which may 
hurt the color of the hands, or if they have been 
exposed to the sun, a little lemon juice will re- 
store their whiteness for the time; and lemon 
soap is proper to wash them with. Almond 
paste is of essential service in preserving the 
delicacy of the hands. The following is a ser- 
viceable pomade for rubbing the Bands on re- 
tiring to rest: Take two ounces of sweet 
almonds; beat with three drachms of white 
wax, and three drachms of spermaceti; put up 
carefully in rose water. Gloves should always 
be worn on exposure to the atmosphere, and 
are graceful at all times for a lady in the house, 
except at meals. 



Y©^q F QLk s' CohJjmn. 



Our Puzzle Box. 

Numerical Enigma. 
I am composed of twenty-seven letters. 
My 8, 19, 24 is an enemy. 
My 6, 15, 6 is an intoxicant. 
My 9, 26, 1, 16. 2 is an animal. 
My 21, 10, 17, 27 is terror. 
My 11, 3 is an exclamation. 
My 18, 7, 14 is delight. 
My 10, 25, 10, 23 is eternity. 
My 20, 22, 12 is yourself. 
My 4, 13 is a thing or inanimate object. 
My whole is an oft quoted declaration. 

Uncle Claude. 

Word Puzzle. 

Whole, I am an article of commerce; take away one-fifth 
and I am a period of time; transpose me, omitting one 
letter, and I am a part of a building; transpose me again, 
omitting my second letter, and I am an entire building; 
take two-fifths of me away, and I am to ceass to be; again 
take away two-fifths, and I signify concealed. 

Decapitations. 

1. Behead a noise and leave a disease; again, and leave 
a tree. 

2. Behead to increase and leave a spring; again, and 
ieave a measure. 

3. Behead value and leave a grain; again, and leave a 
congealed fluid. 

4. Behead to seize and leave a file; again, and leave a 
serpent. Jamrs. 

Charade. 
My first you'll very often meet, 
In every town and village street; 
My second, too, on every hand; 
My whole's a fruit from foreign land. Jerry. 

Curtailments. 

1. Curtail an English nobleman and leave a part of the 
head. 

2. Curtail a storehouse for grain and leave a rod. 

3. Curtail to rend asunder and leave a Chinese plant. 

4. Curtail a mineral and leave a mythological bird. 

5. Curtail a fortified place and leave in place of. 

Melanothon. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Cross-Word Enigma— Ossification. 
Decapitations — 1. Tabard, a bard. 2. Sturk, Turk. 
3. Sewer, ewer. 4. Swindle, windle. 5. Morion, Orion. 

Degrees of Comparison — 1. Sauce, saucer, sorceress. 
2. Pea, pier, peeress. 3. On, honor, honest. 4. Mole, 
molar, molest. 6. Seal, selah, Celeste. '6. Bud, Buddha, 
Buddhist. 
Word Square— HOOD 
OHIO 
OILS 
DOSE 
Fraction Puzzle— Washington. 



• Idle Boy. 

"Nobody loves me but Jack and Jenny," 
said idle Billy Doolittle. "I wish I was a don- 
key, then mother might call me all day to 
bring in oven wood, and I should not hear. I 
don't like to work nor get lessons, and I guess 
I won't much more. Jack and Jen and I will 
go down to the turnip field and make us a 
house snug under the fence, and eat turnips, 
won't we, Jack ? I'll make me some big long 
ears out of brown paper and tie on, and when 
father comes after me, I'll just get down on my 
hands and feet and eat turnip tops, and he will 
think there are three donkeys of us, and I am 
gone off. 

"That's an ugly old lesson, anyway, thptMiss 
Walker gave me. She says I won't be a man if 
I don't study my lessons, and I'm sure I don't 
want to. What's the use of being a man and 
working like sixty, and have to smoke an old 
dirty pipe 1 I would twice rather be a donkey 
and eat turnip tops. " 

Miss Walter was near and saw Billy throw 
down his books, and heard every word he said 
to his pets. By and by the little fellow fell fast 
asleep, and she took him in her arms and car- 
ried him to the house and put him in his trundle 
bed. The next day she told him she would 
give him no more lessons; she thought it would 
be better for him to be a donkey, and have 
paper ears, and eat turnip tops, than to live in 
a nice house and have a good father and mother. 
Billy's bright brown eyes opened wide, and a 
smile crept into his face, and he said: 

"O did you hear me dream about that ? 1 
thought I was a donkey, and had great paper 
ears, and Jack and Jenny and I had such a nice 
time down in the turnip patch. " 

Then Miss Walker told him that in Mexico, 
and some other countries where there are no 
roads, the poor donkeys had to carry heavy 
burdens for many miles over the mountains. 
Sometimes. they are so packed with wood that 
you cannot see much of the poor animal but his 
ears. The narrow path is very steep and rocky, 
and if a misstep is made he may tumble down 
the mountain and never get up again. So he 
must travel day after day and get only kicks 
and cuffs, and not as much as turnip tops 
to eat. 

Billy looked very sober as Miss Walker 
stopped talking, and said: "I guess I was only 
in fun when I dreamed; and if you are willing I 
would much rather get a lesson than be a don- 
key and get beaten." 



A Parlor Game. — Logomachy is the title of 
a game that will probably become popular, es- 
pecially in families where children are attend- 
ing school and have acquired some knowledge 
of language. It is played with 56 cards, on each 
one of which is printed a letter of the alpha- 
bet. Each player receives a number of the 
cards and a certain number are laid on the 
table. The players take turns in building words 
with the cards, using the cards on the table, and 
those taken by the previous players with[the ad- 
dition of one from his own hand. The player 
has the right to take in aa a trick all the cards 




he can properly utilize in thus building a word 
The game is a fine mental exercise both as to 
spelling and developing ingenuity, and it can 
hardly be played without keeping the diction- 
ary in constant circulation. 



Marvels of Man. 

^ 

While the gastric juice has a mild, bland, 
sweetish taste, it possesses the power of dis- 
solving the hardest food that can be swallowed; 
it has no influence whatever on the soft and 
delicate fibers of the living stomach, nor upon 
the living hand, but, at the moment of death it 
begins to eat them away with the power of the 
strongest acids. 

There is dust on sea, on land; in the valley, 
and on the mountain-top; there is dust always 
and everywhere; the atmosphere is full of it; it 
penetrates the noisome dungeon, and visits the 
deepest, darkest caves of the earth; no palace- 
door can shut it out, no drawer so "secret" as 
to escape its presence; every breath of wind 
dashes it upon the open eye, and yet that eye is 
not blinded, because there is a fountain of the 
blandest fluid in nature incessantly emptying 
itself under the eyelid, which spreads it 
over the surface of the ball at every winking 
and washes every atom of dust away. But 
this liquid, so mild, and so well adapted to the 
eye itself, has some acridity, which, under cer- 
tain circumstances, becomes so decided as to be 
scalding to the skin, and would rot away the 
eyelids were it not that along the edges of them 
there are little oil manufactories, which spread 
over their surface a coating as impervious to 
the liquids necessary for keeping the eye-ball 
washed clean, as the best varnish is impervious 
to water. 

The breath which leaves the lungs has been 
so perfectly divested of its life-giving proper- 
ties, that to re-breathe it, unmixed with other 
air, the moment it escapes from the mouth, 
would cause immediate death by suffocation, 
while if it hovered about us, a more or less de- 
structive influence over health and life would 
be occasioned; but it is made of a nature so 
much lighter than the common air.that the in- 
stant it escapes the lips and nostrils, it ascends 
to the higher regions above the breathing-point, 
there to be rectified, renovated and sent back 
again, replete with purity* and life. How rapid- 
ly it ascends, is beautifully exhibited any frosty 
morning. 

But foul and deadly as the expired air is, 
Nature, wisely economical in all her works and 
ways, turns it to good account in its outward 
passage through the organs of voice, and makes 
of it the whisper of love, the soft words of 
affection, the tender tones of human sympathy, 
the sweetest strains of ravishing music, the 
persuasive eloquence of the finished orator. 

If a well-made man be extended on the 
ground, his arms at right angles with the body, 
a circle, making the navel its center, will just 
take in the head, the finger-ends and feet. 

The distance from "top to toe" is precisely 
the same as that between the tips of the fingers 
when the arms are extended. 

The length of the body is just six times that 
of the foot; while the distance from the edge of 
the hair on the forehead to the end of the chin, 
is one tenth the length of the whole stature. 

Of the sixty-two primary elements known in 
nature, only eighteen are found in the human 
body, and of these, seven are metallic. Iron is 
found in the blood; phosphorus in the brain; 
limestone in the bile; lime in the bones, dust 
and ashes in all. — Journal of Health. 



Antidotes to Dyspepsia. — Sleep will do a 
great deal to restore the tone of the stomach 
where dyspepsia results, as it often does, from 
overwork. Stout people, who have it from 
overeating, should work out of doors, accustom- 
ing themselves to hearty work by degrees. The 
prescription given by an old physician to allovi- 
ate dyspepsia, is to drink half a cupful of boiled 
water, just as hot as one can swallow it, half an 
hour before each meal, and I have known it to 
give great relief. The hot water stimulates the 
energies of the stomach and dilutes the acrid 
juices which it secretes. A wet cloth, cold or 
hot, as feels best, worn on the stomach will 
greatly strengthen it. If the food is carefully 
selected to suit a weak digestion, dyspepsia will 
cure itself. Strong chicken broth, without a 
particle of fat, may often be taken when other 
things irritate. Raw beef, very finely minced, 
like meal, and set in a covered saucer in a hot 
oven until it becomes pink, not brown, can be 
taken by the worst dyspeptics. White of egg 
beaten to a froth, or a spoonful of whipped 
cream, often will not offend. Dyspeptics should 
eat sparingly, a spoonful once in an hour or two, 
rather than attempt a small meal three times a 
day. Bits of ice, swallowed whole, and frozen 
cream often relish. ' But the cream should be 
entirely without sugar. A bit of licorice or 
parched dandelion root, or cherry bark, chewed 
and kept in the mouth, strengthens the diges- 
tion sensibly. — Toledo Blade. 

A Simple Life-Preserver. — It is not gen- 
erally known that, when a person falls into the 
water, a common felt hat can be made use of as 
a life-preserver. By placing the hat upon the 
water, rim down, with the arm around it 
pressing it slightly to the breast, it will bear a 
man 'tp for hours. 



estic Economy. 



Hard versus Soft Water.— Dr. Tidy, an 
English chemist, gives, in the London Medical 
Examiner, the results of his observations on 
the use of hard water for culinary and domestic 
purposes: 1. Hard water is the best dietetically, 
because of the lime. 2. It makes better tea, 
although not so dark colored, owing to the fact 
that soft water dissolves the bitter extractive 
matters which color the tea, but ruins the 
aroma. 3. It relieves thirst, which soft water 
does not. 4. It does not dissolve lead or or- 
ganic matter, which soft water does. 5. It is 
generally good colored, soft water being, as a 
rule, dark colored and unpleasant looking; 
hence, in places like Manchester, supplied witli 
soft water, they always put it (in hotels) in 
dark bottles, to hide the color. A soft water, 
however, is a better detergent, and requires 
less soap. For a residential town a water which 
lias over 10 J of hardness would be best. For a 
manufacturing town a soft water would be the 
most advisable, for commercial considerations 
only. 

Fritters. — Peel and core three large apples; 
then cut them across in slices rather less than 
half an inch thick; put them in a flat dish with 
half a tumbler of brandy or sherry and strew 
plenty of powdered sugar over them. Let them 
remain covered for a couple of hours, then take 
each piece separately, dip it in batter so that it 
is well covered with it. and fry a golden color 
in plenty of hot lard. Lay the fritters in front 
of the fire, and when all are done pile them up on 
a napkin, shake plenty of powdered loaf sugar 
over them, and serve. A very delicate batter is 
made thus: Beat up one tablespoonful of 
brandy, one of pure fresh olive oil and a little 
cold water, with the yolk of one egg; add a 
pinch of salt, then work in sufficient flour to 
make with the addition of more water, as much 
batter as will be wanted. It should be of the 
consistency of thick cream, .fust before using, 
whisk the whites of two eggs to a froth and mix 
them lightly but effectually with the batter. 

Snowden Puduino. — Prepare one pound of 
sponge-cake batter in the following manner, to 
be baked in a thin sheet: To one pound of eggs 
(weigh in the shell), put one pound of pulverized 
white sugar and ten ounces of flour. Flavor 
with the juice and grated rind of a fresh lemon, 
or if that is not accessible, a teaspoonful of pure 
extract of lemon. When baked, and while hot, 
spread over the cake a layer of some nice pre- 
serves, strawberry or raspberry jam being spe- 
cially nice for the purpose. Make it into a roll 
as neatly as possible, and strew with powdered 
sugar. Serve with sweet sauce. 

Cranberry Dumplino. — One quart of flour, 
one teaspoonful of soda and two teaspoonfuls of 
cream of tartar sifted together. Mix into a 
soft dough with sweet milk; roll the dough out 
very thin in oblong shapes, and spread over it 
one quart of cranberries picked and washed 
clean. Add half a pound of sugar sprinkled 
over evenly. Fold over and over, and then tie 
in a pudding-cloth and put into a steamer, 
where let it cook over a steady fire for an hour, 
with faith, never looking into the pot. Serve 
with sweet wine sauce or sugar and cream. 

Apple Cheese. — Peel and quarter a quantity 
of apples, stew them with a little water, a good 
deal of sugar, the thin rind of a lemon and a 
few cloves, or a stick of cinnamon. When quite 
done pass them through a hair sieve; and to one 
quart of the puree thus obtained add half a 
packet of gelatine, dissolved in water; mix well, 
pour into a mold, and when set, turn it out and 
serve with a custard poured about it. It is 
well to remember that the puree must be thor- 
oughly well sweetened and flavored to carry off 
the insipidity of gelatine. 

Bread-and-Butter Puduino. — Mako a bat- 
ter of five eggs and a pint of milk; add a little 
salt before the eggs are put in. Have several 
slices of bread about as thick as for toasting and 
spread butter thickly on them. Butter a pud- 
ding dish, and put in a layer of bread and but- 
ter, then raisins and currants, and another 
layer of bread and butter until the dish is 
nearly thrco-quarters full. Flavor the batter 
with nutmeg; pour over and bake. 

Bath Buns. — Half an ounce of German yeast 
made into a sponge aa for plain buns; half a 
pound of flour and a quarter of a pound of but- 
ter; mix the whole lightly together with six 
yolks of eggs and a little milk. When proved 
and ready, work in a quarter of a pound of 
rough broken loaf sugar; lay them out on a but- 
tered baking sheet in the shape of a rock, put a 
few comlits on the top of each, and bake in a 
sharp oven. 

Oranoe Snowballs. — Boil some rice for ten 
minutes; drain and let cool; paro some oranges, 
taking off the thick, white skin; spread the rioe 
in as many portions as there aro oranges on 
pudding or dumpling cloths; tie the fruit (sur- 
rounded by tho rice) separately in these and 
boil for an hour; turn out carefully on a dish: 
sprinklo with plenty of sifted sugar; serve with 
sauce or sweet cream. 

To Remove Old Paint. — Slake three pounds 
of stone quicklime in water, and add one pound 
American pearlash, making fhe whole into the 
consistence" of paint. Lay over the old work 
with a brush, and let it remain for from 12 to 
14 honrs, when the paint is easily scraped off. 



56 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 24, 1880. 




DBWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, SOS Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Annual Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; throe 
months, $1.26. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No new names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Advertising k...i ks. 1 week. 1 month. 8 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 26 .80 $2.00 $5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

Oneineh 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 



The Scientific Press Patent Agency 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. T. DEWBT. 



W. B. EWER. 



O. H. STRONG 



Quack Advertising positively declined. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 24, 1880 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS.— The Body of the Sun; Naturalized 

Weeds in South Australia, 49. Tho Week; Cotton 

Growing and Manufacturing; The Frencli Have an Ey 

on Us, 50. Letters from Southern California. — No. 13 

The Centrifugal Cream Machine, 67. 
ILLUSTRATIONS — Ideal Sketch of the Body of the 

Sun by an Italian Astronomer in 1635, 49. The Lave! 

Centrifugal Cream Separator, 57- 
QUERIES AND REPLIES-Points on Grapes 

Grapes for Raisins; Grafting or Budding the Fig, 56 
CORRESPONDENCE.— View ai the Eclipse from 

Table Mountain, Fresno County, 50. 
THE FIELD.— Burbank Potatoes; Concerning Culti 

vation for Wheat, 50. 
THE DAIRY.— The Value of Cheese as an Article of 

Food; Co-operative Dairy Work in Alsace, 50. 
HORTICULTURE.— Pomology in California, 50-51 
ARBORICULTURE — Notes on Trees for Road 

sides, 51. 

PISCICOLTURE.— Our State Fish Fanning, 51. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -The National 
Orange; Stockton Grange; Taxation; Dan ville Grange 
Election of Officers; Temescal Grange, 52. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 52-53. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 53 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE. —The Moral Warfare (poetry); Perils 
of Pioneers; The Dripping Rain; Town and Country; A 
"Tearless Victory" Club; Home; Banged Hair; Drunken 
ncss in England, 54. Chaff; Uow Long We are to Live 
The Hands, 55. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN— Our Puzzle Box 
Idle Boy; A Parlor Game, 55. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Marvels of Man; Antidotes to 
Dyspepsia, 55. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. - Hard Versus Soft 
Water; Fritters; Snowden Pudding; Cranberry Dump- 
ling; Apple Cheese; Bread-and- Butter Pudding; Bath 
Buns; Orange Suowballs; To Remove Old Paint, 65. 

Business Announcements. 

Pacific Business College, San Francisco. 
Cheap Wheat Lands, McAfee Brothers, 8. F. 
Half Interest In Nursery for Sale. 



The Week. 

Activity is now generally characteristic of 
the agricultural interest of the State. Wide 
efforts are being made in all the grain districts 
to push forward plowing and sowing to make 
np for time lost in December, which was a 
closed month so far as general field work was 
concerned. Much has been done during the 
last few weeks, and many neighborhoods re- 
port the chief part accomplished. Orchard and 
vineyard pruning are in full blast, and we trust 
owners of apple, pear, peach and quince or- 
chards are not nnmindful of the "worm" which 
rough bark may harbor. Search diligently, 
scrape, scrub, drench — these are the price of 
good fruit in all infested regions. 

Tree planting is being pushed with much 
vigor. The tendency toward citrus trees in 
the central districts of the State is still appa- 
rent by the shipments of young trees by the tens 
of thousands which are arriving from the 
southern California nurseries. It is now clear 
that even the last doubly severe weather has 
done no injury to mature orange wood, and 
thus confidence' in planting oranges has hight- 
cned. The good prices which are realizedfor 
the fruit this year also spur the planting. 
Young vineyards are multiplying themselves, 
and much progress is also being made in tem- 
perate zone fruits by substituting good market 
varieties for old miscellaneous sorts. The win- 
ter bids fair to be one of general accomplish- 
ment and a winter of content, because of the 
auguries of plentiful production which it 
affords. 

Now that Bishop Haven has fallen a victim 
to malarial fever contracted in a needless visit 
to Africa, many influential Methodists are be- 
Btirring themselves to abolish the practice of 
sending a bishop abroad every year, and are 
advocating native resident bishops. 

The President has nominated James Russell 
Lowell, of Massachusetts, to be Minister to 
England; John W. Foster, of Indiana, Minister 
to Russia; Lucius Fairchild, of Wisconsin, Min- 
ister to Spain; and Eli H, Murray, of Ken* 
tuoky, Governor of Utah, 



Cotton Growing and Manufacturing. 

We learn from conversation with Prof. Hil 
gard, that his efforts to collect information con 
cerning what has been done in cotton growing 
on this coast, are yielding some interesting re 
suits. He has secured two specimens from 
Arizona, each of which is interesting. One is 
the cotton grown on plants which have passed 
from the herbaceous into the woody state by 
surviving a winter, and bearing fruit the second 
year. This is of course the result of growth in 
a region unvisited by cotton-killing frost, and 
would perhaps point the way to a perennial 
cotton orchard, so to speak. The cotton from 
these second-year plants was a good average 
article. Another point to the credit of Arizona 
is found in the cotton which was formerly largely 
used by the Pima Indians in their home manu 
facture of cotton blankets. This has a longer 
staple than any in Prof. Hilgard's data of the 
famous cottons of the world. We mention these 
facts with a two-fold object. First, to attract 
the attention of all our readers who are experi 
menting with cotton, to the advisability of re 
porting to Prof. Hilgard, that our achievements 
in this line may be fully recognized ; second, to 
give a hint of what may at some time develop 
into a profitable industry on this coast. 

As the subject of cotton is thus brought up 
by local experiences, it is worthy of note that 
the old cotton districts of the , South are now 
mildly agitated by the mooted possibility of re- 
ducing cotton manufacturing to a petite system, 
whioh promises to enable each community to 
have its own cotton mill, and which may make 
cotton mills as plenty in cotton States as cheese 
or butter factories are in dairy regions. So 
enthusiastic are the anticipations of prosperity 
by this new system with cotton, that we find 
some of onr Southern States exchanges writing 
in this way : "It would seem that a brighter 
prospect is at last revealing itself to our beloved 
South, and that we may well be hopeful and 
courageous. " Such anticipations naturally lead 
us to inquire into the system which begets them. 
It seems that at Westminister, in South Caro- 
lina, a village of only 250 people, is a little cot- 
ton mill owned by John V. Stribling. The cot- 
ton is converted from the seed directly into 
yarn. The mill turns out about $25 worth of 
manufactured product every day. A brief ac- 
count of this little factory will be interesting : 
The capital is made up by a company of farmers, 
and one mill owner, who furnishes the power. 
Mr. Stribling undertook the management of the 
mill. A cheap frame building, 25 to 50 feet, 
with two floors, was erected on a small stream 
affording about six-horse power. The machin- 
ery consists in one cotton cleaner, one Clement 
attachment, 300 spindles, two reels, a bunch 
and a bale press. Total cost, $3,500. It re- 
quires one superintendent, seven girls and one 
boy to run the factory. The following are the 
results for the first 12 months : 

Liabilities -150,000 lbs seed cotton at 

2J cents $4,126.00 

Operations and contingent expenses. 1,906.00— $6,616.00 
Resources— 46,000 lbs yarn at 16 cent* 6,900.00 

3,600 lbs waste 144.00 

3,000 bushels cotton seed 460.40 — $7,484.40 



Net profit $1,869.40 

No one will pretend to claim that such fac- 
tories can compete dangerously with the large 
establishments of the country, but on no account 
are they to be discouraged. One can well imagine 
what value even a factory of this size is to a 
little town of 250 inhabitants. A Georgia news- 
paper predicts that before two years pass at 
i east one hundred small cotton factories will be 
established in Georgia. Wherever there is a 
grist-mill, planing-mill or saw-mill, a yarn fac- 
tory can be added without an increase of power 
and at very little increase of cost. Should the 
South be able to establish, throughout her cot- 
ton-raising region, say 1,000 such little factories, 
each yielding a net profit of $1,000 to $2, 000 an- 
nually for every $3,000 invested, it would form 
an aggregate revenue of between one and two 
million dollars — an amount certainly not to be 
despised. 

It will be observed that the secret of re- 
ducing cotton -yarn making to this small system 
lies in the use of a device called the "Clement 
attachment, "to which we alluded briefly two or 
three years ago when it was first announced. 
Its success lies in working directly from the 
seed. The way in which it eliminates costly 
machinery from the problem is surprising. A 
Southern writer says: "It dispenses with fully 
one-half the building, machinery, motive power 
and operatives hitherto necessary to convert 
any given amount of seed cotton into yarns; 
causes the card, with the same amount of mo- 
tive power, to do five times as much work; 
saves one-half the usual waste, and produces 
stronger sliver rove and thread than can be 
made of baled cotton, which, on account of their 
extra strength, seldom break or let down, there- 
by enabling operatives to attend more ma- 
chinery and each machine to do more work. 
The thread is equal in every respect to that 
made of baled cotton, 50% stronger and more 
sheeny. The attachment supersedes the gin, 
press and compress, because they are intended 
and only used to render cotton transportable, 
the willower, lopper, double lopp, breaker and 
four-fifths of the cards, because they are only 
used to try to remedy the injury done by the 
gin, press and compress; it supersedes the rail- 
way drawing head, also all jack frames, shub- 
bers, mules, twisters, eveners, etc., simply be- 
oause thay are costly and unnecessary machines, 



and perfect thread can be made without them." 

In order to see what manner of machine this 
wonder-worker in cotton is, we have secured 
the following description of it and its method 
of operation: 

This machine consists of a 36-inch top-flat, self-strip- 
ping card; the attachment, which is a diminutive gin 
18x18x36 inches, is substituted for the licker-in and feed 
rollers of the card; its saws are seven inches in diameter, 
with 14 teeth to the inch, and revolve from 100 to 200 
times per minute. The brush connected with the saws is 
a cylinder covered with bristles; its periphery revolves 
little faster than the saws, and has also a transverse or 
horizontal motion. The periphery of the card travels 
little faster than the brush; a feed-table is placed abov 
the card and connected with the attachment by a chute 
and gives a regular supply of seed cotton to the attach 
mcnt. A stop-motion is used to save waste in case o 
accident. These, with a small drawing roller between th 
doffer and calendar rollers, to reduce the sliver to thi 
ordinary working size, and a cam motion to receive said 
sliver, are all the changes and additions made to the card, 
and there are none made elsewhere. 

The seed cotton is spread upon the endless apron of the 
feed-table, and passes thence through the chute into the 
attachment, where the lint is removed from the seed, and 
while on the fine saw teeth (after passing the ribs) passes 
through a set of combing plates, which removes all extra 
neous matter, and delivers the filaments to the brush, 
which delivers them to the card, and thence through the 
doffer, small drawing and calendar rollers, as perfect sliver 
into a revolving cam. 

By this process only four machines are necessary to 
convert any given amount of seed cotton into perfect 
yarns, viz: card, as changed, drawing frame, speeder and 
spinning frame. It is true, a cleanser of seed cotton is 
used as a preparatory machine. Its size is 22x28x44 
inches; cost, $75; capacity, 6,000 pounds of seed cotton 
per day; power necessary to drive, one-half of one horse. 

We acknowledge that to one who reads for 
the first time of this possible revolution in cot 
ton manufacturing, the claims we have presented 
would seem to be tinged with rosy anticipations 
of a confident inventor, but we believe that this 
stage in the .life of the device has been passed, 
and that according to accounts of actual work- 
ing, as in the case of the small factory cited 
above, the improvement is a practical, although 
it be startling innovation upon old methods. 
We only give the facts as they are confidently 
urged by experience in the South, and with the 
remark that if the cotton industry should gain a 
footing on this ooaat, it will be an advantage to 
know that the early stages of manufacturing as 
well as the growing are within easy reach of 
all. 



QJef\ies \hd Replies. 



Points on Grapes. 



The French have an Eye on Us. 



We do not mean the eye of M. Chotteau, 
although that iB unwinking and backed by a 
head full of schemes to fores* the ill-starred 
treaty upon us. There is another movement on 
the part of the French, and is especially di 
rected toward the grape interest of California. 
We learn from foreign exchanges that M. de 
Savignon, who, under the direction of the 
French Ministry of Agriculture has been ex- 
ploring the mysteries of wool production in 
Australia, is now to turn his attention to the 
United States, where he is commissioned to ex- 
amine first of all the vineyards of California, 
and then investigate the production of cereals 
and live stock throughout the States of the 
Union. The total yield of French vineyards 
this year is found to reach only 30J million hec- 
toliters, while an average is reckoned at 55 mil- 
ion hectoliters. With this declination of their 
wine interest staring them in the face, it is lit- 
tle wonder that the French should desire to 
now from their own investigation the facts 
about the new State, which bids fair to super- 
sede them as the vineyard of the world. We 
are sure that M. de Savignon will be cordially 
received here and given every opportunity to 
make his investigation thorough. It will be of 
great advantage to us to have our adaptations 
for successful viniculture officially reported in 
France, for this will bring us a class of immi- 
grants well fitted to take earnest hold with us to 
realize the future which seems now assured. The 
proclamation of a good opportunity for invest- 
ment will bring us a class of capable and skill- 
ful viniculturi8ts, who will clothe our hillsides 
with vines and aid in the improvement of our 
general product. Therefore let M. de Savignon 
have every facility to see the land. 

At the last meeting of the newly organized 
California Immigration Society, the President, 
Hon. George Barstow, read the following letter 
written to him by the United StateB Consul at 
Lyons, France, B. F. Peixotto, under date of 
December 22, 1879: As a Californian, I shall 
be glad to aid your society, so far as it lies in 
my power; and when your pamphlets on the re- 
sources of the State are ready, I wonld suggest 
that you send me a goodly number, especially 
those printed in the French language. Not un- 
frequently have I calls from people desirous to 
emigrate to the United States. Wine-growers 
and silk-workers look yearningly to our El 
Dorado State, owing to serious failures for sev- 
eral seasons past in France. The French, as a 
general rule, are the most economical people, 
especially of European people, and bring some- 
thing to the new country besides their genius 
and industry. 

This letter from a Californian now in the U. 
S. service in France, shows that there is a tide 
which can be turned this way. That there is 
room in this State for all that will be likely to 
come cannot be doubted, for in regions now de- 
voted to vines there are thousands of acres, 
which can be cheaply purchased, and beyond on 
the foothills of the Sierras, there is unoccupied 
land which would support a vast population. 
Therefore let the French investigate and report 
result*. 



Editors Press:— Concerning grapevines, I wish to ask a 
few questions. Are the Black St. Peters and Ziiifindal one 
and the same grapevine! If not, what is the difference* 
In which locality does the Zinflr.dal grapevine do better: 
On a warm, sheltered place, or on a cool one exposed to 
the northwest winds? A proper understanding of such 
questions would prevent many disappointments. I bave 
planted Rose of Peru vines on a warm, sheltered hillside, 
but found out that the locality was not dry or warm 
enough (our average rainfall is about 20 inches) to raise 
this kind of grapes; in tact, tbe only good crop I have got 
from these vines was in the dry year of 1877.— William 
PrsFFER, Saratoga, Santo Clara Co. , QsL 

Editors Press:— The Zinfindal and true 
Black St. Peters do not resemble each other in 
any respect that I can see, except that they are 
both black grapes. The former is a grape of 
medium size, and a very abundant bearer; it has 
bunches with two, and sometimes three, 
shoulders, often being broader than they are 
long; the skin is tough and the vine is not a 
strong grower. On the other hand, the Black 
St. Peters has a long bunch with but little 
shoulders; its berries are larger than those of the 
Zinfindal, and the skin is more brittle, and it is 
not so abundant a bearer. Ite habits of growth 
are stronger. 

The Zinfindal is the most valuable grape for 
red wine that we have here, although it is not 
so uniformly good, as it is nearer the ocean. 
An unusually warm and dry season affects it 
seriously. As a table grape neither are of any 
value where such splendid Black Prince (or 
Rose of Peru it is called in San Francisco) can 
be raised. 

J udging from my experience here I would say 
that the Zinfindal would do better in a cool, 
moist place, while the Black St. Peters thrives 
in a warmer one. — W. B. West, Stockton, Cat. 

Grapes for Raisins. 

Editors Press:— I propose, the coming winter, to set 
out a small vineyard of raisin grapes, and wish you would 
recommend, through the columns of the Puss, the best 
varieties to be planted — Beoienxr, Pleasanton, Cat. 

The grapes from which the beet raisins are 
now being made in all parts of the State are the 
Muscatel Gordo Blanco and tbe White Muscat 
of Alexandria. The production of seedless 
raisins from the Sultana grape is also well under 
way. Mr. Blowers, of Woodland, reports that 
his Sultanas sold at 18 and 20 cents per pound. 
Between the Muscatel and the White Muscat 
there are close comparisons drawn, and each 
grape has its champions. The best raisins we 
have seen so far were of the Muscatel variety. 
For a test, however, we would plant the three 
varieties named above. It is quite probable 
that there will be secured other varieties which 
will rival these. The Huasco grape is already 
here, if the cuttings live. We notice that Mr. 
Holden, of Fresno, is on the track of a famous 
raisin grape from Bolivia, which may be acousin 
of the Huasco, as it comes from the same quar- 
ter. 

Another correspondent from San Joaquin 
county asks the same question answered above, 
and then requests an estimate of the yield per 
acre of raisins. This point is one liable to wide 
modifications. In our "Agricultural Notes" of 
Jan. 10th we gave the results attained in the 
Riverside vineyards. They will serve as a 
basis for estimates, if it is borne in mind that 
Riverside is probably as well adapted naturally 
to raisin making as any location in the State. 
The figures are not given as especially large, 
but merely as a record of what has been done. 

Grafting: or Budding: the Figr. 

Editors Press: — I have several fig trees which are now 

just beginning to bear, and I find they are of the kind 
that cast their fruit before maturing. Now, I want to 
ask, can I graft good figs into them, and how and when 
would be the best time to do it ? The above information 
would be thankfully received. — Header, Maxwell, Colusa 
Co. , Cal. 

Editors Press: — The fig tree is not easy to 
graft or bud; but both operations may be suc- 
cessfully performed if the right time is taken. 
The proper time to graft is when the sap begins 
to move,in the spring, Bay about the 15th of 
February. The best method is cleft grafting. 

They can be budded any time in the summer 
when the sap is in motion, and the proper kind 
of wood for buds can be found; they should be 
from mature wood, not too hard or too soft, but 
just ripe. The milky sap should be allowed to 
'ow a little while, then wiped off clean, and 
the bud inserted. The most successful instance 
of budding the fig that I have seen is at the 
orchard of Mr. E. R. Thurber, at Pleasant val- 
ley, and the only successful grafting that I know 
of was done in the neighborhood of Stockton, 
by an old sailor, who had never attempted 
grafting before. The grafting might be tried, 
and if it failed, let the shoots grow and bnd in 
the f all. — W. B. West, Stockton, CaL 



Amber Cane. — R. J. Trumbull favor us with 
a sample of Amber cane as grown upon his 
grounds at San Rafael. It is exceedingly sweet 
to the taste, and has grown to the hight of ten 
feet. It has exhibited a marked superiority 
over the Liberia and Chinese sorghums which 
grew beside it. We notice that the Amber 
cane is gaining a roothold in many parts of the 
State, and it is expected that by another year 
there will be a movement to realize sugar from 
it, as is now being done in the prairie States. 



The business failures in New York city dur- 
ing 1879 numbered 6,658, liabilities of $98,000,- 
000. 



January 24, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



57 



Letters from Southern California. — No. 13. 

Loa Angeles ia situated some twenty miles 
from the sea coast. Its commerce is carried on 
through the port of Wilmington, with which it 
is connected by rail. 

Wilmington Harbor, 
Formerly known as San Pedro bay, has been 
an important point on the southern coast ever 
since California was first settled by the Span- 
iards. The bay, however, is simply an open 
roadstead, but very safe, except in heavy south- 
western gales; yet all passengers and merchan- 
dise have to be transferred by lighters to the 
wharf, some four or five miles distant. Those 
who have read Dana's "Two Years Before the 
Mast, " will remember the difficulties which are 
often encountered there during the winter 
months. But soon after the admission of Cali- 
fornia into the Union, the attention of the 
United States Government was called to the 
importance of making such improvements as 
would 

Bring Ship and Wharf Together. 

To this end some $455,000 have already been 
expended, and with such success that there are 
now eight feet of water upon the bar at low tide, 
over which it was formerly difficult for even a 
row-boat to make its way. All the coasting 
vessels now go up to the wharf to land and re- 
ceive freight, and even many of the ocean steam- 
ers could do so at high tide; but ships and 
ocean steamers still prefer to lie outside and 
employ lighters, to the great discomfort of pas- 
sengers aud largely to the disadvantage of ship- 
pers of freight. To our queries why this prac- 
tice was continued in cases where steamers could 
reach the wharf, we were unable to get any 
satisfactory replies. The impression, however, 
seems to be that the railroad holds the situation, 
and proposes to do so as long as possible, in 
order to keep business from the cheaper carri- 
age by sea. The improvements to this harbor, 
however, have already been of great advantage 
to Los Angeles in lessening freight rates, aud 
we presume the time is not far distant when the 
contemplated improvements will be fully com- 
pleted, so that ships and steamers may be 
readily brought to the wharf, as they may, and 
eventually will be. 

The Pacific Coast Steamship Co. is anxious to 
relieve the people of Los Angeles county of the 
onorous lighterage tax, which ft seems to be the 
policy of certain parties to fix upon them perma- 
nently, and to this end they have proposed to build 
a wharf of their own at Timm's lauding, nearer to 
the entrance of the harbor, and where there is 
deep water, aud a much wider expanse of bay 
for wharf and ship accommodation. A wharf at 
that point would be much more accessible than 
the one at Wilmington, and of cou«e would 
have to be connected with the railroad. 

To prevent the advantage aud prestige which 
would thus accrue to the Steamship Co., the 
railroad company now proposes to dredge the 
channel from their wharf to the outer side of the 
bar, and thus render the approach to Wilming- 
ton feasible to all ocean vessels. The hope is 
entertained that both projects may be carried 
out and that the people of Los Angeles may 
reap the benefit to be derived from two rival 
landings. 

When all classes of vessels can be readily 
brought to a wharf inside of Wilmington harbor, 
and proper and reasonable railroad facilities af- 
forded for interior transportation, it is probable 
that all the maritime commerce of San Berna- 
dino and Los Angeles counties will be concen- 
trated at Wilmington and inure greatly for the 
benefit of the city of Los Angeles. And as one 
step forward begets another, we may also look 
for the early completion of the Southern Pacific 
and the Utah Southern railroads, both of which 
will pass directly through Los Angeles, while 
the Atchison and Topeka will either t>iss 
through that city or be connected with it by a 
shore road from San Diego. With all these im- 
provements completed Los Angeles and the 
extensive country back of it will enter upon a 
new and grander era of prosperity than it has 
ever yet witnessed. 

Newport and Anaheim Landings. 

Wilmington, at the present time, is not the 
only shipping point open to Los Angeles county. 
Newport and Anaheim landings are also places 
from whence considerable produce is shipped, 
and where many supplies for Anaheim, River- 
side and San Bernardino are received. New- 
port is located at the mouth of the Santa Ana 
river, or rather upon a lagoon at its mouth, into 
which small vessels may enter; but Anaheim 
landing is a perfectly open roadstead, with no 
protection whatever, but with good anchorage 
ground. Freight is landed at both places by 
lighters. 

Santa Monica 
Is also becoming a town of some considerable 
importance. It is located upon the bay of that 
name, and has a wharf, but unsafe in heavy 
westerly winds, and it is at present dismantl ed 
and unused. A mile from the wharf is good 
anchorage, with from five to ten fathoms of 
water. Santa Monica is also connected with 
Los Angeles by a railroad, and is ambitious of 
becoming noted as a health resort and seaside 
retreat, for which latter purpose it seems to be 
well fitted, both as to climate, hotels and bath- 
ing facilities. 

Off for San Diego. 
Having completed our observations in Los 



Angeles county, we took the cars, on a fine 
afternoon, for Wilmington, where the little 
transfer steamer was awaiting her complement 
of passengers for San Diego. "All aboard" was 
called out, and we were soon steaming down the 
little crooked estuary toward the " anchorage." 
Some three miles from the wharf, we came into 
full view of the breakwater, which extends from 
Rattlesnake island, near the mouth of the creek, 
about one mile and a half to DeadmanJ$. island, 
a large rock which rises abruptly some?o0 or 60 
feet above the sea, and which, with the break- 
water and the main land opposite, furnishes a 
complete shelter for vessels at all times. This 
breakwater is built partly of wood and partly 
of stone, the latter material being employed for 
the outer or seaside portions of the wall. On 
the inner side, and running nearly parallel with 
the larger one, is a small breakwater, intended 
to direct the current and to act as a kind of 
"jetty," to produce a scouring process in the 
channel. Very good results have been obtained, 
and the water is said to be gradually deepening. 
At least, by the aid of this "jetty," whatever 
dredging may be done will be held good contin- 
ually. The "anchorage" is in the "outer har- 
bor" and just beyond Deadman's island. When 
we arrived there, the steamer, the Orizaba, had 
gone to Anaheim landing to discharge some 
freight, and we had to come to anchor in the 
midst of quite a heavy swell, whereby we were 
enabled to get a*very good practical idea of the 
inconvenience of this mode of reaching and leav- 
ing a steamer. The Orizaba after a while came 
up and anchored. We then had still further 
experience of this mode of transport, by having 
to make the circuit of the steamer three several 
times before we could come along side in such 
a manner as to throw a line and make fast. It 
is to be hoped, for the comfort of passengers 
and in the interest of shippers, that the pro- 
posed improvements will soon be completed, ! 

FIG. 1. 




whereby ship and wharf may be brought to- 
gether in Wilmington harbor. We feel assured 
that nothing reasonable to bring about this 
desired result will be left undone by the 
Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 

While in the southern portion of the State 
we heard nothing in regard to this company 
(Goodall, Perkins & Co.), except in praise of 
their efforts to accommodate both travelers and 
shippers. Their boats are well fitted for the 
business — fully as large as the volume of busi- 
ness requires— well furnished and handled 
by experienced officers, while the tables are all 
that could be expected. There are now, we 
believe, some twelve or thirteen fine steamers 
in the business — south and north of San Fran- 
cisco. They carry both freight and passengers, 
and make frequent and regular trips. The 
largest portion of the coast carrying trade, which 
was formerly done almost altogether by sailing 
vessels, is now done by the boats of this com- 
pany. Their steamers touch at nearly every im- 
portant point between San Diego and the ports 
in British Columbia and Puget sound. 

Our trip from Wilmington to San Diego was 
a delightful one; scarce a ripple could be seen, 
as the full clear moon lit up the ocean for miles 
around. After a good night's rest, the early 
daylight found us just entering tho beautiful 
harbor of San Diego, of which we propose to 
cive an illustrated description in our next. 

W. B. E. 

Horticultural Society Meeting. — The 
State Horticultural Society meeting will be held 
on Friday, January 30th, at 1 p. m., at Y. M. 
C. A, hall, 232 Sutter street. The discussion 
on transplanting and pruning will be introduced 
by C. H. Shinn. All interested in horticulture 
are invited to attend. 

In a population of less than 7,000, 26 deaths 
have occurred at Deadwood, D. T., so far this 
month, 



The Centrifugal Creaming Machine. 

The interest which has been expressed by our 
readers in the reported revolution in butter 
making, which promises to banish pans, racks 
and cream jars from dairy practice, leads us to 
present sketches of one of the devices lately 
brought out in Europe for removing cream by 
centrifugal motion. The engravings are not as 
perfect as we would like to have had them, but 
we hope from them and the description below, 
some general idea can be had of the way in 
which the skim milk is thrown away from the 
cream, and both forced to deliver themselves in 
separate streams. 

It will be understood from the engraving, Fig. 
1, that the case, standard and base plate are in 
one casting, so that the bed plate may be 
bolted to the floor or framing of the intermediate 
motion. But details in fixing the separator 
will depend upon the motive power, the posi- 
tion of the separator itself in the dairy, and 
other circumstances which dairy farmers will 
have no difficulty in determining, as the whole 
is simple and capable of any application, so 
that each dairy may have its own plan in fixing 
the intermediate motion and separator if neces- 
sary. 

In the engraving, Fig. 2, A, is the rotating 
chamber in which the separation of the milk 
and cream takes place. It is made of best 
Swedish steel, forged into the form of an ob- 
late spheroid and then turned truthfully inside 
and outside. 

The chamber, A, is fixed on top of the verti- 
cal shaft, K; the lower bearing of K, is on a 
small piece of cork in a friction cup in the top 
of the spindle, h, ofj the driving pulley, which 
has an adjustable bearing, i, below, as shown 

FIG. 2. 




in the cut. The upper part of the shaft, k, ro- 
tates in the stuffing box, g, provided with an 
elastic packing ring and self-lubricating cup. 
The bearings of the pulley spindle, h, are also 
self-lubricating. The cover, c, of the chamber, 

A, is in the form of an inverted funnel, the 
mouth of which is bolted to the top of the 
chamber by four bolts, two only of v which are 
seen in the section — Fig. 2. To prevent the 
atmospheric action of the nuts of the bolts in- 
side the case, a cap (not shown in the cut) fits 
neatly over them. Immediately below c, is 
another funnel with a pendant tube, b, 
from one side, as shown in the illustration. 
The former, c, c, is the milk funnel, aud the 
latter the cream funnel. A broad collar 
fits loosely on to the top of c, d, for the 
purpose of guiding the milk into the receiver, 

B. The top of the cream funnel is also sur- 
rounded with a collar for guiding the cream 
into the receiver, C. The receivers, B, and C, 
are of the nature of funnels, each having a dis- 
charge pipe. They are made separately of 
white metal, the pipes forming handles. B, fits 
on easily to tho top of the lid of iho outer case, 
and G, fits on to B, whilst a cover fits on to 
G. The receivers, B and C, being circular, the 
discharge pipes can be placed to deliver the 
milk and cream on any side of the separator, 
either both set for discharging on one side or on 
opposite sides. The supply tube, a, is screwed 
into the bottom of tho chamber, A, centrally 
with the main vertical shaft. Ithas two discharge 
pipes, opposite each other as shown in the 
sectional view. The upper end of the supply 
pipe rises a little abovo the cover — best seen in 
the profile at the top (Fig. 1,) with sufficient 
space all round for the escape of animal odor. 

The vessel for supplying the whole-milk is 
not shown in the cut, but the cock will be un- 
derstood as proceeding from it. The mouth of 
the cock is held in position by a three-legged 
stay, not shown in the section. 

In the internal arrangement of the separator 
there are three concentric tubes, to which spe- 



cial attention requires to be called. First, thei 
is the central tube, a, down which the milk 
flows, with its two exits at the bottom of the 
chamber, A. Second, there is the cream tube 
which surrounds a; and third, the milk tube, 
which surrounds the cream tube. All the parts, 
tubes, collars and funnels, are so designed as to 
be easily taken to pieces for being cleaned and 
put together again for work by any unskilled 
laborer — the only education required being to 
see the thing once done. 

The action of the separator is as follows : 
When the power is turned on, the application 
being by friction gear throughout, the speed 
gradually rises, and when the chamber, A, at- 
tains about 6,000 revolutions per minute the 
tap above is opened, when the milk flows down 
into the chamber, A. The calculated speed is, 
of course, determined by the intermediate mo- 
tion, and it is easy to see when this has been 
communicated to A. Thus at first tho mouth 
of the supply pipe at the top is seen to move, 
but when once the desired speed has been at- 
tained it appears at rest, like a top when spin- 
ning at full speed; and, like the top, too, it 
stands vertically erect, as if at rest, without 
any vibration, although making 8,000 revolu- 
tions per minute, which is about the maximum 
speed. But to effect this, in fixing the separator 
the common axes of the pulley spindle, h, and 
the main shaft, must be vertical. To insure 
this, the mouth of the outer case, on to which 
the lid fits, is turned true at right angles with 
the central axis. This being done, the outer 
case can be properly fixed by a spirit level. The 
work of fixing is thus simple, but it has to be 
accurately done. 

The separation of the milk from the cream is 
effected within the chamber, A, by centrifugal 
action. The cream and milk mixed together as 
they come from the cow are thrown toward the 
walls of the chamber, where the separation 
commences. Close to the small supply pipe, 
a, about an inch in diameter, centrifugal force 
is almost nil. It is necessary to bear this closely 
in mind in order to comprehend the course 
which the globules of butter take on their way 
to the exit from the place in which they are first 
deposited in the chamber, A. The (so to speak) 
skim-milk tube is fed from the outer portion of 
the revolving contents, and the cream tube from 
the inner portion next the axis. It is there the 
cream finds itself, owing to the denser milk be- 
ing thrown outwards; and the escape being 
urged both by centrifugal action and head press- 
ure alike, the outer and inner portions of the 
contents arc delivered by two different tubes at 
two different spouts, the one of them rich and 
the other poor in butter globules. The milk, 
thus delivered free from cream, yields, in fact, 
less butter than Bkimmed milk when the cream 
is raised in the common way. 

Without going further into the consideration 
of this subject, the path of the butter globuleB 
is no doubt an upward curve toward the exit. 
Were a chamber made with Bide walls of glass 
sufficiently strong to bear the speed of 8,000 rev- 
olutions per minute, the path of the cream would 
be seen, whilst the more important question 
would be determined as to whether the form of 
Mr. de Laval's chamber is the best that can be 
made in its minor details. In principle, its con- 
struction appears to be sound, and the small 
percentage of butter left in the milk may be 
taken as presumptive evidence that the whole 
may yet be removed by the inventor. The prin- 
ciple of construction practically is two-fold — 
first, the separation of the milk by the tube, b, 
at the extremity of the radius of an oblato 
spheroidal chamber revolving on its minor axis; 
second, the removal of the cream by a central 
tube surrounding the entrance pipe. 

The milk and cream are discharged above, 
each in a very thin sheet, by centrifugal action. 
The receivers, B and O, with their respective 
collars, are stationary, and incline each down- 
ward, in the form of an obtuse cone, to the 
spouts. Down these inclines tho milk and 
cream flow, spreading thinner and thinner to- 
wards the perpendicular rim of B and G, thus 
affording a ready means of escape for animal 
and other odors and gases, and without the milk 
coming in contact with tho atmosphere, which 
is objectionable, especially when it (the atmos- 
phere) is loaded with microscopic germ life, as 
it generally is. 

When all the milk has been separated from 
the cream, the speed of the rotating chamber is 
allowed to slacken. A portion of tho separated 
milk is then put into the supply vessel, and as 
this flows down through A, into the chamber, 
it forces up the cream by head pressure, and 
thus all the fluid is put through. 

Separators are made of different sizes. The 
size shown at Kilburn is 11 inch